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Showing 3 results for Subject: 3Dprintable materials processed using a novel AM process

Fiza Ur Rehman, Syeda Sohaila Naz, Muhammad Junaid Dar, Annum Malik, Maimoona Qindeel, Francesco Baino, Fazli Wahid, Abbas Rahdar, Saeeda Munir, Sara Qaisar, Kifayat Ullah Shah, Mahtab Razlansari,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (6-2022)
Abstract

Neoplastic cells have co-opted inflammatory receptors and signaling molecules that potentiate inflammation. Activated inflammatory pathways lead to neo-angiogenesis, lymph-angiogenesis, immunosuppression, tumor growth, proliferation and metastasis. This cancer-sustaining inflammation is a critical target to arrest cancer growth. Multiple drug resistance, high cost, low oral bioavailability and serious side effects have rendered conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutics less impressive. The aim of this research was to achieve cancer debulking and proliferation prevention by limiting ‘cancer-sustaining’ tumor niche inflammation through non-conventional oral approach employing anti-inflammatory agents and avoiding conventional cytotoxic agents. Synergistic anti-inflammatory agents, i.e. celecoxib as selective COX-2 inhibitor and montelukast as cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, were selected. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were used as nanocarriers because of their efficient synergistic anti-neoplastic effects and excellent oral drug delivery potential. Specifically, selected drugs were co-conjugated onto AgNPs. Synthesized nanoparticles were then surface-modified with poly(vinyl alcohol) to control particle size, avoid opsonization/preferred cellular uptake and improve dispersion. Surface plasmon resonance analysis, particle size analysis, DSC, TGA, XRD, FTIR and LIBS analysis confirmed the successful conjugation of drugs and efficient polymer coating with high loading efficiency. In-vitro, the nanoparticles manifested best and sustained release in moderately acidic (pH 4.5) milieu enabling passive tumor targeting potential. In-vivo, synthesized nanoparticles exhibited efficient dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity reducing the dose up to 25-fold. The formulation also manifested hemo-compatibility, potent anti-denaturation activity and dose-dependent in-vitro and in-vivo anti-cancer potential against MCF-7 breast cancer and Hep-G2 liver cancer cell lines in both orthotopic and subcutaneous xenograft cancer models. The anti-inflammatory nanoparticles manifested tumor specific release potential exhibiting selective cytotoxicity at cancerous milieu with slightly acidic environment and activated inflammatory pathways. The formulation displayed impressive oral bioavailability, sustained release, negligible cytotoxicity against THLE-2 normal human hepatocytes, low toxicity (high LD50) and wide therapeutic window. Results suggest promise of developed nanomaterials as hemo-compatible, potent, cheaper, less-toxic oral anti-inflammatory and non-conventional anti-cancer agents.
Saman Sargazi, Mahtab Ghasemi Toudeshkchouei, Abbas Rahdar, Aisha Rauf, Soheil Amani, Razieh Behzadmehr, Ana M. Diez-Pascual, Francesco Baino, Muhammad Bilal,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (3-2023)
Abstract

As a major global cause of liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive hepatocellular accumulation of lipids in the liver, elevated levels of hepatic enzymes, and fibrotic evidence. The primary therapies for NAFLD are changing lifestyle or managing comorbid-associated diseases. Lately, nanotechnology has revolutionized the art of nanostructure synthesis for disease imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. Loading drugs into nanocarriers has been established as a promising strategy to extend their circulating time, particularly in treating NAFLD. In addition, considering a master modulator of adipogenesis and lysosomal biogenesis and function, designing novel nanostructures for biomedical applications requires using biodegradable materials. Various nanostructures, including inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), organic-based NPs, metallic nanocarriers, biodegradable polymeric nanocarriers, polymer-hybrid nanocarriers, and lipid-based nanocarriers have been designed for NAFLD treatment, which significantly affected serum glucose/lipid levels and liver function indices. NPs modified with polymers, bimetallic NPs, and superparamagnetic NPs have been used to design sensitive nanosensors to measure NAFLD-related biomarkers. However, certain limitations are associated with their use as diagnostic agents. The purpose of this review article is to shed light on the recent advancements in the field of nanomedicine for the early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this progressive liver disease.
 
Parasuraman Dhanasekaran, Ramakrishnan Marimuthu,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (3-2023)
Abstract

Fossil fuels served as the main source of energy throughout the 1800s when the industrial revolution got underway. Countries started aiming for carbon-neutral footprints and lowered emissions as environmental degradation became more apparent. Numerous research projects have been undertaken to discover a photovoltaic device that can replace conventional silicon (Si)-based solar cells. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have undergone extensive research during the past three decades. Due to their straightforward preparation process, low cost, ease of production, and low toxicity, DSSCs have seen extensive use. The reader will be able to comprehend the numerous types of TCO layers, physical methods for depositing metal oxide on TCO thin films, materials for fabricating the various DSSC layers, and the various types of dyes included in DSSC as well as their components and structures. The reader's ability to construct the DSSC, gain a general understanding of how it operates, and increase the effectiveness of these devices' potential growth and development paths are all aided by this review. For these technologies to be debated and shown to be appropriate for a breakthrough in consumer electronics on the market, manufacturing, stability, and efficiency improvements must also be addressed in the future. An overview of current DSSC prototype development and products from major firms is presented.
 

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