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Showing 18 results for Combustion

M. H. Askari, S. M. Hoseinalipour, S. A. Jazayeri, M. Baghsheikhi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)

The HCCI combustion process is initiated due to auto-ignition of fuel/air mixture which is dominated by chemical kinetics and therefore fuel composition has a significant effect on engine operation and a detailed reaction mechanism is essential to analysis HCCI combustion. A single zone-model permits to have a detailed chemical kinetics modeling for practical fuels. In this study a single-zone thermodynamic model with detail chemical mechanism is developed to investigate the effect of hydrogen addition to natural gas in a homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion and to analyze the performance and emissions of the HCCI engine. The effect of five different percentage of hydrogen added to natural gas ranging from 0 to 40 on HCCI combustion is investigated in this study. The results indicate that by increasing hydrogen portion in intake mixture, start of combustion advances and maximum temperature increase, but increasing in maximum pressure is negligible. Carbon’s included emissions such as Co, Co2 and unburned hydrocarbons decreases by increasing of hydrogen, and also, specific fuel consumption decreases. The result shows that hydrogen improves combustion characteristics of natural gas in an HCCI engine and leads to better performance and less emissions.
M. Bidarvatan, M. Shahbakhti, S.a. Jazayeri,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (5-2011)

Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines hold promise of high fuel efficiency and low emission levels for future green vehicles. But in contrast to gasoline and diesel engines, HCCI engines suffer from lack of having direct means to initiate combustion. A combustion timing controller with robust tracking performance is the key requirement to leverage HCCI application in production vehicles. In this paper, a two-state control-oriented model is developed to predict HCCI combustion timing for a range of engine operation. The experimental validation of the model confirms the accuracy of the model for HCCI control applications. An optimal integral state feedback controller is designed to control the combustion timing by modulating the ratio of two fuels. Optimization methods are used in order to determine the controller’s parameters. The results demonstrate the designed controller can reach optimal combustion timing within about two engine cycles, while showing good robustness to physical disturbances.
A. Mohebbi, S. Jafarmadar, J. Pashae,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (4-2012)

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) contribute to a wide range of environmental effects including the formation of acid rain and destroy ozone layer. In-cylinder high temperature flame and high oxygen concentration are the parameters which affect the NOx emissions. The EGR system is a very effective way for reducing NOx emission from a diesel engine (via reduction of these parameters), particularly at the high load of engine operation condition. In this study, the influence of EGR on diesel engine combustion, NOx/PM emissions, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), engine thermal efficiency, cylinder pressure and heat release rate (HRR) are analyzed and presented. The experiments have been conducted on a turbocharged DI diesel engine under full load condition at two different injection timings in order to distinguish and quantify some effects of Hot and Cooled EGR with various rates on the engine parameters. Experimental results showed that increase of EGR rate has a negative effect on air-fuel ratio. For a premixed combustion at constant boost pressure, ignition delay is increased leading to retardation of all combustion process, a low HRR peak and reduce of in-cylinder peak temperature. Using of Hot EGR reduces NOX emissions whereas PM emissions are increased. The advance of injection timing resulted in the reduction PM while both NOX emissions and fuel consumption were increased. The use of cooled EGR was more effective compared to the hot EGR. As a result, the EGR temperature has no significant impact on NOx emissions. With increasing EGR rate, unequal EGR distribution was increased in inlet port of cylinders while the reducing EGR temperature (cooled EGR) improved its distribution among the engine cylinders and decreased the EGR cylinder-to-cylinder variations.
A. R. Noorpoor, A. Sadighzadeh, H. Habibnejad,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (10-2012)

Diesel exhaust particles are a complex mixture of thousands of gases and fine substances that contain more than 40 different environmental contaminants. Being exposed to these exhaust particles (called soot) can cause lung damage and respiratory problems. Diesel particulate filters are used in many countries for mobile sources as a legal obligation to decrease harmful effect of these fine particles. The size range of these particles is varied from 0.01 to 1 µm. Moreover, it takes a long time to be settled when they are outspread in atmosphere. In this paper, homogeneous plane standing waves are used to coagulate nano particles in order to achieve larger size which has a better gravitational settling. It means that fine particles are converted into a large one. Theoretical mechanisms are studied which led to experimental results in 155(db) and 160 (db). The results show that acoustic precipitators have a good performance in removing fine particles in diesel exhaust. Additionally, they indicate that at high pressure levels, the system has high efficiency for removing fine particles
M. Eftekhar, A. Keshavarz, A. Ghasemian, J. Mahdavinia,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2013)

Running the industrial components at a proper temperature is always a big challenge for engineers. Internal combustion engines are among these components in which temperature plays a big role in their performance and emissions. With the development of new technology in the fields of ‘nano-materials’ and ‘nano-fluids’, it seems very promising to use this technology as a coolant in the internal combustion engines. In this study, a nano-fluid (Al2O3-Water/Ethylene Glycol (EG)) is used as an engine coolant along with an optimized heat exchanger to reduce the warm-up timing. The effect of nano-fluid concentration is considered here by using their corresponding governing equations, such as momentum and energy. The engine coolant thermal behavior calculation is carried out based on the lumped method. The obtained results indicated that using different percentage of nano-fluid mixtures (by volume), such as Al2O3- Water/EG as engine coolant enhances the heat transfer coefficient and reduces the warm-up timing which, in turn, results in reduced emissions and fuel consumption.
B. Jafari, D. Domiri Ganji,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2013)

Air pollution is one of the major issues about the diesel engines in todays' world. It is a special concern in those areas that have difficulty meeting health-based outdoor air quality standards. Natural gas has low emission and resource abundance and also conventional compression ignition engine can be easily converted to a dual fuel mode to use natural gas as main fuel and diesel as pilot injection. The main object of this work is to investigate the effect of number of injector nozzle hole on the combustion and exhaust emission in a gas engine ignited with diesel fuel. We use one and three-dimensional simulation in parallel way in order to analyze the performance and combustion process of a dual fuel engine. The experimental results have also reported and compared with the simulated data.
A. Ghasemian, A. Keshavarz, H. Sotodeh,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2014)

The subjects of heat transfer and cooling system are very important topics in the Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). In modern cooling systems, low weight, small size and high compactness are the critical designing criteria that requires heat transfer enhancement. Boiling phenomenon which is occurred in the water jacket of the ICE is one of the methods to increase heat transfer in the coolant system of an ICE. A research has been shown that parameters such as material, temperature, and roughness of the heated surface have direct effect on the rate of heat transfer in a boiling phenomenon. In this paper the potential of boiling phenomenon and the effect of the surface roughness on the amount of heat flux removed by the coolant flow in the engine water jacket is investigated experimentally. For this purpose the experiments was carried out in three different flow velocities and also three different surface roughnesses. Results show that the boiling and roughness of a hot surface will increase the heat removal significantly.
T. Ouksel, A. Chelghoum, A. Mameri,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2017)

M.h. Shojaeefard, P. Azarikhah, A. Qasemian,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2017)

Heat transfer in internal combustion engines is one of the most significant topics. Heat transfer may take place through thermal conduction and thermal convection in spark ignition engines. In this study, valve cover heat transfer and thermal balance of an air-cooled engine are investigated experimentally. The thermal balance analysis is a useful method to determine energy distribution and efficiency of internal combustion engines. In order to carry out experiments, a single cylinder, air-cooled, four-stroke gasoline engine is applied. The engine is installed on proper chassis and equipped with measuring instruments. Temperature of different points of valve cover and exhaust gases is measured with the assistance of K-type thermocouples. These experiments are conducted in various engine speeds. Regarding to the first law of thermodynamics, thermal balance is investigated and it is specified that about one-third of total fuel energy will be converted to effective power. It is also evaluated that for increasing brake power, fuel consumption will increase and it is impossible to prevent upward trends of wasted energies. In addition, it is resulted that, there is a reduction heat transfer to brake power ratio by increasing engine speed. Furthermore, it is found that, at higher engine speed, lower percentage of energy in form of heat transfer will be lost.
A.h Kakaee, Sh. Mafi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2017)

In this paper we aim to develop a predictive combustion model for a turbocharged engine in GT-Power software to better simulate engine characteristics and study its behavior under variety of conditions. Experimental data from combustion was initially being used for modelling combustion in software and these data were used for model calibration and result validation. EF7-TC engine was chosen for this research which is the first turbocharged engine designed and developed by IKCO and IPCO in Iran. After analyzing necessary theories for predictive combustion model and required steps for calibration of CombSITurb model in software, one final set of multipliers were calculated based on different sets derived for each engine speed and engine operation was simulated with this combustion model. In addition to improved predictability of engine model, comparing results of predictive model with non-predictive model shows better accuracy especially at lower engine speeds and less tolerance of results for each engine speed.
Dr. Ali Qasemian, Mr Pouria Azarikhah, Mr Sina Jenabi Haqparast,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2018)

The thermal balance analysis is a useful method to determine energy distribution and efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engines. In engines cooling concepts, estimation of heat transfer to brake power ratio, as one of the most significant performance characteristics, is highly demanded. In this paper, investigation of energy balance and derivation of specific heat rejection is carried out experimentally and numerically. Experiments are carried out on an air-cooled, single cylinder, four-stroke gasoline IC engine. The engine is simulated numerically and after validation with experimental data, the code is run to find out total and instantaneous thermal balance of engine. Results indicate that about one-third of fuel energy is converted to brake power and major part of energy is dissipated through exhaust and heat transfer. Experimental and numerical results show that by increasing engine speed, heat transfer to brake power ratio decreases. It is also observed that increasing engine speed leads to increase of exhaust power to brake power ratio. Finally two correlations for estimation of heat transfer and exhaust power to brake power ratios are obtained.
Hesam Moghadasi, Sasan Asiaei,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2018)

This paper investigates 3D simulation of fluid flow in a centrifugal pump from the Detroit Diesel company to extract possible engine cooling trends.  The velocity and pressure profile of water, the coolant, is analyzed and the characteristic curves of the pump are derived. This provides a useful evaluation of the pump performance at all working conditions. For this aim, a computational fluid dynamic model is developed using ANSYS CFX for a wide span of flow rates and a number of shaft angular velocities. The variation of constituting parameters are examined using dimension-less descriptive parameters of flow, head and power coefficients, finally, the efficiency of the pump is examined. In this analysis, sst-k-w turbulent model is employed which is a combination of two different models for pumps and turbomachines. Numerical results show that prolonged cooling duty cycles of the vehicle should accompany a flow factor of 10%. In addition, the peak of the vehicle’s loading should match the maximum efficiency of the pump that can be increased to 62% by augmentation of flow rate and flow coefficient.
Mr Mushtaq Ahmad Rather, Mohammad Marouf Wani,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2018)

In this paper, a computational in-cylinder analysis of HCCI diesel engine was carried out using IC Engine FORTE (ANSYS 18.2) software package. The analysis used pre-defined industry standard CHEMKIN format for specifying a chemical reaction mechanism during the combustion duration. The investigation was carried out for the effects of various EGR mass percentages on the thermal and emission characteristics of a diesel engine running on HCCI mode of combustion. It was observed that an increase in EGR concentration resulted in the decrease in peak in-cylinder pressure and temperature and it was also found that when the EGR rates were increased beyond 75% there was no combustion happening within the cylinder. A considerable decrease in the NOx emissions was found with an increase in EGR mass percentage with almost negligible values when the EGR rates were increased beyond 50%, however there was a slight increase in un-burnt hydrocarbons.
Mr Mohsen Motaharinezhad, Dr. Abbas Rahi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2019)

In internal combustion engines, exhaust valve and its seat gain considerable temperature as the hot gases exit through them. So, the rate of heat transfer should be under control. In this study, the contact heat transfer coefficient has been estimated. An experimental study on an Air-Cooled internal combustion engine cylinder head has been considered. Using the measured temperatures of sensors located in specific locations of the exhaust valve and the seat and the method of linear extrapolation, the surface contact temperatures and constant and periodic contact heat transfer coefficient were calculated. Also, a sensitivity analysis has been done to study the effects of different parameters of contact pressure, contact frequency, heat flux and cooling air speed on thermal contact conductance. The results show that between the major four considered parameters, the thermal contact conductance is more sensitive to the contact pressure, then the contact frequency, heat flux and the cooling air speed are the most affecting parameters on thermal contact resistance.
Dr Behrooz Mashhadi, Dr Amirhasan Kakaee, Mr Ahmad Jafari,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2019)

In this research, a high-temperature Rankin cycle (HTRC) with two-stage pumping is presented and investigated. In this cycle, two different pressures and mass flow rates in the HTRC result in two advantages. First, the possibility of direct recovery from the engine block by working fluid of water, which is a low quality waste heat source, is created in a HTRC. Secondly, by doing this, the mean effective temperature of heat addition increases, and hence the efficiency of the Rankin cycle also improves.
The proposed cycle was examined with the thermodynamic model. The results showed that in a HTRC with a two-stage pumping with an increase of 8% in the mean effective temperature of heat addition, the cycle efficiency is slightly improved. Although the operational work obtained from the waste heat recovery from the engine cooling system was insignificant, the effect of the innovation on the recovery from the exhaust was significant. The innovation seems not economical for this low produced energy. However, it should be said that although the effect of the innovation on the increase of the recovery cycle efficiency is low, the changes that must be implemented in the system are also low. 
Mr. Vahid Manshaei, Dr. Mohammad Javad Noroozi, Mr. Ali Shaafi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2020)

In this research, the separate and simultaneous effects of pilot-main injection dwell time, pilot fuel quantity, and hydrogen gas addition on combustion characteristics, emissions formation, and performance in a heavy-duty diesel engine were investigated. To conduct the numerical study, valid and reliable models such as KH-RT for the break-up, K-Zeta-F for turbulence, and also ECFM-3Z for combustion were used. The effects of thirty-one different strategies based on two variables such as pilot-main injection dwell time (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 CA) and pilot fuel quantity (5, 10, and 15% of total fuel per cycle) on NDC and DHC were investigated. The obtained results showed that by decreasing pilot-main injection dwell time due to shorter combustion duration and higher MCP, MCT, and HRRPP, amounts of CO and soot emissions decreased at the expense of high NOx formation. Also, increasing pilot fuel quantity due to higher combustion temperature and less oxygen concentration for the main fuel injection event led to an increase of NOx and soot emissions simultaneously. The addition of H2 due to significant heating value has increased IP and improved ISFC at the expense of NOx emissions but considerably decreased CO and soot emissions simultaneously.
Behzad Borjian Fard, Ayat Gharehghani, Bahram Bahri,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2021)

Reactivity control compression ignition (RCCI) engines have demonstrated high-efficient and clean combustion but still suffer from ringing operation at upper load and production of unburned hydrocarbon (uHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at lower load. In this study, statistical analysis and experimental testing were conducted to consider the effects of input parameters such as intake temperature (Tin), equivalent ratio (Φ) and engine speed on emissions, combustion noise and performance of a 0.5 liter RCCI engine using response surface method (RSM) with the aim to minimize emissions and combustion noise and to maximize parameters of performance. The developed models for measured responses like uHC, CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and calculated responses such as indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and combustion noise level (CNL) were statistically considered to be significant by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Interactive effects between Tin, Φ and engine speed for all operating points were analyzed by 3-D response surface plots. The results from this study indicated that at optimum input parameters, the values of uHC, CO, NOx, IMEP and CNL were found to be 90.3 (ppm), 106.8 (ppm), 248.2 (ppm), 11.7 (bar) and 87 (db), respectively. The models were validated by confirmatory tests, indicating the error in prediction less than 5%.
Abbas Zarenezhad Ashkezari, Reza Zirak,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2023)

In the present study, different regimes of wall impingement in biodiesel spray were investigated in terms of emissions of diesel engines and performance and the best model for simulating the DI diesel engines fueled by biodiesel blends was presented. As shown by the findings, all aspects of wall impingement were considered in Walljet model, and it properly predicted the fuel droplet size generated by decomposition and penetration. Thus, it is possible to use it for simulating the biodiesel fuel spray atomization at varying engine operating conditions through the adjustment of the model constants.

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