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Showing 10 results for Artificial Neural Networks

P. Muthupriya, K. Subramanian, B.g. Vishnuram,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2011)

Neural networks have recently been widely used to model some of the human activities in many areas of civil engineering applications. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANN) for predicting compressive strength of cubes and durability of concrete containing metakaolin with fly ash and silica fume with fly ash are developed at the age of 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. For building these models, training and testing using the available experimental results for 140 specimens produced with 7 different mixture proportions are used. The data used in the multi-layer feed forward neural networks models are designed in a format of eight input parameters covering the age of specimen, cement, metakaolin (MK), fly ash (FA), water, sand, aggregate and superplasticizer and in another set of specimen which contain SF instead of MK. According to these input parameters, in the multi-layer feed forward neural networks models are used to predict the compressive strength and durability values of concrete. It shown that neural networks have high potential for predicting the compressive strength and durability values of the concretes containing metakaolin, silica fume and fly ash.
F.r. Rofooei, A. Kaveh, F.m. Farahani,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2011)

Heavy economic losses and human casualties caused by destructive earthquakes around the world clearly show the need for a systematic approach for large scale damage detection of various types of existing structures. That could provide the proper means for the decision makers for any rehabilitation plans. The aim of this study is to present an innovative method for investigating the seismic vulnerability of the existing concrete structures with moment resisting frames (MRF). For this purpose, a number of 2-D structural models with varying number of bays and stories are designed based on the previous Iranian seismic design code, Standard 2800 (First Edition). The seismically–induced damages to these structural models are determined by performing extensive nonlinear dynamic analyses under a number of earthquake records. Using the IDARC program for dynamic analyses, the Park and Ang damage index is considered for damage evaluation of the structural models. A database is generated using the level of induced damages versus different parameters such as PGA, the ratio of number of stories to number of bays, the dynamic properties of the structures models such as natural frequencies and earthquakes. Finally, in order to estimate the vulnerability of any typical reinforced MRF concrete structures, a number of artificial neural networks are trained for estimation of the probable seismic damage index.
M.r. Ghasemi, E. Barghi,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (7-2012)

In this paper the performance of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) in simulating the inverse dynamic behavior of Magneto- Rheological (MR) dampers is investigated. MR dampers are one of the most applicable methods in semi active control of seismic response of structures. Various mathematical models are introduced to simulate the dynamic behavior of MR dampers. The Modified Bouc-Wen model is an appropriate model that has an acceptable accuracy in calculating the generated force of dampers compared to others. In this model displacement and voltage of a MR damper are known while the force generated by MR damper is considered as the unknown. Because of highly nonlinear characteristics of modified bouc-wen model determination of inverse dynamic behavior of MR dampers are generally done using ANNs and ANFIS. Since the ANNs and ANFIS have different mechanisms for emulating desired functions, their responses may be different. In this research the performance of a Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN), Radial Basis Functions Neural Network (RBFNN) and ANFIS in estimating the inverse dynamic behavior of MR dampers are compared. The results emphasize on the advancement of ANFIS to the other methods studied in estimation of inverse dynamic behavior of MR dampers.
G. Ghodrati Amiri, P. Namiranian,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2013)

The main objective of this paper is to use ant optimized neural networks to generate artificial earthquake records. In this regard, training accelerograms selected according to the site geology of recorder station and Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) used to decompose these records. Then Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) optimized with Ant Colony Optimization and resilient Backpropagation algorithm and learn to relate the dimension reduced response spectrum of records to their wavelet packet coefficients. Trained ANNs are capable to produce wavelet packet coefficients for a specified spectrum, so by using inverse WPT artificial accelerograms obtained. By using these tools, the learning time of ANNs reduced salient and generated accelerograms had more spectrum-compatibility and save their essence as earthquake accelerograms.
H. Fathnejat, P. Torkzadeh, E. Salajegheh, R. Ghiasi,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (11-2014)

Vibration based techniques of structural damage detection using model updating method, are computationally expensive for large-scale structures. In this study, after locating precisely the eventual damage of a structure using modal strain energy based index (MSEBI), To efficiently reduce the computational cost of model updating during the optimization process of damage severity detection, the MSEBI of structural elements is evaluated using properly trained cascade feed-forward neural network (CFNN). In order to achieve an appropriate artificial neural network (ANN) model for MSEBI evaluation, a set of feed-forward artificial neural networks which are more suitable for non-linear approximation, are trained. All of these neural networks are tested and the results demonstrate that the CFNN model with log-sigmoid hidden layer transfer function is the most suitable ANN model among these selected ANNs. Moreover, to increase damage severity detection accuracy, the optimization process of damage severity detection is carried out by particle swarm optimization (PSO) whose cost function is constructed based on MSEBI. To validate the proposed solution method, two structural examples with different number of members are presented. The results indicate that after determining the damage location, the proposed solution method for damage severity detection leads to significant reduction of computational time compared to finite element method. Furthermore, engaging PSO algorithm by efficient approximation mechanism of finite element (FE) model, maintains the acceptable accuracy of damage severity detection.
H. Bahadori , M. S. Momeni,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2016)

Shear wave velocity (Vs) is known as one of the fundamental material parameters which is useful in dynamic analysis. It is especially used to determine the dynamic shear modulus of the soil layers. Nowadays, several empirical equations have been presented to estimate the shear wave velocity based on the results from Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and soil type. Most of these equations result in different estimation of Vs for the same soils. In some cases a divergence of up to 100% has been reported. In the following study, having used the field study results of Urmia City and Artificial Neural Networks, a new correlation between Vs and several simple geotechnical parameters (i.e. Modified SPT value number (N60), Effective overburden stress, percentage of passing from Sieve #200 (Fc), plastic modulus (PI) and mean grain size (d50)) is presented. Using sensitivity analysis it is been shown that the effect of PI in Vs prediction is more than that of N60 in over consolidated clays. It is also observed that Fc has a high influence on evaluation of shear wave velocity of silty soils.

M. Fadavi Amiri, S. A. Soleimani Eyvari, H. Hasanpoor, M. Shamekhi Amiri,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (1-2018)

For seismic resistant design of critical structures, a dynamic analysis, based on either response spectrum or time history is frequently required. Due to the lack of recorded data and randomness of earthquake ground motion that might be experienced by the structure under probable future earthquakes, it is usually difficult to obtain recorded data which fit the necessary parameters (e.g. soil type, source mechanism, focal depth, etc.) well. In this paper, a new method for generating artificial earthquake accelerograms from the target earthquake spectrum is suggested based on the use of wavelet analysis and artificial neural networks. This procedure applies the learning capabilities of neural network to expand the knowledge of inverse mapping from the response spectrum to the earthquake accelerogram. At the first step, wavelet analysis is utilized to decompose earthquake accelerogram into several levels, which each of them covers a special range of frequencies. Then for every level, a neural network is trained to learn the relationship between the response spectrum and wavelet coefficients. Finally, the generated accelerogram using inverse discrete wavelet transform is obtained. In order to make earthquake signals compact in the proposed method, the multiplication sample of LPC (Linear predictor coefficients) is used. Some examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

A. N. Khan, R. B. Magar, H. S. Chore,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (8-2018)

The use of supplementary cementing materials is gradually increasing due to technical, economical, and environmental benefits. Supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) are most commonly used in producing ready mixed concrete (RMC). A quantitative understanding of the efficiency of SCMs as a mineral admixture in concrete is essential for its effective utilisation. The performance and effective utilization of various SCMs can be possible to analyze, using the concept of the efficiency factor (k-value). This study describes the overview of various studies carried out on the efficiency factor of SCMs. Also, it is an effort directed towards a specific understanding of the efficiency of SCMs in concrete. Further it includes an overview of artificial neural network (ANN) for the prediction of the efficiency factor of SCMs in concrete. It is found that The model generated through ANN provided a tool to calculate efficiency factor (k) and capture the effects of different parameters such as, water-binder ratio; cement dosage; percentage replacement of SCMs; and curing age.
M. Torkan , M. Naderi Dehkordi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (10-2018)

Concrete is the second most consumed material after water and the most widely used construction material in the world. The compressive strength of concrete is one of its most important mechanical properties, which highly depends on its mix design. The present study uses the intelligent methods with instance-based learning ability to predict the compressive strength of concrete. To achieve this objective, first, a set of data pertaining to concrete mix designs containing fly ash was collected. Then, mix design parameters were used as the inputs of the artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) developed for predicting the compressive strength. In all these models, prediction accuracy largely depends on the parameters of the learning model. Hence, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, as a powerful population-based algorithm for solving continuous and discrete optimization problems, was used to determine the optimal values of algorithm parameters. The hybrid models were trained and tested with 426 experimental data and their results were compared by statistical criteria. Comparing the results of the developed models with the real values showed that the ANFIS-PSO hybrid model has the best performance and accuracy among the assessed methods.
Gh. Asadzadeh Khoshemehr , H. Bahadori,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (6-2019)

Direct drilling method and the use of microtremor studies are among the most commonly used available methods utilized to estimate dynamic parameters for a site. One of the most important parameters is the dominant period of the site whose estimation plays a pivotal role in seismic hazard mitigation. The conventional models obtained are not capable of estimating the parameters that govern the seismic response of a site. Therefore, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are reliable and practical estimation methods that can be used to analyze comprehensive measurements such as dominant period of a site, and improve the data. In this paper, the performance of ANNs has been investigated on calculation of the dominant period for a site. Three different models, namely BP, RBF and ANFIS, have been compared to determine the best model that provides the most accurate estimation for the dominant period. The input parameters have been chosen to be alluvial layer thickness, grain size, specific gravity, effective stress, shear wave velocity, standard penetration number, Atterberg limits. Each of the three models has been trained and tested for these input parameters and a unique output which is the dominant period of the site. The results showed that ANNs successfully model complex relationships between soil parameters and seismic parameters of the site, and provide a robust tool to accurately estimate the dominant period of a site. The accurate estimations can be then used for engineering applications including damage assessment and structural health monitoring. In addition, The obtained emulator of RBF model shows the least model error in estimation of dominant period and has been found to be superior to the other evaluated methods.

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