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Faisal Rasool, Pisut Koomsap, Emérancia Raharisoa, Abdul Qayoom,
Volume 32, Issue 3 (IJIEPR 2021)

In the last decade, customers’ active involvement during product development, commonly referred to as co-creation, has emerged as an effective tool to overcome barriers that keep firms from understanding customer needs. Still in its infancy, many co-creation aspects are under-researched; this may present difficulties in aligning firm goals with their co-creators, often leading to project failure. To make the co-creation process more systematic, a framework is presented in this paper that will allow firms to analyse product attributes before engaging in co-creation, concerning firm capabilities and interests and the capabilities and interests of their co-creators. The results of this analysis will help firms to align their goals with the goals of co-creators. Two exploratory case studies were conducted for illustration.
Che Hafizan Che Hassan, Zainura Zainon Noor, Azmi Aris, Norelyza Hussein, Nur Syamimi Zaidi, Nor Zaiha Arman, Muhammad Azmi,
Volume 35, Issue 1 (IJIEPR 2024)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a valuable tool not only for analyzing the environmental impact of a product but also for assisting in early-stage product development before incurring scaling-up costs. When validating a new process or project, it may be constrained to align with existing regulations or standards. Therefore, combining LCA with other applicable standards is essential to demonstrate the project's feasibility. In this regard, the water quality index (WQI) and Water Exploitation Index (WEI) provide additional information that reflects the overall water quality at a specific location and time. The objective of this study is to utilize the LCA framework in conjunction with the Malaysia WQI and WEI to protect the water quantity and water quality of the river. A negative change in the WQI score indicates that the current effluent from the process is degrading the river's classification, rendering it undesirable and necessitating a reduction in concentration. The findings demonstrate that the method for determining effluent requirements for a water treatment system is straightforward and replicable. Such an approach could be employed, for example, in an environmental impact analysis of a project to verify its viability.

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