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Choo R.t.c., Toguri J.m.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2004)

A two dimensional mathematical model has been developed for describing the temperature, flow, and electric fields in the are column of the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) of aluminum in argon shielding gas using axisymmetric Navier-Stokes, Maxwell, and differential thermal energy equations. The predicted results are most sensitive to the cathode spot radius and an optimum cathode spot radius exists on the basis of the minimum arc power consumption. The consumable electrode shape change due to droplet detachment is simulated in a quasi-steady manner using different electrode diameters. The change in electric field profile with different electrodes gives rise to large changes in flow conditions. This flow perturbation plus the non-uniform and transient J*B force field are suspected to enhance the recoil experience by the droplet on detachment, thus leading to violent and chaotic metal transfer in GMAW.
Javadpour J., Sakhaii K., Masihiyanpour A.a.,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2004)

Thin sheets of hydroxyapatite were fabricated by tape casting process. The non-aqueoustape casting formulation was optimized by adjusting the concentration of organic additivesspecially those of binder and plasticizer in the slurry. The optimized slurry was cast on a glasscarrier using a designed laboratory scale doctor blade. Following a binder removal stage, thetapes were sintered at different temperatures in air atmosphere. Heat treatment at 1250 °C led tothe formation of a dense microstructure as was evidenced by the scanning electron microscopy.
William L. Headrick,, Alireza Rezaie, William G. Fahrenholtz,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2008)

gasification (BBLG). One particularly harsh application is linings for gasifiers used in the treatment of black liquor (BL). Black liquor is a water solution of the non-cellulose portion of the wood (mainly lignin) and the spent pulping chemicals (Na2CO3, K2CO3, and Na2S). Development of new refractory materials for the black liquor gasification (BLG) application is a critical issue for implementation of this technology. FactSage® thermodynamic software was used to analyze the phases present in BL smelt and to predict the interaction of BL smelt with different refractory compounds. The modeling included prediction of the phases formed under the operating conditions of high temperature black liquor gasification (BLG) process. At the operating temperature of the BLG, FactSage® predicted that the water would evaporate from the BL and that the organic portion of BL would combust, leaving a black liquor smelt composed of sodium carbonate (70-75%), potassium carbonate (2-5%), and sodium sulfide (20-25%). Exposure of aluminosilicates to this smelt leads to significant corrosion due to formation of expansive phases with subsequent cracking and spalling. Oxides (ZrO2, CeO2, La2O3, Y2O3, Li2O, MgO and CaO) were determined to be resistant to black liquor smelt but non-oxides (SiC and Si3N4) would oxidize and dissolve in the smelt. The other candidates such as MgAl2O4 and BaAl2O4 were resistant to sodium carbonate but not to potassium carbonate. LiAlO2 was stable with both sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate. Candidate materials selected on the basis of the thermodynamic calculations are being tested by sessile drop test for corrosion resistance to molten black liquor smelt. Sessile drop testing has confirmed the thermodynamic predictions for Al2O3, CeO2, MgO and CaO. Sessile drop testing showed that the thermodynamic predictions were incorrect for ZrO2.
M. Ghobeiti Hasab, F. Rashchi, Sh. Raygan,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2014)

In this paper, gold leaching of a refractory sulfide concentrate by chloride–hypochlorite solution was investigated and effects of stirring speed, temperature and particle size on the leaching rate were reported. Experimental data for leaching rate of gold were analyzed with the shrinking–core model. Results were consistent with chemical reaction control mechanism in the first 1 h of leaching and diffusion control mechanism in the second 1 h. Apparent activation energy also was found to be 22.68 kJ/mol in the first step and 3.93 kJ/mol in the second step of leaching.
H. Safabinesh, A. Arab Fatideh, M. Navidirad, M. Ghassemi Kakroudi,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (9-2014)

In order to improve the corrosion resistance of aluminosilicate refractories by molten aluminum, alkaline fluoride NaF and cryolite Na3AlF6 powders were studied. Both physical and chemical properties are known to influence wetting and corrosion behavior. This paper devoted to determine the influence of alkaline fluoride and cryolite added to andalusite based castable on the reaction with aluminum alloys. These additives led to the in-situ formation of celsian phases within the refractory matrix that led to improved corrosion resistance at 1300°C. Phase analysis revealed that celsian formation suppressed the formation of mullite within refractories, thereby reducing Penetration
M. H. Hemmati, J. Vahdati Khaki, A. Zabett,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2015)

The volatile matter of non-coking coal was used for the reduction of hematite in argon atmosphere at nonisothermal condition. A thermal gravimeter furnace enable to use an 80 mm-height crucible was designed for the experiments to measure the weight changes of about 10 grams samples. A two-layered array of coal and alumina and four-layered array of iron oxide, alumina, coal and alumina was used for the devolatilization and reduction experiments, respectively. The net effect of volatile reduction of Fe 2O3was determined and it was observe that 45% reduction has been achieved. Three distinct regions were recognized on the reduction curve. The reduction of hematite to magnetite could be completely distinguished from the two other regions on the reduction curve. At 600-950°C, the reduction was accelerated. 63% of volatile matter resulted in 25% of total reduction before 600°C while the remaining volatile matter contributed to 75% of the total reduction. From the reduction rate diagram, the stepwise reduction of the iron oxides could be concluded. The partial overlap of the reduction steps were identified through the XRD studies. The starting temperature of magnetite and wüstite reduction were determined at about 585°C and at 810°C, respectively.
A. Abbasian, M. Kashefi, E. Ahmadzade-Beiraki,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2015)

Precipitation hardening is the most common method in the strengthening of aluminium alloys. This method relies on the decrease of solid solubility with temperature reduction to produce fine precipitations which impede the movement of dislocations. The quality control of aluminium alloy specimens is an important concern of engineers. Among different methods, non-destructive techniques are the fastest, cheapest and able to be used for all of parts in a production line. To assess the ability of eddy current as a non-destructive method in the evaluation of precipitation hardening of aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy specimens were solution treated at 480°C for 1 hr. and followed by water quenching. Afterwards, the specimens were aged at different temperatures of 200, 170, 140, 110 and 80°C for 8 hr. Eddy current measurements was conducted on the aged specimens. Hardness measurement and tensile test were employed to investigate the mechanical properties. It was demonstrated that eddy current is effectively able to separate the specimens with different aging degree due to the change of electrical conductivity during aging process
M. Monzavi, Sh. Raygan,
Volume 17, Issue 3 (9-2020)

Low-grade iron ores contain many impurities and are difficult to upgrade to make appropriate concentrates for the blast furnace (BF) or direct reduction (DR) technologies. In this study, the beneficiation of an Oolitic-iron ore (containing 45.46wt% Fe2O3) with magnetization roasting by non-coking coal (containing 62.1wt% fixed carbon) under a stream of argon gas was investigated. Then, a 2500 Gaussian magnet was used for dry magnetic separation method. The effects of roasting time, ore particle size and reaction temperature on the amount of separated part and grade of the product were examined. It was found out that the hematite inside of ore could almost be completely converted into magnetite by stoichiometric ratio of coal to ore at the roasting temperature of 625 °C for 25 min. Under the optimum condition, a high amount of magnetic part of the product (72.22 wt%) with a grade of 92.7% was separated. The most important point in this process was prevention of reduced ore from re-oxidation reaction by controlling roasting atmosphere, time and temperature. In addition, different analytical methods such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to investigate and expound the results.

Fiza Ur Rehman, Syeda Sohaila Naz, Muhammad Junaid Dar, Annum Malik, Maimoona Qindeel, Francesco Baino, Fazli Wahid, Abbas Rahdar, Saeeda Munir, Sara Qaisar, Kifayat Ullah Shah, Mahtab Razlansari,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (6-2022)

Neoplastic cells have co-opted inflammatory receptors and signaling molecules that potentiate inflammation. Activated inflammatory pathways lead to neo-angiogenesis, lymph-angiogenesis, immunosuppression, tumor growth, proliferation and metastasis. This cancer-sustaining inflammation is a critical target to arrest cancer growth. Multiple drug resistance, high cost, low oral bioavailability and serious side effects have rendered conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutics less impressive. The aim of this research was to achieve cancer debulking and proliferation prevention by limiting ‘cancer-sustaining’ tumor niche inflammation through non-conventional oral approach employing anti-inflammatory agents and avoiding conventional cytotoxic agents. Synergistic anti-inflammatory agents, i.e. celecoxib as selective COX-2 inhibitor and montelukast as cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, were selected. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were used as nanocarriers because of their efficient synergistic anti-neoplastic effects and excellent oral drug delivery potential. Specifically, selected drugs were co-conjugated onto AgNPs. Synthesized nanoparticles were then surface-modified with poly(vinyl alcohol) to control particle size, avoid opsonization/preferred cellular uptake and improve dispersion. Surface plasmon resonance analysis, particle size analysis, DSC, TGA, XRD, FTIR and LIBS analysis confirmed the successful conjugation of drugs and efficient polymer coating with high loading efficiency. In-vitro, the nanoparticles manifested best and sustained release in moderately acidic (pH 4.5) milieu enabling passive tumor targeting potential. In-vivo, synthesized nanoparticles exhibited efficient dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity reducing the dose up to 25-fold. The formulation also manifested hemo-compatibility, potent anti-denaturation activity and dose-dependent in-vitro and in-vivo anti-cancer potential against MCF-7 breast cancer and Hep-G2 liver cancer cell lines in both orthotopic and subcutaneous xenograft cancer models. The anti-inflammatory nanoparticles manifested tumor specific release potential exhibiting selective cytotoxicity at cancerous milieu with slightly acidic environment and activated inflammatory pathways. The formulation displayed impressive oral bioavailability, sustained release, negligible cytotoxicity against THLE-2 normal human hepatocytes, low toxicity (high LD50) and wide therapeutic window. Results suggest promise of developed nanomaterials as hemo-compatible, potent, cheaper, less-toxic oral anti-inflammatory and non-conventional anti-cancer agents.
Saman Sargazi, Mahtab Ghasemi Toudeshkchouei, Abbas Rahdar, Aisha Rauf, Soheil Amani, Razieh Behzadmehr, Ana M. Diez-Pascual, Francesco Baino, Muhammad Bilal,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (3-2023)

As a major global cause of liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive hepatocellular accumulation of lipids in the liver, elevated levels of hepatic enzymes, and fibrotic evidence. The primary therapies for NAFLD are changing lifestyle or managing comorbid-associated diseases. Lately, nanotechnology has revolutionized the art of nanostructure synthesis for disease imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. Loading drugs into nanocarriers has been established as a promising strategy to extend their circulating time, particularly in treating NAFLD. In addition, considering a master modulator of adipogenesis and lysosomal biogenesis and function, designing novel nanostructures for biomedical applications requires using biodegradable materials. Various nanostructures, including inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), organic-based NPs, metallic nanocarriers, biodegradable polymeric nanocarriers, polymer-hybrid nanocarriers, and lipid-based nanocarriers have been designed for NAFLD treatment, which significantly affected serum glucose/lipid levels and liver function indices. NPs modified with polymers, bimetallic NPs, and superparamagnetic NPs have been used to design sensitive nanosensors to measure NAFLD-related biomarkers. However, certain limitations are associated with their use as diagnostic agents. The purpose of this review article is to shed light on the recent advancements in the field of nanomedicine for the early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this progressive liver disease.

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