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Showing 19 results for Amani

Baradari H., Amani Hamedani H., Karimi Khoygani S., Rezaei H.r., Javadpour J., Sar Poulaki H.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (Oct 2006)

Ultrafine hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders with crystallite size in the range of 10-90 nm were synthesized by chemical precipitation process using Ca(OH)2 and H3PO4 solutions as starting materials. Molar ratio of Ca/P=1.68 was kept constant throughout the process and alkaline condition for the reaction was maintained using ammonium hydroxide. The role of raw material concentration on HAp crystallite size and morphology were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that variations in crystallite size and morphology of synthesized HAp are strongly affected by the concentration of acid solution. To study the sintering behavior of HAp particles, the powders were pressed at 200 MPa using a uniaxial press. Sintering experiments were carried out at temperatures of 1100, 1250 and 1300°C with various soaking times at maximum temperatures. XRD was also used in determining thephases present after sintering process. The results indicated the decomposition of HAp into a-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and b-TCP phases at 1300°C. The microstructure of the sintered HAp ceramics was characterized by SEM.
H. Naffakh,, M. Shamanian, F. Ashrafizadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Summer 2008 2008)

Abstract: The investigation is carried out to characterize welding of AISI 310 austenitic stainless steel to Inconel 657 nickel-chromium superalloy. The welds were produced using four types of filler materials: the nickel-based corresponding to Inconel 82, Inconel A, Inconel 617 and austenitic stainless steel 310. This paper describes the effects of aging treatment on the joint. The comparative evaluation was based on microstructural features and estimation of mechanical properties. While Inconel A exhibited highest thermal stability and mechanical properties (hardness and ultimate strength), Inconel 82 weld metal also showed good thermal stability and mechanical properties. On the other hand, welds produced with Inconel 617 and 310 SS filler materials showed weak thermal stability and failed in the weld metals. It is therefore concluded that for the joint between Inconel 657 and 310 stainless steel, Inconel A and Inconel 82 filler materials offered the best compromises, respectively.
S.r. Allahkaram, R. Shamani,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (winter 2009 2009)

Abstract: Due to the expansion of high voltage Alternating Current (AC) power transmission lines and cathodically protected buried pipelines, it is becoming more and more difficult to construct them with enough safe distances between them. Thus, the pipelines are frequently exposed to induced AC interferences, which result in perturbation of Cathodic Protection (CP) due to AC corrosion. To study the above criterion, an experimental set up was used with coupons exposed to simulated soil solutions, while under both CP and AC induced condition for which an AC+DC power supply was utilized. The experiments were carried out in several simulated soil solutions corresponding to several soil samples collected from various regions along a buried pipeline with overhead parallel high voltage power transmission line. The results indicated that AC corrosion depends strongly on the composition of the soil.
S.r. Allahkaram, R. Shamani,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (Spring 2009 2009)

Abstract: The risks of alternating current (AC) corrosion and overprotection increasingly demand new criteria for
cathodically protected pipelines. To assess the risk of AC corrosion, new cathodic protection (CP) criteria have been
proposed based on DC/AC current densities measurements using coupons. The monitoring system designed for this
project was based on the instant-off method, with steel coupons simulating coating defects on a buried pipeline. The
problems associated with the instantaneous off-potential measurements have been attributed to a non-sufficient time
resolution. In present study, it has been possible to determine the de-polarisation of steel coupon within a few
milliseconds after disconnecting the coupon from the DC/AC power source, by increasing data acquisition rate. For
this, a monitoring system was developed in order to measure the IR-free potential together with the DC/AC current
densities. The monitoring system was utilized for both laboratory experiments and site survey to study the mechanism
and the condition of AC corrosion, its mitigation and more importantly to define new CP criteria.

Seyyed Masood Bagheri , Jamal Zamani, Ali Mehdipour Omrani,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (Autumn 2009 2009)

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to produce scarf joint through explosive welding process (EXW). The scarf weld is a process in which the final bond interface is oblique. With applying the explosive welding technique, this joint can create a metallic bond between similar or dissimilar metals. In this study, chamfered end of aluminum and copper plates were joined explosively and named scarf joint, employing changes in chamfered angle at different stand-off distance and explosive loading. The geometry of scarf joint enables consideration of both flyer and base plate thickness and explosive loading and the effects on mechanical properties of interface such as bond shear strength and micro-hardness can be investigated. Mathematical models developed for the interface properties of scarf joint to make relationship between the bond shear strength and explosive loading ratio. To check the adequacy of developed models, mechanical properties of interface, such as bond shear strength, predicted and compared with actual values in explosive cladding process. The results show reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. Consequently, mathematical model which is based on scarf joints, can predict bond shear strength of cladding metals under desired explosive loading and flyer plate thickness
F. Kashaninia, H. Sarpoolaky, A. R. Bagheri, R. Naghizadeh, M. Zamanipour,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (december 2011)

Abstract: There have been lots of studies to control the poor hydration resistance of dolomite refractories one of the
most effective solutions has been the addition of magnesia to doloma. Using a co-clinker of magnesia-doloma as a
starting material would provide more homogeneity in the properties of the product and has been published recently.
On the other hand, addition of iron oxide to doloma has been found to increase the hydration resistance. In this paper,
the effect of iron oxide addition on hydration phase analysis and microstructure of two different magnesia- doloma
samples, one with CaO content of 25 wt% and the other one with that of 35 wt% has been investigated. Ten samples
were prepared by pressing followed by firing at 1750 ºC for 3hrs. Results showed that the hydration resistance of the
samples improved by decreasing the CaO content, because CaO is much more prone to hydration comparing to MgO.
Besides, iron oxide addition lead to the formation of iron-containing phases which increased the hydration resistance
of the samples both by capsulating the CaO and MgO grains and by promoting the liquid phase sintering.
M. Alzamani, A. Shokuhfar, E. Eghdam, S. Mastal,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (march 2013)

Abstract:In the present research, SiO2–TiO2 nanostructure films were successfully prepared on windshields using the sol–gel technique for photocatalytic applications. To prevent the thermal diffusion of the sodium ions from the glass to TiO2 films, the SiO2 layer was pre-coated on the glass by the sol–gel method. The substrates were dipped in the sol and withdrawn with the speed of 6cm/min-1 to make a gel coating film. The coated films were dried for 2 days at 27 °C to allow slow solvent evaporation and condensation reactions due to rapid sol–gel reaction of Titania precursor. Then, the films were annealed at 100 °C for 30min and at the final temperature (500, 700 °C) for 30 min continuously. The structure and surface morphology properties, which are as a function of annealing temperature, have been studied by SEM FE-SEM and XRD. The FE-SEM surface morphology results indicate that the particle size increases from 19 to 42 nm by increasing the annealing temperature from 500 °C to 700 °C. Likewise, XRD illustrate the crystal anatase and rutile as main phases for TiO2-SiO2 films annealed at 500 °C and 700 °C respectively. This procedure resulted in transparent, crack-free SiO2–TiO2 films.
M. M. Mohammadi Samani, H. R. Baharvandi, H. Abdizadeh, J. Rezapour,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (December 2014)

B4C and its composites with TiB2 as second phase continues to be extensively used as the preferred ceramic material in military applications as armor systems for absorbing and dissipating kinetic energy from high velocity projectiles. It also exhibits a high melting point (2427 °C), and high neutron absorption cross section. Pressureless sintering of the B 4C-nanoTiB2 nanocomposite using small amount of Fe and Ni (≤3 Wt%) as sintering aids was investigated in order to clarify the role of Fe and Ni additions on the mechanical and microstructural properties of B4C-nanoTiB2 nanocomposites. Different amount of Fe and Ni, mainly 1 to 3 Wt% were added to the base material. Pressureless sintering was conducted at 2175, 2225 and 2300 °C. It was found that Addition of 3 Wt% Fe and 3 wt% Ni and sintering at 2300 °C resulted in improving the density of the samples to about 99% of theoretical density. The nanocomposite samples exhibited high density, hardness, and microstructural uniformity.
H. Torkamani, H. Rashvand, Sh. Raygan, J. Rassizadehghani, Y. Palizdar, C. Garcia Mateo, D. San Martin,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (September 2017)

In industry, the cost of production is an important factor and it is preferred to use conventional and low cost procedures for producing the parts. Heat treatment cycles and alloying additions are the key factors affecting the microstructure and mechanical properties of the cast steels. In this study an attempt was made to evaluate the influence of minor Mo addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of conventionally heat treated cast micro-alloyed steels. The results of Jominy and dilatometry tests and also microstructural examinations revealed that Mo could effectively increase the hardenability of the investigated steel and change the microstructure features of the air-cooled samples. Acicular microstructure was the consequence of increasing the hardenability in Mo-added steel. Besides, it was found that Mo could greatly affect the isothermal bainitic transformation and higher fraction of martensite after cooling (from isothermal temperature) was due to the Mo addition. The results of impact test indicated that the microstructure obtained in air-cooled Mo-added steel led to better impact toughness (28J) in comparison with the base steel (23J). Moreover, Mo-added steel possessed higher hardness (291HV), yield (524MPa) and tensile (1108MPa) strengths compared to the base one.

M. H. Zamani, M. Divandari, M. Tamizifar,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (March 2018)

Lap joints of commercially pure magnesium plates to aluminium plates (Magnesium plate on the top, and Aluminium plate, grade 1100, on the bottom side) were conducted by friction stir welding using various traveling and rotation speeds of the tool to investigate the effects of the welding parameters on the joint characteristics and strength. Defect-free lap joints were obtained in the welding traveling speed range of 40-80 mm/min, and rotational speed range of 1200-1600 rpm. The shear tensile strength of Mg/Al joints increased as a result of decreasing the welding speed from 120 to 40 mm/min at constant rotation speed of 1600 rpm.  Defects such as surface grooves, excessive flash, tunnels, and voids were observed if the joints prepared out of the mentioned range. The effects of the welding parameters are discussed metallographically based on observations with optical and scanning electron microscopes.

I. Hajiannia, M. Shamanian, M. Atapour, R. Ashiri, E. Ghassemali,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (June 2019)

In this study, the effects of the second pulse resistance spot welding on the microstructure and mechanical properties of TRIP1100 steel were evaluated. The thermal process after welding was designed to improve metallurgical properties with pulse currents of 6kA, 9kA and 12kA after initial welding with 10kA current. The effect of the second pulse on mechanical and microstructural properties was investigated. The fracture of the welds was for pulsed samples of 6kA and 9kA PO with CTS test. Due to existence of the microstructure including the equaxial dendritic and finer in FZ in the pulsed current 9kA, the maximum fracture energy and maximum force were observed. A significant decrease in the FZ hardness in 6kA current was observed in the nanohardness results, which was attributed to existence martensitic and ferrite temper. The highest ratio of CTS / TSS was obtained for 6kA and 9kA, respectively, and force displacement rate was maximum in 9kA. The fracture surfaces included dendrites and dimples. The results of partial fracture revealed separation in the coherent boundaries of the coarse grain of the annealed region.
A. Khalili, M. Mojtahedi, M. Goodarzi, M. J. Torkamani,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (September 2019)

The aim of this work was to synthesize TiC reinforced coating on carbon steel via reduction of ilmenite powder. A mixture of ilmenite and graphite was pre-placed on AISI 1020 steel surface. The effect of the addition of excess graphite amounts on the progress of synthesis of carbide particles was studied. The evolution of phases in different coatings was analysed via X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Then again, the initial powder mixtures were mechanically activated for various durations, to accelerate the reactions in transient melt pool. Finally, the Fe-TiC hard coating was successfully synthesized by carbothermic reduction of ilmenite through laser surface treatment. Moreover, it is proved that combination of mechanical activation with additive laser melting effectively improves the level of ilmenite reduction, besides enhancing the distribution of hard particles and the hardness of the coatings to more than 1300 HV.

M. Hoghooghi, O. Jafari, S. Amani, G. Faraji, K. Abrinia,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (December 2019)

Spread extrusion is a capable method to produce different samples with a wider cross-section from the smaller billets in a single processing pass. In this study, dish-shaped samples are successfully produced from the as-cast cylindrical AM60 magnesium alloy at 300 °C, the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of the final specimens are precisely evaluated. Due to the high amount of plastic strain, which is applied to the initial billet during the material flow in the expansion process, grain refinement occurred as a result of recrystallization and subsequently good mechanical properties achieved. Therefore, mean grain size reduced from 160 µm to 14 µm and initial equiaxed grains changed to the elongated ones surrounded by fine grains. Also, microhardness measurements indicate that hardness increased from 51 Hv to 70 Hv. Some fluctuations were also observed in the hardness profile of the sample which was mainly related to the bimodal structure of the final microstructure. Good mechanical properties, fine microstructure, and also the ability to produce samples with higher cross-section make the spread extrusion process a promising type of extrusion.
I. Kakaravada, A. Mahamani, V. Pandurangadu,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (March 2020)

In the present investigation, A356-TiB2/TiC composites with a various weight fractions (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5%) were synthesized through a K2TiF6-KBF4-Graphite (C) reaction system. Formation of TiB2 and TiC particulates and their distribution are confirmed by various characterization techniques. The tensile properties such as ultimate strength, yield strength, young's modulus and percentage of elongation in addition to their failure behavior of these composites were studied at ambiance and high temperatures (100, 200 and 3000C). The increment in the volume fraction of the composite raises the hardness and the enhancement of hardness was reported up to 49% at 7.5% reinforced composite due to the strengthening effect. The density and porosity of fabricated composites were investigated. The rise in volume fraction of reinforcement phase declines the density and increase the porosity of composites. Further, the ultimate strength, yield strength, young's modulus is declining by raising the temperature. Result analysis illustrates that the 7.5% reinforced composite retaining the ultimate strength up to 84.4% and the ductility is raised by 27% at 3000C. Yield strength and young's modulus are also retained 74.31% and 71.09% respectively at the similar material and experimental conditions. The fracture surface analysis of the composites illustrates that, the ductile nature of failure appearance microscopically with the formation of fine dimples and voids on fracture surface at elevated temperatures. Cleavage facets and tear crumples observation indicates the brittle kind of failure at the ambient temperature. Findings from the experimental study provide the tensile behavior of the composites at the regular working temperature of the automobile engine piston.

Usha Vengatakrishnan, Kalyanaraman Subramanian, Vettumperumal Rajapand, Dhineshbabu Nattanmai Raman,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (September 2021)

Copper oxide (CuO) nanostructure particles were prepared using KOH/NaOH catalyst by low cost precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX) analysis. The photocatalytic dye degradation study of pure CuO nanostructure particles are analysed against two azo dyes (Direct black 38 (Black-E) and Congo red) under ultraviolet (UV) and solar irradiation. The release of major active species (*OH) in the photocatalytic degradation by as prepared CuO nanostructure particles were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectra with two different excitation wavelength (325and 355nm). The band gap of CuO nanostructure particles was calculated from diffuse reflectance spectra. The photocatalytic effect of CuO nanostructure particles is confirmed from the UV – Vis and photoluminescence spectra and also, further confirmed from the kinetic studies under UV and solar radiations. The photocatalytic degradation results revealed that 16.35% and 7.5% of black E and Congo red dye was degraded under UV, while it was 47.2% and 17.6% under solar light. The influence of pH on the photodegradation and change in the reaction temperature under solar irradiation were also analysed
Mohammad Reza Zamani Meymian, Razieh Keshtmand,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (December 2021)

Tin oxide (SnO2) is used as an electron transport layer (ETL) in perovskite solar cells with a planar
structure due to its good transparency and energy level alignment with the perovskite layer. The modification
interface of the electron transport layer and the perovskite absorber layer plays an important role in the efficient
charge extraction process at the interface. In this study, planar perovskite solar cells with configuration
(FTO/SnO2/mixed-cation perovskite/CuInS2/Au) were prepared to investigate the effect of UV-Ozone (UVO) treated
SnO2 as ETL on the performance of devices. ETL treatment was performed at different times (0 to 60 min). It is
shown that surface wetting was improved by UVO treating the SnO2 films prior to deposition of the perovskite layer.
The latter improves the contact between the ETL and the perovskite layer, allowing more efficient electron transport
at the interface. Contact angle, SEM, photoluminescence spectra, and the current density-voltage tests were
conducted to characterize the photovoltaic of the cells. The best PSC performance with a power conversion
efficiency of 10.96% was achieved using UVO-treated SnO2 ETL for 30 min, whereas the power conversion
efficiency of the perovskite solar cells with SnO2 ETL without UVO treatment was only 4.34%.

Saman Sargazi, Mahtab Ghasemi Toudeshkchouei, Abbas Rahdar, Aisha Rauf, Soheil Amani, Razieh Behzadmehr, Ana M. Diez-Pascual, Francesco Baino, Muhammad Bilal,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (March 2023)

As a major global cause of liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive hepatocellular accumulation of lipids in the liver, elevated levels of hepatic enzymes, and fibrotic evidence. The primary therapies for NAFLD are changing lifestyle or managing comorbid-associated diseases. Lately, nanotechnology has revolutionized the art of nanostructure synthesis for disease imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. Loading drugs into nanocarriers has been established as a promising strategy to extend their circulating time, particularly in treating NAFLD. In addition, considering a master modulator of adipogenesis and lysosomal biogenesis and function, designing novel nanostructures for biomedical applications requires using biodegradable materials. Various nanostructures, including inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), organic-based NPs, metallic nanocarriers, biodegradable polymeric nanocarriers, polymer-hybrid nanocarriers, and lipid-based nanocarriers have been designed for NAFLD treatment, which significantly affected serum glucose/lipid levels and liver function indices. NPs modified with polymers, bimetallic NPs, and superparamagnetic NPs have been used to design sensitive nanosensors to measure NAFLD-related biomarkers. However, certain limitations are associated with their use as diagnostic agents. The purpose of this review article is to shed light on the recent advancements in the field of nanomedicine for the early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this progressive liver disease.
Revathi Baskaran, Perumal Perumal, Deivamani Deivanayagam,
Volume 20, Issue 2 (June 2023)

In this research, praseodymium (Pr) doped titanium oxide was deposited onto a glass substrate by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. The rare earth-doped thin film was subjected to studies on structural, morphological, optical, and gas sensing properties. The structural properties of the deposited thin films exhibit varied texture along with (101) direction. The grain size of the thin film varies with various mole percentages of doped TiO2 thin films. As various doping concentrations increase, the prepared thin films show different optical properties like band gap, extension coefficient, refractive index, and dielectric constant. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results revealed that the reflectance spectra conformed to the existence of functional groups and chemical bonding. Gas sensing studies were carried out for undoped and Pr-doped TiO2 films. The sensor was exposed to ethanol gas. The response of a TiO2 thin film at different ethanol concentrations and different operation temperatures was studied. The gas sensitivity of ethanol gas was measured when the fast response of the film with 0.004M Pr-doped TiO2 thin film showed a response time of 99 s and recovery time of 41 s, as well as the resistance falling to 0.6x106Ω. The sensor operated at maximum effectiveness at an optimum temperature of 200°C.

Hrishikesh Mahapatra, Sumit Bedia, Aishwarya Ramasubramanian, Mridula Joshi, Mahesh Ghadage, Aarti Bedia,
Volume 20, Issue 3 (September 2023)

Graphene Nanoparticles (GNPs), an upshot of nanotechnology have attracted great interest in diverse research fields including dentistry for their unique properties. Graphene Nanoparticles are cytocompatible and when combined with other compounds, they possess improved synergistic antimicrobial and anti-adherence properties against oral pathogens. The cytotoxicity of graphene in the oral setting has been reported to be very limited in the scientific literature. Current applications of graphene include reinforcing Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for the fabrication of dentures, improving properties of dental luting agents like glass ionomer cement, reinforcing restorative composites and ceramics, and improving osseointegration of titanium dental implants by coating with graphene. This paper reviews the nanoparticle ‘Graphene’ and its potential uses in the field of restorative dentistry.

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