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Showing 32 results for Aluminum

Hadian Fard M.j.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2004)
Abstract

Effects of temperature on properties and behavior of a 20 vol % particulate SiC reinforced 6061 aluminum alloy and 6061 unreinforced Al alloy were investigated. Yield strength and elongation to failure were measured as a function of test temperatures up to 180^oC. In addition, the effects of holding time at 180^ oC on tensile properties and fracture mechanisms of the materials at this temperature were studied. The behaviors of the materials were characterized by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption (AA), hardness measurement and image analyzing (IA). The results show that an increase in temperature leads to a decrease in the yield strength and increase in the elongation to failure of the materials. On the other hand, while increasing holding time at 180^oC produces an increase in the elongation to failure of the unreinforced alloy, it reduces the elongation to failure of the composite. It was also observed that reduction in yield strength with increasing holding time at 180^oC was faster for the composite material compared to the unreinforced alloy. The results from SEM, XRD, EDS, IA and hardness tests indicated that some chemical reactions had taken place at the interface between the reinforcement and the matrix alloy during holding the specimens at elevated temperature. Therefore, different trend in elongation to failure of the unreinforced alloy and the composite material with holding time at elevated temperature could be attributed to development of chemical reactions between the reinforcement and the matrix alloy at the interface.
Saghi S., Divandari M., Kharazi Y.h.k.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

The effects of gating system and pattern geometry on the metal flow in the lost foam casting (LFC) process have been investigated using glass covered mold and video recording system. Unlike convectional casting process, the type of the gating system showed little effect on fillability in lost foam, but pattern thickness had large effect on mold filling. The mold filling behavior seems to be controlled by the combined influences of heat and mass transfer. The flow rate increased with increasing pattern thickness.
Fazel Najafabadi M., Golazar M.a.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

The new in situ method for AI-TiC composite fabrication has been carried out. In this method, fabrication of AI-TiC composite by simultaneous introduction of titanium oxide and carbon into aluminum melt was investigated.. Under the process conditions, titanium and carbon reaction results in titanium carbide whiskers. The salt containing keriolite (Na3AIF6), titanium oxide (TiO2) and graphite used for this purpose. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD) the resulted composite was characterized. It was shown that it contains Al as matrix and TiC as the reinforcement. Then, mechanical properties of fabricated composite were examined.
M. Goodarzi, S. M. A. Boutorabi, M. A. Safarkhanian,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2009)
Abstract

Abstract:In this study, an effort has been made to determine the influence of rotational speed of tool on themicrostructure and hardness values of friction stir welded 2024-T851 aluminum alloy. The microstructure of stir zonein the joints has been investigated. It was found that the particles such as Al6(CuFeMn) particles are broken up duringfriction stir welding, and the degree of break up of these particles in the stir zone increases with increasing rotationalspeed. Since the break up of these particles and the recrystallization of new grains happen simultaneously, the brokenparticles would be placed in the grain boundaries. Moreover, the hardness value in the stir zone increases withincreasing rotational speed
A. Shokuhfar, S. Ahmadi, H. Arabi, S. Nouri,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2009)
Abstract

Abstract: Guinier-Preston (GP) zone formation and precipitation behavior of T1 (Al2CuLi) phase during the ageingof an Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloy was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique and electrical resistancemeasurement of the samples. Results show that endothermic effects in the thermograms of the alloy between 180°Cand 240°C can be related to the enthalpy of GPzones dissolution. Formation of GPzones in the structure increasedhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistance of the Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloy. Furthermore, precipitation of T1 phaseoccurred in temperature range of 250ºC to 300ºC whereas its dissolution occurred within the temperature of 450-530ºC. Activation energies for precipitation and dissolution of T1 phase which were determined for the first time inthis research, were 122.1(kJ/mol) and 130.3(kJ/mol) respectively. Results of electrical resistance measurementsshowed that an increase in the aging time resulted in the reduction of electrical resistance of the aged samples.
M. Ozve Aminian, J. Hedjazi, Y. Kharazi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2009)
Abstract

Abstract: In this research, the oxidation behaviour of high Aluminum heat resistant steel (%25Cr,%20Ni,%8Al) hasbeen evaluated at the temperature range of (1000-1300ºC).The results showed that there was no countinous healinglayer on the surface of the alloy when Al increased up to %5.5 and the oxidation resistance of steel decreased due toformation of spinel oxides on the surface.By increasing the aluminum amount to %8, only Al oxide formed due to decreasing carbon potential of thealloy,homogenity of elemental concentration in matrix and no diffusion of  oxygen through oxide–metalinterface,therefore it has superior oxidation resistance. Meanwhile,oxidation tests showed that the weight gain of thesteel at high temperature oxidation even at 1300ºC was too low.
A. Davoodi, J. Pan,ch. Leygraf, Gh. R. Ebrahimi, M. Javidani,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2009)
Abstract

Abstract: Localized corrosion of aluminum alloys is often triggered by intermetallic particles, IMP’s. To understandthe role of IMP’s in corrosion initiation of EN AW-3003, efforts were made to combine nano-scale ex-situ analysis ofthe IMP’s by SEM-EDS, SKPFM and in-situ AFM monitoring of the localized attack in chloride containing solution.The results showed that two distinct types of eutectically-formed constituent IMP’s exist the -Al(Mn,Fe)Si and theAl(Mn,Fe) phases. However, the exact chemical composition of the IMP’s varies with the particles size. Volta potentialdifference of surface constituents revealed that IMP’s have a higher Volta potential compared to the matrix, indicatingthe cathodic characteristic of the IMP’s. Noticeably, the boundary regions between the matrix and IMP’s exhibited aminimum Volta potential probably the sites for corrosion initiation. Localized corrosion attack monitored by in-situAFM clearly showed the trench formation occurrence around the large elongated IMP’s in the rolling direction.
M .shahmiri, , H. Arabi ,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2009)
Abstract

  Abstract:

  The aims of this research were to investigate the effects of semisolid metal (SSM) processing parameters (i.e., shear rates –times – temperatures combinations) on the primary solidification products and isothermal holding duration, subsequent to cessation of stirring on the secondary solidification of Al-Si (A356) alloy.

  The dendrite fragmentation was found to be the governing mechanism of the primary dendritic to non-dendritic transformation, via rosette to final pseudo-spherical shapes during the primary solidification

The secondary solidification of the liquid in the slurry was not only a growth phenomenon but also promoted by 1) fresh heterogeneous nucleation and growth of dendrites and 2) the dendritic growth of the primary solidification products in the remaining liquid. Upon cessation of stirring and gradual disappearance of the prior shear force, the slurry relaxed, and the secondary solidification products pertained to conventional solidification condition
Mr Mohammadtaher Safarzadeh, Mr Seyed Mohammad Ali Boutorabi, Mr Asghar Arab,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (8-2010)
Abstract

The effects of anodizing condition and post treatment on the growth of nickel nanowires, were investigated. A two-step anodizing process was applied in phosphoric and oxalic acid solution. Nickel electrochemical plating was applied to fill Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) pores. For pore filling enhancement, AAO surfaces were treated by silver predeposition. After electroplating, aluminum and oxide layer of some specimens were removed. The results showed that silver preplating increases the pore filling and as the applied voltage becomes higher, the pores diameter decreases.
A. Jafaria, S. H. Seyedeina, M. R. Aboutalebia, D. G. Eskinb, L. Katgermanb,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (8-2010)
Abstract

ABSTRACT Macrosegregation has been received high attention in the solidification modeling studies. In the present work, a numerical model was developed to predict the macrosegregation during the DC Casting of an Al-4.5wt%Cu billet. The mathematical model developed in this study consists of mass, momentum, energy and species conservation equations for a two-phase mixture of liquid and solid in an axisymmetric coordinates. The solution methodology is based on a standard Finite Volume Method. A new scheme called Semi-Implicit Method for Thermodynamically-Linked Equations (SIMTLE) was employed to link energy and species equations with phase diagram of the alloying system. The model was tested by experimental data extracted from an industrial scale DC caster and a relatively good agreement was obtained. It was concluded that a proper macrosegregation model needs two key features: a precise flow description in the two-phase regions and a capable efficient numerical scheme
H. Momeni, H. Razavi, S. G. Shabestari,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

Abstract: The supersolidus liquid phase sintering characteristics of commercial 2024 pre-alloyed powder was studied at different sintering conditions. Pre-alloyed 2024 aluminum alloy powder was produced via air atomizing process with particle size of less than 100 µm. The solidus and liquidus temperatures of the produced alloy were determined using differential thermal analysis (DTA). The sintering process was performed at various temperatures ranging from the solidus to liquidus temperatures in dry N2 gas atmosphere for 30 min in a tube furnace. The maximum density of the 2024 aluminum alloy was obtained at 610ºC which yields parts with a relative density of 98.8% of the theoretical density. The density of the sintered samples increased to the maximum 99.3% of the theoretical density with the addition of 0.1 wt. %Sn powder to the 2024 pre-alloyed powder. The maximum density was obtained at 15% liquid volume fraction for both powder mixtures.
S. Ghafurian, S. H. Seyedein, M. R. Aboutalebi, M. Reza Afshar,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2011)
Abstract

Abstract: Microwave processing is one of the novel methods for combustion synthesis of intermetallic compounds and
composites. This method brings about a lot of opportunities for processing of uniquely characterized materials. In this
study, the combustion synthesis of TiAl/Al2O3 composite via microwave heating has been investigated by the
development of a heat transfer model including a microwave heating source term. The model was tested and verified
by experiments available in the literature. Parametric studies were carried out by the model to evaluate the effects of
such parameters as input power, sample aspect ratio, and porosity on the rate of process. The results showed that
higher input powers and sample volumes, as well as the use of bigger susceptors made the reaction enhanced. It was
also shown that a decrease in the porosity and aspect ratio of sample leads to the enhancement of the process.
Mr Hojjatollah Fathi, Dr Esmaeil Emadoddin, Dr Ali Habibolah Zadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2012)
Abstract

Metal porous foams have been eliciting much interest in recent years due to their high capacity of energy absorption. The characteristics of the pores in these materials play an important role on their energy absorption capability and other properties. This study reports the fabrication of aluminum closed-cell foams by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) technique using calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as the blowing agent. Calcium carbonate is an inexpensive material and imparts relatively high porosity to the produced foam. The effects of heating rate foaming temperature and time on porosity have been investigated. The results show that increasing the foaming temperature and time results in improvements in the foaming process. It is also shown that the heating rate does not affect the porosity. The shape and structure of pores are spherical and regular with CaCO3 as blowing agent. With TiH2 blowing agent the sample should be heated up abruptly from decomposition temperature of TiH2 to foaming temperatures in order to produce high porosity foam. It is found that increasing the numbers of accumulative rolling cycle causes uniform distribution of calcium carbonate powder and increases porosity in the final foam by up to 55%.
M. H. Goodarzy, H. Arabi, M. A. Boutorabi, S. H. Seyedein, H. Shahrokhi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Variation in microstructural features of 2024 aluminum alloy plastically deformed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at room temperature, was investigated by X-Ray diffraction in this work. These include dislocation density dislocation characteristic and the cell size of crystalline domains. Dislocations contrast factor was calculated using elastic constants of the alloy such as C 11, C 22 and C 44 . The effect of dislocations contrast factor on the anisotropic strain broadening of diffraction profiles was considered for measuring the microstructural features on the base of the modified Williamson-Hall and Warren-Averbach methods. Results showed that the dislocations density of the solution annealed sample increased from 4.28×10 12m-2 to 2.41×10 14m-2 after one pass of cold ECAP and the fraction of edge dislocations in the solution annealed sample increased from 43% to 74% after deformation. This means that deformation changed the overall dislocations characteristic more to edge dislocations. Also the crystalline cell size of the solution annealed sample decreased from 0.83μm to about 210nm after one pass of ECAP process at room temperature
N. Khatami , Sh. Mirdamadi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

The presence of alloying elements, sometimes in a very small amount, affects mechanical properties one of these elements is Boron. In Aluminum industries, Boron master alloy is widely used as a grain refiner In this research, the production process of Aluminum –Boron master alloy was studied at first then, it was concurrently added to 2024 Aluminum alloy. After rolling and homogenizing the resulting alloy, the optimal temperature and time of aging were determined during the precipitation hardening heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C). Then, in order to find the effect of controlled quenching, different cycles of heat treatment including precipitation heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C) and conventional quenching (T6) were applied on the alloy at the aging temperature of 110°C. Mechanical properties of the resulting alloy were evaluated after aging at optimum temperature of 110°C by performing mechanical tests including hardness and tensile tests. The results of hardness test showed that applying the controlled quenching instead of conventional quenching in precipitation heat treatment caused reduction in the time of reaching the maximum hardness and also increase in hardness rate due to the generated thermo-elastic stresses rather than hydrostatic stresses and increased atomic diffusion coefficient as well. Tensile test results demonstrated that, due to the presence of boride particles in the microstructure of the present alloy, the ultimate tensile strength in the specimens containing Boron additive increased by 3.40% in comparison with the specimens without such an additive and elongation (percentage of relative length increase) which approximately increased by 38.80% due to the role of Boron in the increase of alloy ductility
M. Mohammadnejad, M. Ehteshamzadeh, S. Soroushian,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2014)
Abstract

Microstructure and corrosion performance of admiralty brass (ADB) and aluminum brass (ALB) alloys after passing different annealing heat treatments were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), DC polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that heat treating of ALB caused gradient in aluminum concentration across the grains whose increased with increasing of annealing temperature. On the other hand, corrosion current density (i corr) of ADB in 3.5%NaCl media decreased with increasing of recrystallization, while ALB showed corrosion behavior inconsistent with ADB. The impedance measurements showed that corrosion rate of ADB decreased with increasing of exposure time from 0 to 15 days which could be related to the formation of SnO 2 surface film and the Sn-rich phases. While polarization resistance of ALB decreased by passing days in the corrosive media which could be associated to establishing of differential aluminum concentration cells.


A. Khakzadshahandashti, N.varahram, P. Davami,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2014)
Abstract

This article examines the Weibull statistical analysis that was used for investigating the effect of melt filtration on tensile properties and defects formed inside the casting. Forming and entrapping of double oxide films have been explained by using the context of critical velocity of melt in the runner. SutCast software results were used to examine the amounts of the velocity of melt as such. SEM/EDX analysis is used to observe the presence of double oxide films in the fracture surfaces of the tensile specimens. The article goes on to propose that castings made with foam filters with smaller pores show higher mechanical properties and reliability due to higher Weibull modulus and fewer defects
M. Ghanbari, M. R. Aboutalebi, S. G. Shabestari,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2014)
Abstract

Geometrical design of the spiral crystal selector can affect crystal orientation in the final single crystal structure. To achieve a better understanding of conditions associated with the onset of crystal orientation in a spiral crystal selector, temperature field was investigated using three-dimensional finite element method during the process. Different geometries of spiral crystal selector were used to produce Al- 3 wt. % Cu alloy single crystal using a Bridgman type furnace. The Crystal orientation of the samples was determined using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and optical microscopy. Analysing the temperature field in the crystal selector revealed that, the orientation of growing dendrites against liquidus isotherm in the spiral selector was the reason for crystal misorientation which differs in various selector geometries. Increasing the take-off angle from 35° up to 45° increases the misorientation with respect to <001> direction. Further increase of take-off angle greater than 45° will decrease the crystal misorientation again and the efficiency of the selector to produce a single grain is decreased.
H. Safabinesh, A. Arab Fatideh, M. Navidirad, M. Ghassemi Kakroudi,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (9-2014)
Abstract

In order to improve the corrosion resistance of aluminosilicate refractories by molten aluminum, alkaline fluoride NaF and cryolite Na3AlF6 powders were studied. Both physical and chemical properties are known to influence wetting and corrosion behavior. This paper devoted to determine the influence of alkaline fluoride and cryolite added to andalusite based castable on the reaction with aluminum alloys. These additives led to the in-situ formation of celsian phases within the refractory matrix that led to improved corrosion resistance at 1300°C. Phase analysis revealed that celsian formation suppressed the formation of mullite within refractories, thereby reducing Penetration
S. Asadi,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2014)
Abstract

Coating of a surface by droplet spreading plays an important role in many novas industrial processes, such as plasma spray coating, ink jet printing, nano safeguard coatings and nano self-assembling. Data analysis of nano and micro droplet spreading can be widely used to predict and optimize coating processes. In this article, we want to select the most appropriate statistical distribution for spread data of aluminum oxide splats reinforced with carbon nanotubes. For this purpose a large class of probability models including generalized exponential (GE), Burr X (BX), Weibull (W), Burr III (BIII) distributions are fitted to data. The performance of the distributions are estimated using several statistical criteria, namely , Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Baysian Information Criterion (BIC), LogLikelihood (LL) and Kolmogorove-Smirnove distance. Also, the fitted plots of probability distribution function and quantile-quantile (q-q) plots are used to verify the results of different criteria. An important implication of the present study is that the GE distribution function, in contrast to other distributions, may describe more appropriately in these datasets.

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