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Showing 16 results for Subject: Body structure

Masoud Afrousheh, Javad Marzbanrad, Sanaz Abdollahzadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2019)
Abstract

Thin-walled structures play an important role in absorbing the energy in a low impact crash of vehicles up to saving lives from high impact Injury. In this paper, the thin-walled columns by using a hybrid Design of Experiments (DOE) and Ant Colony Algorithm (ACO) has been optimized. The analysis of the behavior of the nonlinear models under bending load is done using finite-element software Abaqus. The objective is to study the performance geometrically parameters of the columns using DOE-ACO approach.
DOE method is being applied to determine the effects of cross-sections, material, and thickness on the energy absorption; and the ACO method is used for finding more accurate thickness on energy absorption. Four types of thin-walled cross-sections, i.e., circle, ellipse, hexagon, and square are used in this study. The optimized results of DOE method show that aluminum alloy (Al-6061) and high strength low alloy steel (HSLA) square columns have a higher energy absorption in comparison with the other cross-sections. However, the amount of absorbed energy in two types of columns is equal but, 50 percent weight reduction may be seen in Al-6061 columns. The columns are re-optimized by ACO to find the best thickness in the last step.
In the following, by topology optimization participation, a new plan is proposed by the same thickness and 50% less weight, that has a higher crashworthiness efficiency by increasing SAE more than 70%. As a result of this plan is bridging the gap between standard topological design and multi-criteria optimization.
 
Mr. Hamed Rahmanian, Dr. Alireza Sadeghi, Dr. Ali Asghar Ataee,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2020)
Abstract

Application of Mg alloy parts in automotive industry is increasing to reduce weight and fuel consumption. One of the high potential parts for application of Mg alloys is the front seat frame. However, change of material is accompanied by change of manufacturing process and change of design for the seat frame. In the present research while keeping the reference overall ergonomic outline, a new substitute Mg alloy design was proposed, featuring a simple easy to manufacture Z profile. Next, a two-stage optimization technique (size and shape) is proposed for the Mg seat frame based on the stress and displacement criteria of standard test plans. The final optimized design is close to fully-stressed state and is 70% lighter than the reference steel backrest.
Hamed Saeidi Googarchin, Ali Qasemian, Mohammad Rouhi Moghanlou,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2020)
Abstract

The primary objective of a brake disc is to absorb frictional heat during braking and dissipated it immediately by convection and radiation. However, during hard and repetitive brakings, thermal coning on brake disc generates surface hot spots which are responsible for the undesired accumulation of compressive stresses on the surface of the brake disc. These stresses would lead to disc cracking and finally failure of it. In the current paper, a coupled transient thermo-mechanical FE analysis of a heavy vehicle braking system is carried out in a way that thermal coning of the disc and surface hot spots and bands are recognizable. Braking condition is chosen from a standard for hard braking in trucks. Moreover, five additional braking actions with different severities are investigated to study the effects of braking severity on thermo-mechanical instability of brake discs. Comparison of numerical results of transient temperature during braking and cooling phases with experiment reveal a high accuracy of thermal prediction of this model. Also, the results show that thermal coning of brake disc is varied between 0.05 to 0.7 mm depending on braking severity and tangential location of the disc. Additionally, surface hot spots experience higher temperature gradients in higher decelerations. Finally, results show that circumferential compressive stresses during braking are the major component of thermal stresses and should be taken into account for life estimation analysis.
Dr. Sadjad Pirmohammad, Mr Sobhan Esmaeili Marzdashti, Mrs Elnaz Vosoghifard,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2021)
Abstract

Thin-walled columns are frequently employed in vehicle structures to diminish the damages resulting from vehicle collisions. In this research, the effect of hole shapes and dimensions on crushing behavior of octagonal multi-cell columns subjected to longitudinal loading is studied. Rectangular, hexagonal and elliptical holes are assumed on the octagonal multi-cell columns, and crushing parameters (i.e. specific energy absorption SEA and maximum crushing force Fmax) are then obtained by performing numerical analyses in LS-DYNA. The results demonstrate that creation of holes on column walls improve crushing capability significantly, such that creation of rectangular, hexagonal and elliptical holes on the octagonal multi-cell columns increases the value of SEA by 37%, 42% and 39%, respectively in comparison to the plain octagonal column. On the other hand, presence of holes on the octagonal columns results in reduction of Fmax (as a negative crushing indicator).

 
Mr Mostafa Pahlavani, Dr Javad Marzbanrad,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2021)
Abstract

In the present work, the energy absorption study of warm-rolled LZ71 sheet is done for the first time. To do so, Lithium (7% Wt), Zinc (1% Wt) and Magnesium are cast in 770⁰C. After that, the billet has been warm-rolled at 350⁰C and its thickness reduced by 80%. Then, two different heat treatment situations are studied to reach an isotropic plate. Afterward, microstructures of the specimens have been studied using an optical microscope. Tensile tests of the samples are derived to study the mechanical properties and isotropy of the sheets. Moreover, the results of tensile tests applied for crushing simulations. Energy absorption study of the alloy is also done using ABAQUS/Explicit commercial code. The results of simulations are validated using experimental tests of A6082 and completely acceptable performance of simulations is observed. Then, the mechanical properties of LZ71 are used to study the crashworthiness behavior of the mentioned alloy. Crash absorption parameters, namely peak crush force (FMax), mean crush force (FMean), Total Energy Absorption (TAE), Crush Force Efficiency (CFE), Specific Energy Absorption (SEA) and Total Efficiency (TE) of LZ71 and A6082 are compared which are shown that the performance of LZ71 is considerably more efficient than A6082. Lastly, by the help of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Taguchi Method, the effects of dimensional parameters of tube, namely diameter, length and thickness, on FMax, FMean and TAE and also the influences of dimensionless geometrical ratios, namely L/D and D/t on CFE, SEA and TE are surveyed comprehensively.

Mohammad Shirzadifar, Ali Abdollahifar,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2021)
Abstract

This paper introduces a new configuration of ladder chassis containing a set of linear wave springs to improve the lateral stability of road vehicles. The governing equations for lateral stability of the ladder frame equipped with linear wave springs were derived. In order to investigate this new system a unit base of the ladder frame equipped with linear wave springs and a typical ladder frame were modeled using FEM methods (ABAQUS) with the same size conditions. This comparative study is utilized to validate the derived equations and also to compare the effectiveness of the new designed system with typical ladder frames. Results indicate that the new system has considerably improved the lateral stability of the vehicle during road transportation and also noticeably decreased the stress on the side and cross members.
Pouyan Namdar, Hamed Saeidi Googarchin, Seyed Hooman Ghasemi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2022)
Abstract

In this paper, mechanical properties of welded single lap joints of pure aluminum sheets produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD) are considered. SPD in form of a large pre-strain was imposed to aluminum sheets through the constrained groove pressing (CGP) process. Furthermore, CGPed specimens are joined using the resistance spot welding (RSW) method. Welding time and force are maintained evenly. Welding current is raised until ideal failure mode is observed. Finally, mechanical properties of fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal of welded SPDed specimens are derived. The results show that by increasing the pre-strain in specimens, an improvement in yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, load carrying capacity, maximum displacement before failure and nugget diameter is observed. Furthermore, sensitivity of these parameters to CGP pass number is considered. Finally, it has been shown that fusion zone and HAZ hardness values can increase by increasing the CGP pass number.
Hamidreza Zarei, Mohammad Nazari,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2022)
Abstract

In this manuscript, the energy absorption behavior of the empty aluminum and ALPORAS foam-filled square tubes is investigated through experimental and numerical routes. The experimental method is conducted by an axial impact test apparatus. To discover more details about crushing behavior, LS DYNA software is used for numerical simulation of the tests. The results of both methods are in satisfactory compliance. As a novelty, the crash performance of tubes filled with different foam densities is investigated. To examine the foam density effect on energy absorption of the tube, multi-layer foams with three different densities have been applied. It has been proven that filling the tubes with gradient foam improves the crash characteristics of the tubes. Numerical results revealed that tubes filled with gradient foam filler can absorb more energy than empty and tubes filled with different individual foams of lower weight. In numerical simulations, the required foam parameters are estimated from existing formulas. Compression test results of foam with different densities are implemented for calibrating these formulas.

J Bidadi, H Hampaiyan Miandowab1, H Saeidi Googarchin,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2023)
Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine the deformation modes and also degradation of an adhesively bonded rectangular cross section beam used in the automotive body structure. The study included: (1) performing new experimental investigations on the three-point bend behavior of a rectangular cross section beam made by adhesive bonding method. (2) developing a finite element (FE) model to predict the mechanical load displacement behavior and also the degradation modes (i.e. delamination between the adhesive layer and beam wall). The agreement between experimental and FE results demonstrates that the investigated structural element's numerical model was created utilizing accurate assumptions. Finally, the effects of beam wall thickness and overlap length have been investigated in a parametric study using the validated FE model. It was shown that increasing the beam wall thickness resulted in delamination between the adhesive layer and beam wall.
Abbas Zarenezhad Ashkezari, Reza Zirak,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2023)
Abstract

In the present study, different regimes of wall impingement in biodiesel spray were investigated in terms of emissions of diesel engines and performance and the best model for simulating the DI diesel engines fueled by biodiesel blends was presented. As shown by the findings, all aspects of wall impingement were considered in Walljet model, and it properly predicted the fuel droplet size generated by decomposition and penetration. Thus, it is possible to use it for simulating the biodiesel fuel spray atomization at varying engine operating conditions through the adjustment of the model constants.
 
Farid Raoof, Javad Rezapour, Sina Gohari Rad, Reza Rajabiehfard,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2023)
Abstract

Thin-walled tubes can avoid the transition of injurious acceleration and excessive forces to the protected section and minimize the damage severity. They absorb energy under axial loading circumstances as crashworthiness structures. The present study deals with the investigation of the density effects of foam on the quasi-static loading response of foam filled and empty cylindrical tubes. To investigate energy absorption parameters by varying in foam density, two different densities of polyurethane foam were used to evaluate the efficacy of polyurethane foam density under axial quasi-static loading. According to the results, the use of foam as a filler also influences the tubes’ deformation behavior in addition to the effects of thickness. It was revealed that by incrementing the thickness to 20%, the peak load increased by 25.2%. Two densities of foam were considered as 40 and 85kg/m3 to assess the effect of density of polyurethane foam as filler on the energy absorption behavior of tubes under axial loading. Result showed that when foam density increased by about two times, the peak load increased by 1%. According to the results, filling tube by foam also influences the tubes deformation behavior in addition to the effects of thickness
Hamidreza Ghasempoor, Ali Keshavarzi, Hamed Saeidi Googarchin,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2023)
Abstract

The utilization of adhesively bonded square sections (ABSS) serves to enhance energy absorption and specific energy absorption (SEA) when subjected to oblique loading. Finite element models utilizing LS-DYNA were constructed in order to examine the deformation mode and load-displacement characteristics of ABSS and hybrid aluminum/carbon fiber reinforced polymer models. Subsequently, an evaluation was conducted on the general parameter pertaining to crashworthiness and the capacity for absorption of energy. The results reveal that an increase in the quantity of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) layers within the stacking sequence of [0,90] affords enhanced potential for energy absorption. Conversely, the stacking sequence of [90] exhibits an incongruity with this trend, and achieves superior energy absorption capacity with a count of 4 CFRP layers rather than 8.
The present study indicates that carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) possessing a stacking sequence of [90] exhibits superior energy absorption capacity under both axial and oblique loading conditions at an inclination angle of 10 degrees. In contrast, the use of eight layers of CFRP with a stacking sequence of [0, 90] is found to yield better performance in achieving both axial and oblique loading up to 10 degrees.
 
Mustafa Mirtabaee, Mohammad Abasi,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2023)
Abstract

Protection of Armor Vehicles and military truck Occupants Against Explosion Mine and IED is the most important Parameter for comprehensive performance evaluation of armored vehicle. Armored Vehicle components Specifically Hull Floor Must be Able to Disperse Blast Shock Waves and Resist Against the structural Fracture. Analysis of the War Documents proves that flat hulls with thin-walled steel cannot resist against Anti-Tank Mines. In Recent years, development of V-shape Hull configurations Consider as an efficient Approach to improve Safety of armored vehicles. In the new generation of Armor Vehicle, Monocoque chassis combined with V-shape hull, But Replacement of All of the Old Armor Vehicle in the Defense Industry is not cost effective. So, there is an urgent need to develop the efficient strategy for enhancing the protection level of old armor vehicle. Since most of the armored vehicles used in the armies of different countries were designed and built in the past years, it is very likely that the safety standards have not been fully observed in them. Therefore, it is of great importance to provide a simple and low-cost plan for the reliable upgrade of such armored and logistics vehicles. In this article, by investigating the effect of placing V-shaped composite panels in three case studies, we were able to reduce the acceleration of the center of mass of the passenger compartment by approximately 7 times, in addition to reducing displacement by 50% on average. In addition, the explosion products were not able to penetrate into the cabin.

Seied Isa Koranian, Mahdi Gholampour, Hamid Mazandarani,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (3-2024)
Abstract

Harnessing nanomaterials and the piezo-phototronic effect, we engineered a high-performance ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD), unveiling a new frontier in optoelectronics. This novel device seamlessly integrates zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) onto a flexible polyethylene terephthalate- indium tin oxide (PET-ITO) substrate through a straightforward and efficient hydrothermal process. This unique nanostructure design outshines its competitors, producing significantly higher current under UV illumination despite a comparable detection area. The plot thickens with the intriguing "piezo-phototronic effect," where applying pressure under UV light amplifies the current and overall device efficiency. This groundbreaking discovery paves the way for cutting-edge optoelectronic applications, where nanomaterials and the piezo-phototronic effect join forces to redefine performance.
 
Mr. Nasrollah Taghizadeh, Dr. Mohsen Esfahanian,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (3-2024)
Abstract

Due to the importance of vehicle weight reduction which can reduce fuel consumption and air pollution, changes are made in vehicles. In heavy trucks with payload limitations, a lighter trailer can provide higher load-carrying capacity and more economical benefits. Composite materials are a good candidate for material exchange due to their resistance to various conditions and low weight compared to steel. In this paper, the trailer material made of steel will be replaced by composite so that strength density will remain the same. For this purpose, the finite element method is used for static and dynamic analyses. At first, the model of a two-axle trailer is developed using SolidWorks software. Then, using standard loading and failure theories (Tsai-Hill, Tsai-Wu), the number of composite layers and their suitable angles are selected for the chassis. Finally, the loaded trailer's static, modal, and dynamic analysis are performed using the finite element method with a composite material. Results show that 17 layers of polymer composite with glass fibers with 0-0 angle can reduce 17.7 percent weight.
Dr Mohammad Shirzadifar, Dr Javad Marzbanrad,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (3-2024)
Abstract

The corrugated composite plates have wide application to improve the energy absorption and failure behavior of panel structures. The roof panel of the bus could benefit from the use of these structures to reduce impact failures in rollover accidents. The aim of this paper is to design a new configuration of bus roof panels stiffened with multi-layer semi-circular corrugated CFRP plates to minimize structure failure during rollover accidents. An analytical failure equation of Tsai-Hill index for the new proposed panel subjected to dynamic impact loading has been derived. The failure equation was validated using FEM methods and digital image correlation impact tests. According to the roll over impact situation, the multi-layered semi-circular corrugated woven CFRP roof panel displays a positive failure behavior of 89%.
 

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