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Hadian Fard M.j.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2004)

Effects of temperature on properties and behavior of a 20 vol % particulate SiC reinforced 6061 aluminum alloy and 6061 unreinforced Al alloy were investigated. Yield strength and elongation to failure were measured as a function of test temperatures up to 180^oC. In addition, the effects of holding time at 180^ oC on tensile properties and fracture mechanisms of the materials at this temperature were studied. The behaviors of the materials were characterized by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption (AA), hardness measurement and image analyzing (IA). The results show that an increase in temperature leads to a decrease in the yield strength and increase in the elongation to failure of the materials. On the other hand, while increasing holding time at 180^oC produces an increase in the elongation to failure of the unreinforced alloy, it reduces the elongation to failure of the composite. It was also observed that reduction in yield strength with increasing holding time at 180^oC was faster for the composite material compared to the unreinforced alloy. The results from SEM, XRD, EDS, IA and hardness tests indicated that some chemical reactions had taken place at the interface between the reinforcement and the matrix alloy during holding the specimens at elevated temperature. Therefore, different trend in elongation to failure of the unreinforced alloy and the composite material with holding time at elevated temperature could be attributed to development of chemical reactions between the reinforcement and the matrix alloy at the interface.
Saghi S., Divandari M., Kharazi Y.h.k.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2004)

The effects of gating system and pattern geometry on the metal flow in the lost foam casting (LFC) process have been investigated using glass covered mold and video recording system. Unlike convectional casting process, the type of the gating system showed little effect on fillability in lost foam, but pattern thickness had large effect on mold filling. The mold filling behavior seems to be controlled by the combined influences of heat and mass transfer. The flow rate increased with increasing pattern thickness.
Sheikh Abdolhossein A., Nili Ahmad Abadi M.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)

In the present research influences of different combinations of five types of inoculants and four types of nodularizers on eutectic nucleation in ductile cast iron were studied. The alloys were kept at 1320°C for 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min under nitrogen atmosphere. Cooling curves and image analysis were used to characterize the influence of holding time and different combinations of inoculants and nodularizers on the graphite morphologies and eutectic nucleation. When dominant morphology of graphite is spheroidal or flake, by decreasing the different combinations of nodularizers and inoculants fading resistance, temperature of eutectic undercooling decreases. Nevertheless, when there is combination of spheroidal, vermicular and flake graphites temperature of eutectic undercooling increases by reduction of material fading resistance.
Kaviani S., Marashi S. P. H.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)

The surface condition and microstructure of near stoichiometric (Fe823Ndll.8B5.9) Nd-Fe-B alloy ribbons and the effect of melt spinning parameters were investigated using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM, TEM). The formation of gas pockets on the roll surface of the ribbons during melt spinning can prevent heat transform and result in local coarse grains. The local thickness would also be less in these places and thus perforates preferentially during ion beam milling. Therefore different areas of the sample should be carefully observed in the TEM. Reducing inert gas pressure in the chamber will eliminate the gas pockets. As a general trend, decrease in the ribbon thickness and mean Nd2 Fe14B grain size were observed on increasing the roll speed. By careful adjustment of the melt spinning parameters, the nanostructure will develop. An orientation relationship was found between Nd2 Fe14B and α-Fe precipitates for coarse grain samples melt spun at low roll speed. Dark field image of such grain also shows that some of these α-Fe precipitates have the same orientation. X-ray diffraction evident the development of texture by decreasing the roll speed.
Akbar Zadeh A., Salari M.,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2004)

AA3004 alloy is widely used in can making. The major concern in the production of canbodies is earing, which develop by high planar anisotropy of rolled sheet. Balance ofrecrystallisation and rolling textures together with a uniform and fine grain microstructure canminimize the earing. The effects of finish rolling temperature (FRT) on planar anisotropy,microstructure, texture development and mechanical properties of sheet have been analyzedIncreasing the FRT resulted in promotion of cube and G texture in hot rolled sheet. Lower |ΔR| ofthe final sheet with higher FRY, i.e. the lower planar anisotropy, is accompained with a balance ofrolling and recrystallisation orientations.
Dehghanian C., Saremi M., Mohammadi Sabet M.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2005)

The synergistic behavior of molybdate and phosphate ions in mitigating the corrosion of mild steel in simulated cooling water was evaluated performing potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy tests. Phosphate and molybdate showed a synergistic effect on corrosion inhibition of steel in simulated cooling water. The observed reduction in anodic and cathodic current densities could be the consequence of incorporation of both phosphate and molybdate ions in forming a protective layer on the surface. The charge transfer resistance of the protective layer formed on steel surface was much greater in presence of both ions in solution than that when each inhibitor used alone.
Kharazi Y.h.k., Divandari M.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2005)

The mold-filling behavior in the casting of aluminum alloy (A413) using lost foam casting (LFC) was explored. The effects of gate numbers, type of gating and casting thickness on the filling behavior were evaluated. Although, unlike convectional casting process, the gating system showed little effect onfilling ability, casting thickness created a greater effect on the mold filling. In contrast with convectional casting process, the mold filling seems to be controlled by castinggeometry as a consequence of combined influence of heat and mass transfer. The melt used to enter from the first gate instead of last gate which is in contrast with convectional casting process.
Haddad Sabzevar M., Fredriksson H.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (6-2006)

The hot cracking susceptibility can be determined by establishing the transition temperature between brittle and ductile fracture at high temperature tensile testing of in situ solidified samples. High temperature tensile properties were determined for commercial cathodic pure Cu and Cu- 30%Zn alloy. The transition temperatures for pure Cu and Cu-30%Zn were evaluated from ultimate tensile stress, true strain and area reduction at different testing temperatures. The results show that hot cracking in pure Cu also occurred below and near to its melting temperature. It can be proposed that in this case excess vacancies and vacancy diffusion and condensation are the dominating mechanisms for hot crack formation. The transition temperature for Cu- 30%Zn was much lower than its solidus temperature and this alloy has more susceptibility to hot cracking as compared to pure Cu. The effect of two different cooling rates (15 °C/min and 60 °C/min) on the transition temperature was investigated. The results show that by increasing cooling rate, the transition temperature will increase. The morphology of fracture surfaces for both ductile and brittle modes were evaluated by SEM Two different morphologies, i.e. interdendiritic and intergranual fracture, was found.
M. Adjabshiri, S. Sharafi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2007)

Abstract: Strength at elevated temperatures and thermal shock resistance of austempered ductile irons at high temperatures has been less intentioned, because of instability of ausferrite phase. In this research the tensile properties of this iron and pearlitic ductile cast iron have been investigated by short time high temperature tensile tests. Also thermal shock tests were done at the molten lead bath at 1000 􀁱C . In these experiments, at first samples were immersed partially in the molten lead bath for 25 seconds and then either cooled in air or quenched in water. Results of short time high temperature tensile and thermal shock tests showed that ADI samples have higher strength and shock resistance than the pearlitic ductile samples.
G. H. Akbari, M. A. Sheikhi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2007)

Abstract: Ball mills are used in the last stage of ore processing for grinding raw materials. Forged 70Cr2 alloy steel and Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) balls are materials from which grinding balls are made for Sarcheshmeh Copper Plant (SCP) ball mills. In the present study wear and impact properties of these two kinds of balls have been investigated. Some balls randomly were selected as samples. They were cut to investigate the cross section under optical and scanning electron microscopes. The microstructure of the sample balls was studied and quantitative measurements of microstructural features were performed. The hardness of different parts of cross sections of balls was measured. The wear resistance of the balls was measured by Pin on Disc method. Repeated dropt test was employed to evaluate impact resistance of the balls. The microstructure of ADI balls consisted of bianitic matrix with graphite nodules and some retained austenite and martensite. Micro cracks and porosities in the cast structure were frequently observed. In the case of forged steel balls the microstructure composed of tempered martensite in outer area and bianitic structure with some tempered martensite in central areas. The wear and impact resistance of forged steel balls were markedly higher than those of ADI balls. The difference was consistent with the differences between the microstructures of the two kinds of balls. Cast structure with microcracks and shrinkage porosities in ADI balls gives rise to lower impact resistance.
B. Mirzakhani,mohammadi, H. Arabi,s. H. Seyedein, M. R. Aboutalebi, M. T. Saleh, Sh. Khoddam,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2009)

Abstract:Optimization of specimen geometry before subjecting it to hot torsion test (HTT) is essential for minimizingnon-uniform temperature distribution and obtaining uniform microstructure thought the specimen.In the present study, a nonlinear transient analysis was performed for a number of different geometries andtemperatures using the commercial finite element (FE) package ANSYSTM. FE thermal results then were applied tooptimize HTTspecimen produced from API-X 70 microalloyed steel taking into account the microstructurehomogeneity.  The thermodynamic software Thermo-calcTM was also used to analysis solubility of microalloyingelements and their precipitates that may exist at different equilibrium conditions. In addition the behavior of austenitegrain size during reheating was investigated. The results show high temperature gradient occurred in long specimens.This could lead to non homogeneous initial austenite grain size and alloying element or precipitates within the gaugesection of the specimen. The proposed optimization procedure can in general be used for other materials and reheatingscenarios to reduce temperature. This then creates more homogeneous initial microstructure prior to deformation andreduces errors in post processing of the HTTresults
H. Rafiee*,, S. Rastegari, H. Arabi, M. Mojaddami,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (10-2010)


activity gas diffusion process has been investigated in this research. Effects of coating temperature and aluminum

concentration in powder mixture on formation mechanism were studied using optical and scanning electron

microscopes, EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. For this purpose two different packs containing 1 and 2

wt% aluminum powder, were used for coating the samples at two temperatures, 850ºC and 1050ºC. The ratio of Al to

activator was kept constant in both packs. By increasing the Al content in high activity powder mixture, the

concentration of diffused Al increased in the coating layers, and the thickness of coating increased. At 1050ºC as the

rate of diffused Al to the interdiffusion zone increased, this zone gradually transformed to outer coating phases. At

850ºC coating formed by inward diffusion of Al, but at 1050ºC it was initially formed by inward diffusion of Al followed

by outward diffusion of Ni.

Formation mechanism of an aluminide coating on a nickel base superalloy IN738LC via a single step high

B. Akbari, M. Pirhadi Tavandashti, M. Zandrahimi,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2011)

Abstract: Most properties of nanoparticles are size-dependent. In fact, the novel properties of nanoaprticles do not prevail until the size has been reduced to the nanometer scale. The particle size and size distribution of alumina nanoparticle, as a critical properties, have been determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), surface area analysis (BET) and x-ray diffraction peak broadening analysis. The particle size was found to be in the range of 5-95nm. Cumulative percentage frequency plot of the data extracted form TEM images indicates that particle size distribution obeys the log-normal function. The TEM images also reveal that particles are spherical in shape and loosely agglomerated. Comparing of the XRD and TEM results shows that the particles are single-crystal. The HRTEM images also verify that the particles have a single-crystal nature. In comparison, there is a good correlation between the BET, XRD and TEM measurements other than PCS that is sensitive to the presence of the agglomerates.
J. Jac Faripour Maybody, A. Nemati, E. Salahi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2013)

In the present study, bioceramic composites based hydroxyapatite (HAp) reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was synthesized via sol-gel technique. The dried gels were individually heated at a rate of 5°C/min up to 600°C for 2 h in a muffle furnace in order to obtain HAp-MWCNTs mixed powder. Composites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM/SAED/EDX and Raman spectroscopy techniques. Results showed the synthesis of HAp particles in the MWCNTs sol which was prepared in advance, leads to an excellent dispersion of MWCNTs in HAp matrix. Apparent average size of crystallites increased by increasing the percentage of MWCNTs. The average crystallite size of samples (at 600°C), estimated by Scherrer’s equation was found to be ~50-60 nm and was confirmed by TEM. MWCNTs kept their cylindrical graphitic structure in composites and pinned and fastened HAp by the formation of hooks and bridges.
N. Najmoddin, H.r. Rezaie, A. Beitollahi, M.s. Toprak,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (9-2014)

The synthesis of mesoporous CuFe2O4 spinel by several nanocasting strategies (i.e., multi-step nanocasting, one step nanocasting, modified solid-liquid), in which copper and iron nitrates are used as precursors and Pluronic P123 as surfactant, is explored. We have also checked the effect of pH, citric acid and sodium citrate in multi-step nanocasting method. The modified solid-liquid method which contains impregnating mesoporous silica by molten state salts in a non-ionic solvent seems to be the best choice to obtain single phase ordered mesoporous copper ferrite. Other methods suffer from the presence of copper oxide or hematite as impurities or lack of integrity in the mesoporous structure. Increasing pH up to 9.5 does not enhance the phase formation inside the pores of the silica matrix. The citric acid yields a fine structure but does not facilitate the phase formation. Adding sodium citrate neither heals the phase formation nor the structure of the final product. Moreover, vinyl- functionalized mesoporous silica exploited in this study as a hard template entraps both metal nitrates in the pores, assisting impregnation procedure
R. Fazli, F. Golestani-Fard, Y. Safaei-Naeini, S. Zhang,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (9-2014)

Well crystallized pure calcium zirconate (CaZrO3 ) nanopowder was successfully synthesized using the molten-salt method. CaCl2 , Na 2CO3, micro-ZrO 2and nano-ZrO 2 were used as starting materials. On heating, Na2CO3 reacted with CaCl 2to form NaCl and CaCO 3. Nano CaZrO 3 was formed by reacting equimolar amounts of in situformed CaCO 3 (or CaO) and ZrO 2 in molten Na 2CO3-NaCl eutectic mixture. CaZrO 3 particle size and synthesis temparture was tailored as a function of ZrO 2particle size. Due to the usage of nano-ZrO 2 , the molten salt synthesis (MSS) temperature was decreased and possible impurity phases in the final product were suppressed. The synthesis temperature was lowered to 800°C and soaking time of the optimal synthesis condition was reduced to 3h. After washing with hot-distilled water, the n-ZrO2sample heated at 800°C for 3h, was single phase CaZrO 3with 70-90 nm in particle size, while the m-ZrO 2sample heated at 1000°C for 3h, was single phase CaZrO 3 with 250-400 nm in particle size. Based on the TEM observation and thermodynamic analysis, the synthesized CaZrO 3 grains retained the morphology of the ZrO2 nanopowders, which indicated that a template formation mechanism play a dominant role in synthesis process
S Ahmadi, H. R. Shahverdi,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2014)

Achieving extreme hardness in the newly synthetic steel formed by converting from initial amorphous state to subse-quent crystalline structure –named as devitrification process- was studied in this research work. Results of TEM observa-tions and XRD tests showed that crystallized microstructure were made up four different nano-scale phases i.e., α-Fe, Fe 36 Cr12 Mo10 , Fe 3 C and Fe3 B. More, Vickers hardness testing revealed a maximum hardness of 18.6 GPa which is signifi-cantly harder than existing hardmetals. Detailed kinetic and structural studies have been proof that two key factors were contributed to achieve this extreme hardness supersaturation of transition metal alloying elements (especially Nb) and also reduction in the structure to the nano-size crystals.
V. Mote, B. Dole,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2015)

Mn doped ZnO nanocrystals were prepared by co-precipitation route sintered at 450 °C temperature. XRD results indicate that the samples having hexagonal (wurtzite) structure. From X-ray data it is found that the lattice parameters increase with increasing Mn concentration. The X-ray density decreases with increasing Mn concentration of Zn 1-x Mnx O nanocrystals. It indicates that the Mn ions go into the Zn site in the ZnO lattice structure. TEM results reveal that the pure and Mn substituted ZnO samples are spherical in shape with average particle size about 20-60 nm. The crystalline size and lattice strain were evaluated by Williamson-Hall (W-H) analysis using X-ray peak broadening data. All other relevant physical parameters such as strain, stress and energy density were calculated by the different models Viz, uniform deformation model (UDM), uniform deformation stress model (UDSM) and Uniform deformation energy density model (UDEDM) considering the Williamson-Hall analysis. These models reveal different strain values it may be due to the anisotropic nature of the material. It is found that the mean particle size of Zn 1-x MnxO nanoparticles was estimated from TEM analysis, Scherrer’s formula & W-H analysis is highly comparable
A. Mohsenifar, M. R. Aboutalebi, S. H. Aboutalebi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2015)

Hot dip aluminizing was carried out on the low carbon steel rod under optimized conditions. The aluminized samples were further oxidized at 1000̊C in air atmosphere at two different times of 20 and 60 minutes. Microstructure study and phase analysis were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods, respectively. The characterization of the coating showed that, Fe2 Al5 has been the major phase formed on the surface of specimen before heat treatment. Following the oxidation of the coating at high temperature, Al 2O3 was formed on the surface of coating while Fe 2 Al5 transformed into FeAl and Fe 3 Al which are favorable to the hot corrosion resistance of the coating. Corrosion resistance of aluminized samples before and after heat treatment was evaluated by rotating the samples in the molten aluminum at 700 ̊C for various times and the dissolution rate was determined. The obtained results showed that by oxidizing the coating at high temperature, the corrosion resistance of the samples in molten aluminum improves significantly.
A. Qaed Amini Haroooni, H. Eskandari, M. H. Maddahy, I. Danaee,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2015)

The electrochemical behavior of 6063 aluminum alloy in ethylene glycol-water mixture was investigated by polarization curves and AC impedance measurements (EIS).  The results obtained from polarization curves showed that corrosion rate decreased with increasing ethylene glycol concentration. EIS data showed the decrease in the interface capacitance which caused by adsorption of ethylene glycol at the surface of aluminum alloy. The cathodic current increased with the increase in rotating speeds of solution and the anodic current decreased. The effect of temperature was studied and the corrosion rate was increased with increasing the temperature. In addition, thermodynamic parameters were calculated in different ethylene glycol concentrations

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