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Showing 21 results for Supply Chain Management

H. Teimory, H. Mirzahosseinian, A. Kaboli,
Volume 19, Issue 4 (12-2008)
Abstract

  The advent of e-commerce has prompted many manufacturers to redesign their traditional channel structure by engaging in direct sales. In this paper, we present a dual channel inventory model based on queuing theory in a manufacturer-retailer supply chain, consisting of a traditional retail channel and a direct channel which stocks are kept in both upper and lower echelon. The system receives stochastic demand from the both channel which each channel has an independent demand arrival rate. A lost-sales model which no backorder is allowed is supposed. The replenishment lead times are assumed independent exponential random variables for both warehouse and the retail store. Under the replenishment inventory policy, the inventory position is kept constant at a base-stock level. To analyze the chain performance, an objective function included holding and lost sales costs is defined. At the end, a proposed algorithm named, Best Neighborhood (BN) is used to find a good solution for inventory and the results are compared with Simulated Annealing (SA) solutions.


J. Jassbi, S.m. Seyedhosseini , N. Pilevari,
Volume 20, Issue 4 (4-2010)
Abstract

Nowadays, in turbulent and violate global markets, agility has been considered as a fundamental characteristic of a supply chain needed for survival. To achieve the competitive edge, companies must align with suppliers and customers to streamline operations, as well as agility beyond individual companies. Consequently Agile Supply Chain (ASC) is considered as a dominant competitive advantage.  However, so far a little effort has been made for designing, operating and evaluating agile supply chain in recent years. Therefore, in this study a new approach has been developed based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for evaluating agility in supply chain considering agility capabilities such as Flexibility, Competency, Cost, Responsiveness and Quickness. This evaluation helps managers to perform gap analysis between existent agility level and the desired one and also provides more informative and reliable information for decision making. Finally the proposed model has been applied to a leading car manufacturing company in Iran to prove the applicability of the model.
F. Bagheri , M. J. Tarokh,
Volume 21, Issue 1 (6-2010)
Abstract

Assessment and selection of suppliers are two most important tasks in the purchasing part in supply chain management. Supplier selection can be considered to be a single or multi-objective problem. From another point of view, it can be a single or multi-sourcing problem. In this paper, an integrated AHP and Fuzzy TOPSIS model is proposed to solve the supplier selection problem. This model makes the decision-maker to be able to solve this problem with different criteria and different weight for each criterion with respect to the purchasing strategy. Finally, the proposed model is illustrated by an example.
Mohammad Najafi Nobar, Mostafa Setak,
Volume 21, Issue 1 (6-2010)
Abstract

In nowadays world competitive market, on account of the development of electronic media and its influence on shortening distances, companies require some core competencies in order to be able to compete with numerous competitors in industry and sustain their situation in such a market. In addition companies achieve this target are those which their processes perform great and exploit from competitive price, quality, guarantee, etc. Since some parameters such as price and quality are so dependent on the performance of company supply chain management, so the results can highly impress the final price and quality of products. One of the main processes of supply chain management is supplier selection process which its accurate implementation can dramatically increase company competitiveness. In presented article two layers of suppliers have been considered as a chain of suppliers. First layer suppliers are evaluated by two groups of criteria which the first one encompasses criteria belongs to first layer suppliers features and the second group contains criteria belong to the characteristics of second layer suppliers. One of the criteria is the performance of second layer suppliers against environmental issues. Then the proposed approach is solved by a method combined of concepts of fuzzy set theory (FST) and linear programming (LP) which has been nourished by real data extracted from an engineering design and supplying parts company. At the end results reveal the high importance of considering second layer suppliers features as a criteria for selecting the best supplier.
Rasoul Haji, Mohammadmohsen Moarefdoost, Seyed Babak Ebrahimi,
Volume 21, Issue 4 (12-2010)
Abstract

  This paper aims to evaluate inventory cost of a Two-echelon serial supply chain system under vendor managed inventory program with stochastic demand, and examine the effect of environmental factors on the cost of overall system. For this purpose, we consider a two-echelon serial supply chain with a manufacturer and a retailer. Under Vendor managed inventory program, the decision on inventory levels are made by manufacturer centrally. In this paper, we assume that the manufacturer monitors inventory levels at the retailer location and replenishes retailer's stock under (r, n, q) policy moreover, the manufacturer follows make-to-order strategy in order to respond retailer's orders. In the other word, when the inventory position at the retailer reaches reorder point, r, the manufacturer initiates production of Q=nq units with finite production rate, p. The manufacturer replenishes the retailer's stock with replenishment frequency n, and the complete batch of q units to the retailer during the production time. We develop a renewal reward model for the case of Poisson demand, and drive the mathematical formula of the long run average total inventory cost of system under VMI. Then, by using Monte Carlo simulation, we examine the effect of environmental factors on the cost of overall system under VMI .


Behin Elahi, Seyed Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini, Ahmad Makui,
Volume 22, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

 

  Supplier selection,

  Multi-objective decision making,

  Fuzzy Compromise programming,

  Supply chain management,

  Quantity discount .

 

Supplier selection is naturally a complex multi-objective problem including both quantitative and qualitative factors. This paper deals with this issue from a new view point. A quantity discount situation, which plays a role of motivator for buyer, is considered. Moreover, in order to find a reasonable compromise solution for this problem, at first a multi-objective modeling is presented. Then a proposed fuzzy compromise programming is utilized to determine marginal utility function for each criterion. Also, group decision makers’ preferences have taken into account and the weight of each criterion has been measured by forming pair-wise comparison matrixes. Finally the proposed approach is conducted for a numerical example and its efficacy and efficiency are verified via this section. The results indicate that the proposed method expedites the generation of compromise solution .


, , ,
Volume 23, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

Design of a logistics network in proper way provides a proper platform for efficient and effective supply chain management. This paper studies a multi-period, multi echelon and multi-product integrated forward-reverse logistics network under uncertainty. First, an efficient complex mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model by considering some real-world assumptions is developed for the integrated logistics network design to avoid the sub-optimality caused by the separate design of the forward and reverse networks. Then, the stochastic counterpart of the proposed MILP model is used to measure the conditional value at risk (CVaR) criterion, as a risk measure, that can control the risk level of the proposed model. The computational results show the power of the proposed stochastic model with CVaR criteria in handling data uncertainty and controlling risk levels.
Mohammad Azari Khojasteh, Mohammad Reza Amin-Naseri, Isa Nakhai Kamal Abadi,
Volume 24, Issue 4 (12-2013)
Abstract

We model a real-world case problem as a price competition model between two leader-follower supply chains that each of them consists of one manufacturer and one retailer. T he manufacturer produces partially differentiated products and sells to market through his retailer. The retailer sells the products of manufacturer to market by adding some values to the product and gains margin as a fraction of the all income of selling products. We use a two-stage Stackelberg game model to investigate the dynamics between these supply chains and obtain the optimal prices of products. We explore the effect of varying the level of substitutability coefficient of two products on the profits of the leader and follower supply chains and derive some managerial implications. We find that the follower supply chain has an advantage when the products are highly substitutable. Also, we study the sensitivity analysis of the fraction of requested margin by retailer on the profit of supply chains.


Nazanin Pilevari, Javad Jassbi, Mahda Garmaki,
Volume 25, Issue 2 (5-2014)
Abstract

Nowadays, in turbulent and violate global markets an Agile Supply Chain (ASC) network is frequently considered as a dominant competitive advantage for survival. To achieve the competitive advantage, companies must align with suppliers and customers to streamline operations, as well as agility beyond individual companies. There are many definitions and models about agile supply chain and most of them have emphasized on capabilities and enablers, and their sub attributes, as two critical factors, but regardless of time and its effect on the main attributes. This paper tries to present the role of time on predicting the agility of supply chain, by studying effect of intervention time on enablers and eventually predict the progress trend of agility in supply chain. To gain this end we use ANFIS output to assess agility and compare the effects of agile enablers in period of time on capabilities in Iran Khodro manufacture. This recognition helps managers to consider time as leverage factor and focus on this factor to enhance existent agility level and achievement the desired one.
Amit Kumar Marwah, Girish Thakar, Ramesh Chandra Gupta,
Volume 25, Issue 3 (7-2014)
Abstract

The manufacturing organizations today are having a competition of supply chain versus supply chain. Existing research work fails to relate human metrics with supply chain performance. The authors intend to empirically assess the effects of human metrics on supply chain performance in the context of Indian manufacturing organizations. A rigorous literature review has identified 12 variables. The variables are individually measured and later on reduced in number by factor analysis. As a pilot study, primary data is collected from 100 manufacturing organizations by means of a questionnaire, both offline and online, which is administered across India and a scale is developed. t-test and factor analysis resulted in 3 factors related to human metrics. The outcomes of the research work provide valuable implications for the Indian manufacturing organizations to understand the factors affecting supply chain performance.
Dr. Yahia Zare Mehrjerdi, Mahnaz Zarei,
Volume 26, Issue 2 (7-2015)
Abstract

Abstract Nowadays supply chain management has become one of the powerful business concepts for organizations to gain a competitive advantage in global market. This is the reason that now competition between the firms has been replaced by competitiveness among the supply chains. Moreover, the popular literature dealing with supply chain is replete with discussions of leanness and agility. Agile manufacturing is adopted where demand is volatile while lean manufacturing is used in stable demands. However, in some situations it is advisable to utilize a different paradigm, called leagility, to enable a total supply chain strategy. Although, various generic hybrids have been defined to clarify means of satisfying the conflicting requirements of low cost and fast response, little research is available to provide approaches to enhance supply chain leagility. By linking Leagile Attributes and Leagile Enablers (LAs and LEs), this paper, based upon Quality Function Deployment (QFD), strives to identify viable LEs to achieve a defined set of LAs. Due to its wide applicability, AHP is deployed to prioritize LAs. Also, fuzzy logic is used to deal with linguistics judgments expressing relationships and correlations required in QFD. To illustrate the usefulness and ease of application of the approach, the approach was exemplified with the help of a case study in chemical industry.

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Pro Seyed Mohammad Seyedhosseini, Dr Kaveh Mohamad Cyrus, Mr Kaveh Fahimi, Dr Hassan Badkoobehi,
Volume 26, Issue 2 (7-2015)
Abstract

Today’s competition is promoted from firm against firm to supply chain versus supply chain, globalization and competition is a common phenomenon so each organization should make its supply chain as a weapon against the others, in doing so this paper presented a conceptual, graphical, step by step methodology to construct supply chain strategies by integrating strategic management’s theories, application and analysis and supply chain point of view to help managers to compete in the market.

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Morteza Rasti-Barzoki, Ali Kourank Beheshti, Seyed Reza Hejazi,
Volume 27, Issue 2 (6-2016)
Abstract

This paper addresses a production and outbound distribution scheduling problem in which a set of jobs have to be process on a single machine for delivery to customers or to other machines for further processing. We assume that there is a sufficient number of vehicles and the delivery costs is independent of batch size but it is dependent on each trip. In this paper, we present an Artificial Immune System (AIS) for this problem. The objective is to minimize the sum of the total weighted number of tardy jobs and the batch delivery costs. A batch setup time has to be added before processing the first job in each batch. Using computational test, we compare our method with an existing method for the mentioned problem in literature namely Simulated Annealing (SA). Computational tests show the significant improvement of AIS over the SA.


Hossein Sayyadi Tooranloo, Mohammad Hossein Azadi, Ali Sayahpoor,
Volume 28, Issue 2 (6-2017)
Abstract

Nowadays, with a growing body of features and technologies, supply chain management is being widely used to coordinate and optimize key processes such as increasing customer satisfaction, facilitating the processes, and enhancing product quality. In recent years, the emergence of IT and new business environments has led to the development of electronic supply chains. In order to use and benefit from the privileges of e-supply chains, organizations must identify the key factors in the implementation of e-supply chain management so that they can monitor the organization's current and future activities and take action to identify and modify and fix any bugs. The present study aimed at identifying these factors. Based on the available theoretical foundations and expert opinions, the factors affecting the implementation of electronic supply chain management were identified in seven factors with 31 indicators. To determine the weight of the identified factors considering the lack of independence between them, an integrated type-2 fuzzy AHP and type-2 fuzzy DEMATEL approach was used. Results showed that computer-based technology, infrastructure, inter-organizational relationships, and information are the most important factors.


Sasan Khalifehzadeh, Mohammad Bagher Fakhrzad,
Volume 29, Issue 3 (9-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
Production and distribution network (PDN) planning in multi-stage status is commonly complex. These conditions cause significant amount of uncertainty relating to demand and lead time. In this study, we introduce a PDN to deliver the products to customers in the least time and optimize the total cost of the network, simultaneously. The proposed network is four stage PDN including suppliers, producers, potential entrepots, retailers and customers with multi time period horizon with allowable shortage. A mixed integer programming model with minimizing total cost of the system and minimizing total delivery lead time is designed. We present a novel heuristic method called selective firefly algorithm (SFA) in order to solve several sized especially real world instances. In SFA, each firefly recognizes all better fireflies with more brightness and analyses its brightness change before moving, tacitly. Then, the firefly that makes best change is selected and initial firefly moves toward the selected firefly. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is examined with solving several sized instances. The results indicate the adequate performance of the proposed algorithm.
Mangesh Phate , Shraddha Toney, Vikas Phate,
Volume 32, Issue 1 (1-2021)
Abstract

Supply chain management (SCM) is very well known efficient and effective managerial tool to check and analyze the performance of any enterprises. In the present work, efforts have taken to analyze and optimize the performance of small & medium enterprise (SME) in Pune region India. For this purpose a SCM based framework is prepared to get the realistic data from the industries through the questionnaire prepared on the basic of literature and the expert opinions. After finalizing the effective framework fitted to the various enterprises, a data in the pointer scale has been collected from the various stakeholders of the enterprises. The grey relational analysis (GRA), a multi-response optimization tool has been effectively used for getting the optimize result which will help the enterprises to plan the strategies for the betterment of the enterprises. Optimum results were implemented in the other enterprises. The responses were measured and compare with the optimum solution. From the responses, it has been observed that there is a significant enhancement in the response level of the other enterprises. Thus the SCM was effectively used for enhancing the performance of the SMEs in the region.      
Mohsen Khezeli, Esmaeil Najafi, Mohammad Haji Molana, Masoud Seidi,
Volume 32, Issue 2 (6-2021)
Abstract

One of the most important fields of logistic network is transportation network design that has an important effect on strategic decisions in supply chain management. It has recently attracted the attention of many researchers. In this paper, a multi-stage and multi-product logistic network design is considered.
This paper presents a hybrid approach based on simulation and optimization (Simulation based optimization), the model is formulated and presented in three stages.  At first, the practical production capacity of each product is calculated using the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) index, in the second stage, the optimization of loading schedules is simulated. The layout of the loading equipment, the number of equipment per line, the time of each step of the loading process, the resources used by each equipment were simulated, and the output of the model determines the maximum number of loaded vehicles in each period. Finally, a multi-objective model is presented to optimize the transportation time and cost of products. A mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model is formulated in such a way as to minimize transportation costs and maximize the use of time on the planning horizon. We have used Arena simulation software to solve the second stage of the problem, the results of which will be explained. It is also used GAMS software to solve the final stage of the model and optimize the transporting cost and find the optimal solutions. Several test problems were generated and it showed that the proposed algorithm could find good solutions in reasonable time spans.
Abolfazl Khatti Dizabadi, Abdollah Arasteh, Mohammad Mahdi Paydar,
Volume 33, Issue 4 (12-2022)
Abstract

Supply chain management is one of the requirements for achieving economic growth in any supply chain. If managers' decisions are optimally allocated, it will be possible for companies and industries with a competitive and profitable advantage to grow and develop. The main desire of any company for survival is to minimize costs and maximize profitability. Due to the increasing complexity and dynamics of the situation, decision-making in this area requires more advanced analytical methods. Accordingly, the Real options theory has emerged, which introduces a new way of thinking about investing, especially in conditions of uncertainty. In this paper, a multi-period model is considered that examines the demand uncertainty in each period and also uses the Real options theory to seek the optimal strategy for investors in conditions of uncertainty and the effect of investors’ discretion on it. Using a decision tree to estimate the probable demand in each period and using Monte Carlo simulations to identify the lowest cost scenario in each period, the model has been solved in this research. In the case of the uncertainty parameter, sensitivity analysis is performed, and under different values ​​of this parameter, the obtained result is evaluated and validated. And the extension of outsourcing will increase the company’s profitability and meet higher demand and lower costs.
Ahmad Lotfi, Parvaneh Samouei,
Volume 34, Issue 3 (9-2023)
Abstract

As efficient instruments, there have been increasing studies on contract optimization in the supply chain field over the recent two decades. The lack of review papers is one of the gaps in contract optimization studies. Hence, the extant study aimed to provide researchers with an attitude to direct future studies on this topic. Therefore, the collected studies on contract optimization were reviewed and analyzed primarily. Then papers were classified based on the selected categories and themes. Finally, evaluation and results were presented based on the classified topics. They conducted studies, then achievements and limitations of the literature and future research opportunities were introduced to pave the way for researchers’ further studies.
 
Mahdi Rezaei, Ali Salmasnia, Mohammad Reza Maleki,
Volume 34, Issue 3 (9-2023)
Abstract

This article develops an integrated model of transmitting strategies and operational activities to enhance the efficiency of supply chain management. As the second objective, this paper aims to improve supply chain performance management (SCPM) by employing proper decision-making approaches. The proposed model optimizes the performance indicator based on SCOR metrics. A process-based method is utilized for high-level decisions, while a mathematical programming method is proposed for low-level decisions. The suggested operational model takes some major supply chain properties such as multiple suppliers, multiple plants, multiple materials, and multiple produced items over several time periods into account. To solve the operational multi-objective optimization model, a goal programming approach is applied. The computational results are explained in terms of a numerical example, and a sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate how the performance of the supply chain is influenced by strategic scenario planning.
 

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