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Showing 24 results for Heat Treatment

M. Kazemi Pour, S. Sharafi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2008)

Abstract: Hardfacing is one of the most useful and economical ways to increase the service life of components subjected to abrasive wear. Iron based hardfacing alloys have long been considered as candidate coatings for wear-resistant applications in industry. In the present work two layer of Fe-34Cr-4.5C%wt hardfacing alloy was deposited on ASTM A36 carbon steel plates by SMAW method. The microstructure consists of large primary and eutectic M7C3 carbides, metastable austenite and small amount of secondary carbides. The microstructure was analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopes. In the same condition of size, shape, distribution and volume fraction of carbides the as-welded matrix changed to martensite, tempered martensite and ferrite by heat treatment processes. The wear resistance was measured by pin-on-disk method under loads of 5, 10 and 20N and for sliding distance of 1500m. The results showed that the as-welded sample with austenitic matrix has the most and the ferritic matrix specimen has the least wear resistance. The predominate mechanisms for mass losses were determined to be micro-cutting, microploughing.
M. Ebrahimi-Basabi,, J. Javadpour,, H. Rezaie, M. Goodarzi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2009)

Abstract: Nano- size alumina particles have been synthesized by mechanical activation of a dry powder mixture of AlCl3 and CaO. Mechanical milling of the above raw materials with the conditions adopted in this study resulted in the formation of a mixture consisting of crystalline CaO and amorphous aluminum chlorides phases. There was no sign of chemical reaction occurring during milling stage as evidenced by x-ray diffraction studies. Subsequent heat treatment of the milled powder at 350ºC resulted in the occurrence of displacement reaction and the formation of Al2O3 particles within a water soluble CaCl2 matrix. The effect of higher temperature calcinations on the phase development in this powder mixture was followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope ( SEM). Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was used to compare the thermal behavior between the milled and unmilled powders. Perhaps the most important result in this study was the observation of á-Al2O3 phase at a very low temperature of 500ºC.
N. Anjabin, Karimi Taheri,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2010)


properties of AA6082 aluminum alloy. Considering that aging phenomenon affects the distribution of alloying element

in matrix, and the fact that different distribution of alloying elements has different impediments to dislocation

movement, a material model based on microstructure, has been developed in this research. A relative volume fraction

or mean radius of precipitations is introduced into the flow stress by using the appropriate relationships. The GA-based

optimization technique is used to evaluate the material constants within the equations from the uni-axial tensile test

data of AA6082 alloy. Finally, using the proposed model with optimized constants, the flow behavior of the alloy at

different conditions of heat treatment is predicted. The results predicted by the model showed a good agreement with

experimental data, indicating the capability of the model in prediction of the material flow behavior after different heat

treatment cycles. Also, the calculated flow stress was used for determination of the material property in Abaqus

Software to analyze the uniaxial compression test. The force- displacement curves of the analysis were compared to

the experimental data obtained in the same condition, and a good agreement was found between the two sets of results.

A novel constitutive equation has been proposed to predict the effect of aging treatment on mechanical

S. H. Razavi, Sh. Mirdamadi, M. M. Hormozi,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2011)

Abstract: The aim of the present investigation is to study the physical and mechanical characteristics of dental-filling spherical high-copper and silver amalgams and to compare them with a common high-copper domestic unicompositional amalgam. In this study, cylindrical specimens were mechanically condensed according to the ISO 1559:1986 Standard in order to measure the compressive strength, Vickers hardness, static creep and dimensional change on setting. Adding more silver to the amalgam increased its compressive strength, creep resistance and reduced mercury vapor. After 1, 24 and 168h of amalgamation and Modulus of elasticity of specimen S1, the mean hardness and compressive fracture strength were significantly lower than those of . No significant differences were identified for the two alloys in the creep and dimensional changes on setting. It can be concluded that as far as the mechanical properties or corrosion resistance is concerned, the amalgam should be comprised of at least one spherical alloy.
A. Namiranian , M. Kalantar,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2011)

The process of mullitization of kyanite concentrate was studied at different conditions of heat treatment (1400
– 1600 °C and 0.5 – 3.5 hours) and particle size of raw materials (38-300 ?m). Kyanite concentrate was obtained from
ore-dressing of kyanite deposits of Mishidowan-Bafgh region at 100 km northeastern part of Yazd. The results of
microstructure (shape, distribution and size of the grains) and phase evolution studies by SEM and XRD showed that
total transformation of kyanite to mullite takes place by heat treatment between 1500 –1550 °C during 2.5 hours.. At
temperatures below 1500 °C need-like mullite grains are always produced. At higher temperatures the mullite grains
reveal rounded and platelet morphology. At 1550 °C, the rate of mullitization and densification were improved by
increasing soaking time from 1h to 3h and decreasing particle size of materials from 300 to 38 m
M. Alipour, S. Mirjavadi, M. K. Besharati Givi, H. Razmi, M. Emamy, J. Rassizadehghani,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2012)

In this study the effect of Al–5Ti–1B grain refiner on the structural characteristics and wear properties of Al–12Zn–3Mg–2.5Cu alloy was investigated. The optimum amount for Ti containing grain refiners was selected as 2 wt.%. T6 heat treatment, (i.e. heating at 460 °C for 1 h before water quenching to room temperature and then aging at 120 °C for 24 h) was applied for all specimens before wear testing. Dry sliding wear resistant of the alloy was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. The experimental results showed that the T6 heat treatment considerably improved the resistance of Al–12Zn–3Mg–2.5Cu alloy to dry sliding wear.
H. Arabi, S. Rastegari, V. Ramezani, Z. Valefi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2013)

The objectives of this research were to find an economical way of reducing porosities in the microstructure of coatings deposited by flame spraying technique on CK45 steel and also trying to increase their cohesive strength to the substrate, so that the overall wear properties of this type of coating can be improved. So several specimens from this steel coated with NiCrBSi powder under specific conditions were subjected to various furnace heat treatment at 1000, 1025, 1050, 1075 and 1100 °C, each for periods of 5, 10 and 15 minute before cooling them in air. Tribological properties of treated coatings were evaluated by pin on disc method. The results show the highest wear resistance and microhardness values observed in one of the sample was due to lower amount of porosity and higher amount of very fine Cr2Ni3B6 particles precipitated homogeneously throughout its microstructure during specific heat treatment.
N. Khatami , Sh. Mirdamadi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2014)

The presence of alloying elements, sometimes in a very small amount, affects mechanical properties one of these elements is Boron. In Aluminum industries, Boron master alloy is widely used as a grain refiner In this research, the production process of Aluminum –Boron master alloy was studied at first then, it was concurrently added to 2024 Aluminum alloy. After rolling and homogenizing the resulting alloy, the optimal temperature and time of aging were determined during the precipitation hardening heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C). Then, in order to find the effect of controlled quenching, different cycles of heat treatment including precipitation heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C) and conventional quenching (T6) were applied on the alloy at the aging temperature of 110°C. Mechanical properties of the resulting alloy were evaluated after aging at optimum temperature of 110°C by performing mechanical tests including hardness and tensile tests. The results of hardness test showed that applying the controlled quenching instead of conventional quenching in precipitation heat treatment caused reduction in the time of reaching the maximum hardness and also increase in hardness rate due to the generated thermo-elastic stresses rather than hydrostatic stresses and increased atomic diffusion coefficient as well. Tensile test results demonstrated that, due to the presence of boride particles in the microstructure of the present alloy, the ultimate tensile strength in the specimens containing Boron additive increased by 3.40% in comparison with the specimens without such an additive and elongation (percentage of relative length increase) which approximately increased by 38.80% due to the role of Boron in the increase of alloy ductility
K. Tavighi, M. Emamy, A. R. Emami,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2014)

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Cu and solution heat treatment on the microstructure and hardness of cast Al-Al4Sr metal matrix composite. Different amounts of Cu (0.3, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt.%) were added to the composite. Specimens were heat treated at 500 °C for 4 hours followed by water quenching. Microstructural studies were assessed by the use of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that addition of 5 wt.% Cu reduces the length of large needle-like Al4Sr phase and refines the microstructure. In addition, the presence of Cu-intermetallics increases hardness of the composite. Cu mainly forms θ phase which segregates at the grain boundaries. Heat treatment partially dissolves Cu-intermetallics and homogenizes the distribution of θ phase in the matrix.
S. Niksirat, Sh. Raygan, S. Moradi Ghiassabadi,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2015)

In this research, two different carbonaceous materials (Graphite:G and Petrocoke:P) were separately compared in terms of the carbothermic reduction of hematite and anatase in order to synthesize Fe-TiC nanocrystalline composite by mechanically activated sintering method. Powders were activated in a planetary high-energy ball mill under argon atmosphere for 0, 2, 5, 10,and 20 h. Then, the activated powders were analyzed by XRD and SEM to investigate phase constituents and microstructure of the mixtures. Results proved that Fe 2 O 3 and TiO 2 were not reduced by carbonaceous materials even after 20h of milling. SEM investigations showed that G-mixture was more homogenous than P-mixture after 20h of milling, meaning that graphite-anatase-hematite was mixed satisfactorily. Thermogravimetry analysis was done on 0 and 20h milled powders. TG and DTG curves showed that mechanical activation led to almost 300°C decrease in the reduction temperature of hematite and anatase in both mixtures. In the next step, the powders were sintered in a tube furnace under argon atmosphere. In the G-mixture, anatase was reduced to titanium carbide at 1100°C but, in the P-mixture, temperature of 1200°C was essential for completely reducing anatase to titanium carbide.Results of phase identification of the sintered powders showed that anano-crystalline ironbased composite with titanium carbide, as the reinforcement was successfully synthesized after 20 h high-energy milling of the initial powders and subsequent sintering occurred at 1200˚C for 1h
M. Alipour, M. Emami, R. Eslami Farsania, M. H. Siadati, H. Khorsand,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2015)

A modified strain-induced melt activation (SIMA) process was applied and its effect on the structural characteristics and hardness of the aluminum alloy Al–12Zn–3Mg–2.5Cu was investigated. Specimens subjected to a deformation of 40% at 300 °C were heat treated at various times (10-40 min) and temperatures (550-600 °C). Microstructural studies were carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopies (SEM). Results showed that the best microstructure was obtained at the temperature and time of 575 °C and 20 min, respectively. The hardness test results revealed superior hardness in comparison with the samples prepared without the application of the modified SIMA process.

T6 heat treatment including quenching to 25 °C and aging at 120 °C for 24 h was employed to reach to the maximum strength. After the T6 heat treatment, the average tensile strength increased from 231 MPa to 487 and 215 MPa to 462 for samples before and after strain-induced melt activation process, respectively. Ultimate strength of globular microstructure specimens after SIMA process has a lower value than as-cast specimens without SIMA process

H. Torkamani, H. Rashvand, Sh. Raygan, J. Rassizadehghani, Y. Palizdar, C. Garcia Mateo, D. San Martin,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (9-2017)

In industry, the cost of production is an important factor and it is preferred to use conventional and low cost procedures for producing the parts. Heat treatment cycles and alloying additions are the key factors affecting the microstructure and mechanical properties of the cast steels. In this study an attempt was made to evaluate the influence of minor Mo addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of conventionally heat treated cast micro-alloyed steels. The results of Jominy and dilatometry tests and also microstructural examinations revealed that Mo could effectively increase the hardenability of the investigated steel and change the microstructure features of the air-cooled samples. Acicular microstructure was the consequence of increasing the hardenability in Mo-added steel. Besides, it was found that Mo could greatly affect the isothermal bainitic transformation and higher fraction of martensite after cooling (from isothermal temperature) was due to the Mo addition. The results of impact test indicated that the microstructure obtained in air-cooled Mo-added steel led to better impact toughness (28J) in comparison with the base steel (23J). Moreover, Mo-added steel possessed higher hardness (291HV), yield (524MPa) and tensile (1108MPa) strengths compared to the base one.

N. Nikoogoftar, S. H. Razavi, M. Ghanbari,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (9-2017)

In this research, the effect of annealing and aging temperature as well as the effect of quenching media on the microstructure, hardness and dry sliding wear behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been studied. Cylindrical samples with the diameter of 10 mm and the height of 20mm were solutionized at 930˚C and 1060˚C for 600 seconds and then were quenched in the cold water and in the air. The samples were aged at different temperature of 480˚C, 550˚C and 610˚C for 360 s to increase the hardness. Heat treated samples were tested using standard pin-on-disc test machine at the applied loads of 100, 150 and 200 N. Microstructural investigations using scanning electron microscope revealed that for the samples solutionized at 930˚C and quenched in the water, the microstructure is composed of primary α and high volume fraction of martensitic α΄ phase with fine precipitated of β between martensitic lathes. In the case of air cooled samples, transformed β has also been  appeared in the vicinity of primary α. For the samples solutionized at 1060˚C and quenched in the water, fully martensitic micro structure with fine β precipitates was observed. For the sample solutionized at 1060˚C and air quenched, plate like α and lamellar grain boundary β were detected. The maximum hardness value relates to the sample solutionized at 1060˚C and quenched in water which is equal to 433 HV. Different wear mechanisms, including oxidative wear, scratch, and delamination occurred at the worn surfaces at different applied loads. For the samples quenched in the water, the oxidative wear mechanism governing at low applied load and oxide debris was observed as separate or compacted particles which formed in the contact between pin and steel counter face detached from the sample. At higher applied loads, delamination and scratch mechanism was also observed and metallic plate like debris was detached from the sample. Mechanically mixed layer (MML) was formed on the surface of the pin at high applied loads and for the samples with low hardness value adhesion marks were also revealed on the steel disc. The minimum weight loss in the wear test is related to the sample quenched from the 1060ºC in the cold water and aged at 550 ºC .  

M. Tavakoli Harandi, M. Askari-Paykani, H. Shahverdi, M. Nili Ahmadabadi,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (3-2019)

One-step and two-step annealing techniques were used to examine the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties during compression tests in iron-based ribbons and nanostructured 1- and 2.5mm cylindrical rods. The X-ray diffraction, microstructural, and mechanical results showed that substituting Nb for Fe had a minor effect on glass-forming ability but increased the formability index. The novel two-step annealing process resulted in a remarkable formability index of 16.62 GPa, yield stress of 2830 MPa, ultimate strength of 3866 MPa, and 4.3% plastic strain. A ductile nanosized α-Fe framework and boron-containing nano precipitations, which caused Zener pinning effect, were responsible for these novel mechanical properties.

M. Karimi Sahnesarayi, H. Sarpoolaky, S. Rastegari,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (6-2019)

In this study nanosized TiO2coatings on the 316L stainless steel substrate were prepared by means of dip-coating technique in which thickness of the coating layer increased byrepeating the coating cycles in two different routes: (I) dipping and drying,respectively, were repeated one, three and five times and finally the dried coated sample was heat treated (single); (II) multiple heat treatment performed after each dipping and drying cycle, respectively.The structural, morphological and optical characterizations of coatings as well as thickness of coatings were systematically studied.The photocatalytic activity of the various TiO2 coatings was investigated based on the degradation of an aqueous solution of Methyl orange.Moreover, thecorrosion protective properties of coatings were evaluated in both dark and UV illumination conditions based on the obtained polarization curves. The results indicated 1.75 times improvement in photocatalytic reaction rate constant, a two orders of magnitude decrease in corrosion current density in dark condition and about 140 mV electrode potential reduction under UV illumination with optimum coating preparation procedure, repeating the cycle from dipping to heat treatment three times, than the sample prepared with one time coating and heat treatment since this procedure provided not only high thickness and defect-free coating but also transparent one.

V. Dave, R. Kotian, P. Madhyastha, K. Boaz, P. Rao, B.p. Charitha,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (12-2019)

The aim of the present study is to assess the hardness, corrosion, and cytotoxicity of a commercially available cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy before and after simulated heat treatments at porcelain firing temperature. Five Co-Cr samples were fabricated using lost wax casting procedure. Heat treatments were carried out at 650°C, 750°C, 850°C, and 950°C. Vickers hardness was measured for as-cast and heat treated samples. The corrosion test was carried out separately in 0.1 N NaCl, 1% citric acid and artificial saliva at room temperature using potentiodynamic polarization technique. Gingival tissue biopsy of patients was taken and cultured to measure the cell viability by MTT colorimetric assay. Lowest hardness was observed at 650°C. 0.1 N NaCl and 1% citric acid corrosion medium showed a similar trend of corrosion rate. The least corrosion rate was found in artificial saliva. Firing temperature has an impact on the physical, chemical and biological properties of Co-Cr alloy in long-term clinical use.
M. Azadi, M. Ferdosi, H. Shahin,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (3-2020)

In this paper, the effects of solutioning and various aging heat treatment processes on the microstructure, the hardness and electrochemical properties of a duplex stainless steel (DSS) were studied. The evaluation of the microstructure and phase compositions were carried out by the optical microscopy (OM) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Electrochemical behaviors of specimens were evaluated by both potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) tests at temperatures of 25 and 60 ºC. The obtained results showed that the solutioning heat treatment increased corrosion rates with respect to the blank specimen. The aging process at 490 ºC for 20 hrs increased the volume percent of the carbide phase to the highest value (25.1%) which resulted in an increase of the hardness value to 170 VHN. The specimen which was aged at 540 ºC for 10 hrs with the Cr7C3 size of 22.8 µm, exhibited the higher corrosion resistance at both temperatures of 25 and 60 ºC with respect to other aged specimens. In addition, the temperature of 60 ºC promoted the anodic reactions in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution which decreased impedance modulus values significantly. Consequently, the carbide size was more effective parameter than the carbide content in predicting electrochemical behaviors of such alloys. 

Masumeh Mohammadi, Hamidreza Rezaei Ashtiani,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (6-2021)

The hot deformation behavior of the heat-treated AA6061 and AA 6063 aluminum alloys by T6-1, T6-2 artificial aging treatment, and O annealing treatment were studied by compression testing over a temperature range of 350–550  and strain rates of 0.005-0.1 s-1. It was observed that the flow stresses of the studied aluminum alloys treated by the T6-1 and T6-2 heat treatments were significantly higher than those of the O annealing treatment. Moreover, the stress-strain curves of the heat-treated alloys by the T6-1, T6-2, and O heat treatments demonstrated significant softening during deformation at the lowest strain rate under any of the deformation conditions. For several strains, the activation energy of hot deformation was specified and obtained to vary significantly with strain for the heat-treated alloys by the T6-1 and T6-2 treatments. The stress-strain data calculated from a linear equation, with strain-dependent parameters, shows a great fit with the experimental data for the heat-treated aluminum alloys.
Hamid Reza Rezaei Ashtiani, Shahab Moghaddam,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (3-2022)

In this study, the effects of heat treatment of aluminum alloy on the tube bending process were investigated in the rotary draw bending process. As two experimental and numerical simulation methods were used to determine the wall-thinning, ovality, and spring back for extruded, annealed, and aged AA6063 aluminum alloy tubes in different bending angles and bend radii. Numerical simulations were done by the finite element method with Abaqus software. The results indicated that in comparison with annealed and extruded parts, wall-thinning reduced whereas the amount of ovality and spring-back increased in the aged tubes. Also, in each case, the percentage of wall-thinning decreased with increasing bend radius, and the effect of bend radius was greater in the reduction of ovality from the bending angle. Investigations showed that the spring-back rate also decreased with an increasing bending angle.
Abdur Rahman, Serajul Haque,
Volume 19, Issue 3 (9-2022)

The effect of the milling time & ageing on the hardness, density, and wear characteristics of Al 7150 alloy specimens made via powder metallurgy has been studied. The different constituents of Al 7150 alloy were processed in a planetary ball milling set up with a BPR of 10:1 for 5 hours, 10 hours, and 20 hours. At 400 °C, the milled powders were subsequently hot compacted in a punch die setup. The hot-pressed specimens were solutionized initially, then aged artificially at 115 °C for 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 45, 60, and 96 hours. The relative density was inversely proportional to the milling time. Microhardness tests showed a maximum VHN of 255 was measured for the 24 h aged T6 specimens produced from 20 h milled powders whereas the non-aged specimens, made from unmilled 7150 alloy powders showed a VHN of 40. However the samples showed a decline in microhardness beyond 24 h of ageing. Under various conditions of sliding distance and loading conditions, the samples subjected to T6 aging showed a reduced volumetric wear rate indicating the beneficial effect of artificial aging up to 24 hours. The volumetric wear rate gradually declined for the samples aged beyond 24 hours of aging. The HRTEM studies revealed a high density of uniformly scattered (MgZn2) precipitates in the base matrix, as well as (MgZn2) phases precipitating along grain boundaries. The presence of such second phase precipitates in the matrix improved the wear characteristics of the alloy matrix. The results showed that optimization of process parameters such as milling time, ageing as well as reducing the particle size of the base powders, the hardness and wear behavior of Al 7150 alloy may be improved.

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