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Showing 13 results for Transmission Line

A. Kazemi, A. Badri, S. Jadid,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (10-2005)

In this paper, two vector control systems for investigating the performance of Static Synchronous Series Compensators (SSSC) in steady state conditions are presented that are based on famous d-q axis theory. The workability of proposed method to simplify the SSSC mathematical expressions is shown. The performance of SSSC with two different vector controllers, first based on d-q line currents(indirect control) and the second a heuristic vector control based on real and reactive line powers (direct control), are investigated through simulation. It is found that the new introduced direct control produces better performance in controlling AC power system. Finally the simulation results of an elementary two-machine system with SSSC in different cases are investigated.
S. Jamali , A. Parham,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (10-2008)

This paper presents an algorithm for adaptive determination of the dead time

during transient arcing faults and blocking automatic reclosing during permanent faults on

overhead transmission lines. The discrimination between transient and permanent faults is

made by the zero sequence voltage measured at the relay point. If the fault is recognised as

an arcing one, then the third harmonic of the zero sequence voltage is used to evaluate the

extinction time of the secondary arc and to initiate reclosing signal. The significant

advantage of this algorithm is that it uses an adaptive threshold level and therefore its

performance is independent of fault location, line parameters and the system operating

conditions. The proposed algorithm has been successfully tested under a variety of fault

locations and load angles on a 400KV overhead line using Electro-Magnetic Transient

Program (EMTP). The test results validate the algorithm ability in determining the

secondary arc extinction time during transient faults as well as blocking unsuccessful

automatic reclosing during permanent faults.

M. Farshad, J. Sadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2013)

In this paper, an approach is proposed for accurate locating of single phase faults in transmission lines using voltage signals measured at one-end. In this method, harmonic components of the voltage signals are extracted through Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and are normalized by a transformation. The proposed fault locator, which is designed based on Random Forests (RF) algorithm, is trained based on these normalized harmonic components. RF algorithm has the capability of learning patterns with a large number of features. The proposed approach only requires voltage signals measured at one-end hence, there are not problems of transmitting and synchronization of two-end data. In addition, current measurement is not required and the proposed approach is sheltered against current transformer errors and its saturation. No need for very high sampling frequency is another advantage of the proposed approach. Numerous tests carried out on a sample system indicate that accuracy of the proposed fault locator is secure against changing fault location, fault inception angle, fault resistance, and magnitude and direction of pre-fault load current. An average of 0.11% is obtained for the fault locating test errors.
M. Khalaj Amirhosseini,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2013)

In this article, three new green's functions are presented for a narrow strip line (not a thin wire) inside or on a homogeneous dielectric, supposing quasi-TEM dominant mode. These functions have no singularity in contrast to so far presented ones, so that they can be used easily to determine the capacitance matrix of multi-layer and single-layer homogeneous coupled microstrip lines. To obtain the green’s functions, the Laplace’s equation is solved analytically in Fourier integral or Fourier series expressions, taking into account the boundary conditions including the narrow strip. The validity and accuracy of three presented green’s functions are verified by some examples.
H. Rahmanian, S. H Sedighy, M. Khalaj Amirhosseini,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2015)

A method for design and implementation of a compact via-less Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Line (CRLH TL) is presented. By introducing a new circuit model, the CRLH transmission line behavior is studied versus the parameters variations to achieve the desired characteristic impedance and electrical length. Then a compact quarter wavelength CRLH transmission line with 70 Ω characteristic impedance is designed as an example. Finally a very compact four way Wilkinson power divider and a rat-race coupler are designed and fabricated by using this type of CRLH TL which exhibit about 75% and 80% compactness, respectively.
M. Janipour, M. A. Karami, A. Zia,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2016)

A four port network adder-subtractor module, for surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waves based on a ring resonator filter is proposed. The functionality of module is achieved by the phase difference manipulation of guided SPPs through different arms connected to the ring resonator. The module is designed using the concepts of a basic two-port device proposed in this paper. It is shown that two port network eliminates odd, and transmits even SPP modes of a single source. Moreover, in the case of four-port adder (with two individual sources), it is elucidated that according to the location of each output port, one can achieve the consequent added or subtracted outputs, correspondingly. Two distinct peaks are observed in the transmission spectrum of adder and subtractor outputs, where increasing the individual source phase difference, leads to a red shift in the adder output, and a blue shift in the subtractor output peaks. The proposed module can be used as the building block for implementing arithmetic operations in plasmonic integrated circuits. The transmission line theory verifies the numerical simulation results, and demonstrates the functionality of the adder/subtractor module.  

M. Mollanezhad Heydarabadi, A. Akbari Foroud,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2016)

Current inversion condition leads to incorrect operation of current based directional relay in power system with series compensated device. Application of the intelligent system for fault direction classification has been suggested in this paper. A new current directional protection scheme based on intelligent classifier is proposed for the series compensated line. The proposed classifier uses only half cycle of pre-fault and post fault current samples at relay location to feed the classifier. A lot of forward and backward fault simulations under different system conditions upon a transmission line with a fixed series capacitor are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC software. The applicability of decision tree (DT), probabilistic neural network (PNN) and support vector machine (SVM) are investigated using simulated data under different system conditions. The performance comparison of the classifiers indicates that the SVM is a best suitable classifier for fault direction discriminating. The backward faults can be accurately distinguished from forward faults even under current inversion without require to detect of the current inversion condition.

M. Hajebi, M. Danaeian, E. Zarezadeh,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2017)

Using composite right-left handed (CRLH) transmission line concept, a novel miniaturized dual notch band filter (DNBF) is proposed. The suggested DNBF consists of an interdigital transmission line (ITL), split ring resonators (SRRs) and complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs). Since the resonance frequency of the SRRs and CSRRs are quite independent of each other, the dual notch bands of the proposed filter can be separately controlled and shifted by changing the dimension of the SRRs and CSRRs. In this paper, the reject bands are designed for WLAN (2.4 GHz) and WiMAX (3.5 GHz) to reject these frequency bands from the ultra-wide band communication systems. The simulation results show that the transmission response has more than 32 dB rejections near each band. To validate the design concept, the proposed NBPF has been fabricated and tested. Experimental verification is provided and good agreement has been found between simulation and measurement. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed NBPF is more compact in comparison with other reported filters.

M. Ahmadinia, J. Sadeh,
Volume 17, Issue 4 (12-2021)

In this paper, an accurate fault location scheme based on phasor measurement unit (PMU) is proposed for shunt-compensated transmission lines. It is assumed that the voltage and current phasors on both sides of the shunt-compensated line have been provided by PMUs. In the proposed method, the faulted section is determined by presenting the absolute difference of positive- (or negative-) sequence current angles index, firstly. After determining faulted section, the voltage phasor at the shunt-compensator terminal is estimated via the sound section. The faulted section can be assumed as a perfect transmission line that synchronized voltage and current phasors at one end and voltage phasor at the other end are available. Secondly, a new fault location algorithm is presented to locate the precise fault point in the faulted section. In this algorithm, the location of the fault and the fault resistance are calculated simultaneously by solving an optimization problem, utilizing the heuristic Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method. The simulation results in MATLAB/SIMULINK platform demonstrate the high performance of the proposed method in finding the fault location in shunt-compensated transmission lines. The proposed scheme has high accuracy for both symmetrical and asymmetrical fault types and high fault resistance.

M. Khalili, F. Namdari, E. Rokrok,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (3-2022)

This paper presents a new single-end scheme to locate and protect faults on the compensated transmission line using the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). The UPFC controllers have remarkable effects on the transient and steady-state components of the voltage and current signals. First of all, this study evaluates the impact of UPFC on Traveling Waves (TW) that pass through the UPFC location. Following that, the effects of UPFC’s harmonic on conventional protections will be investigated using the TW theory. A single-end method will be presented in the next stage to protect and locate the faults on the compensated transmission lines with UPFC. Moreover, an extraction technique (i.e., Discrete Wavelet Transform [DWT]) is used to process the current and voltage signals. As a branch of mathematics, cooperative game is employed in this study to represent the strategic interaction of different players in a context by predefined rules and outcomes. Additionally, this study made use of this theory to distinguish the extracted TWs from each other. The proposed method is assessed considering different fault situations with great variations in operating conditions accompanied by a UPFC placed at the midpoint of the line.

R. Gandotra, K. Pal,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (9-2022)

The growing demand increases the maximum utilization of transmission and distribution lines which causes overloading, high losses, instability, contingency, and congestion. To enhance the performance of AC transmission and distribution systems FACTS devices are used. These devices assist in solving different issues of transmission lines such as instability, congestion, power flow, and power losses. Advancement in developed technology leads to the development of special application-based FACTS controllers. The main issues are concerned while placing the FACTS controller in the transmission and distribution lines to maximize the flow of power. Various methods like analytic method, arithmetic programming approaches, meta-heuristic optimization approaches, and hybrid approaches are being employed for the optimal location of FACTS controllers. This paper presents a review of various types of FACTS controllers available with both analytical and meta-heuristic optimization methods for the optimal placement of FACTS controllers. This paper also presents a review of various applications of FACTS devices such as stability improvement, power quality, and congestion management which are the main issues in smart power systems. Today’s smart power systems comprise the smart grids with smart meters and ensure continuous high quality of power to the consumers.

S. P. Ramezanzadeh, M. Mirzaie, M. Shahabi,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (6-2023)

Due to the role of renewable energy sources in providing energy in future power systems, multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) systems have attracted the attention of utilities and decision-makers. The reliability study of MTDC grids is critical for analyzing electrical power systems and providing a reliable power delivery system. Reliability modeling and study of six MTDC transmission networks containing hybrid DC circuit breakers for interrupting transmission line contingencies is presented in this paper. This study incorporates precise reliability models of MTDC grid configurations and describes a step-by-step grid expansion. Considering these reliability models, critical reliability indices of the demand bus of the grid have been obtained to calculate the amount of energy not supplied. Also, the influence of the tapping stations on the demand bus reliability features has been investigated. Since the components' characteristics significantly affect the system's reliability, the impact of the transformer and DC circuit breaker's failure rate and repair time on the reliability features of the demand bus of all MTDC grids have been assessed. The obtained results are employed to forecast the effect of simultaneous change of the repair time and failure rate of the transformer, the most influential component in determining the reliability indices, on the proposed configuration by incorporating multivariate linear regression.

Masume Khodsuz,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (3-2024)

In this paper, the performance of the EGLA (Externally Gaped Line Arresters) and its impact on the back flashover rate of a 400 kV transmission line have been investigated. The frequency behavior of the grounding system and soil resistivity has been modeled. To analyze the EGLA performance in relation to the grounding system's frequency behavior, a rod-shaped grounding system model has been implemented. By placing the EGLA at different phases of the transmission line, the best scenario has been identified to minimize back-flashover occurrences. Furthermore, the performance of the frequency grounding system to that of the nonlinear grounding system has been compared. The results clearly indicate that using a nonlinear grounding system leads to higher back flashover rates compared to the frequency grounding system. Additionally, the EGLA absorbs less energy when connected to a nonlinear resistor compared to the frequency grounding system. It can be concluded that modeling the grounding system's frequency behavior using the frequency grounding model provides more accurate results, especially in investigations related to power grid insulation coordination.

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