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Showing 10 results for Simulation

M. Esfand Abadi, M. H. Miran Baygi, A. Mahloojifar, S. Moghimi,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (10-2005)

In this paper, thermal effects of laser irradiance on biological tissue is investigated using computer simulations. Earlier attempts in this field made use of finite difference and finite element techniques. Here a novel approach is adopted to improve the results. The effect of our implicit approach on the convergence procedure and accuracy of results, with different timing steps, is explored. Monte Carlo method is used in combination with the finite volume algorithm in order to obtain a profile of light distribution and heat transport in tissue. It is shown that implicit finite volume technique has not only acceptable accuracy, but also high stability for different timing steps.
T. Barforoushi, M. P. Moghaddam, M. H. Javidi, M. K. Sheik-El-Eslami,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (4-2006)

Medium-term modeling of electricity market has essential role in generation expansion planning. On the other hand, uncertainties strongly affect modeling and consequently, strategic analysis of generation firms in the medium term. Therefore, models considering these uncertainties are highly required. Among uncertain variables considered in the medium term generation planning, demand and hydro inflows are of the greatest importance. This paper proposes a new approach for simulating the operation of power market in medium-term, taking into account demand and hydro inflows uncertainties. The demand uncertainty is considered using Monte-Carlo simulations. Standard Deviation over Expected Profit (SDEP) of generation firms based on simulation results is introduced as a new index for analyzing the influence of the demand uncertainty on the behavior of market players. The correlation between capacity share of market players and their SDEP is also demonstrated. The uncertainty of inflow as a stochastic variable is dealt using scenario tree representation. Rational uncertainties as strategic behavior of generation firms, intending to maximize their expected profit, is considered and Nash-Equilibrium is determined using the Cournot model game. Market power mitigation effects through financial bilateral contracts as well as demand elasticity are also investigated. Case studies confirm that this representation of electricity market provides robust decisions and precise information about electricity market for market players which can be used in the generation expansion planning framework.
D. Arab-Khaburi, F. Tootoonchian, Z. Nasiri-Gheidari,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (10-2008)

A mathematical model based on d-q axis theory and dynamic performance characteristic of brushless resolvers is discussed in this paper. The impact of rotor eccentricity on the accuracy of position in precise applications is investigated. In particular, the model takes the stator currents of brushless resolver into account. The proposed model is used to compute the dynamic and steady state equivalent circuit of resolvers. Finally, simulation results are presented. The validity and usefulness of the proposed method are thoroughly verified with experiments.
Ali Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza Homaeinezhad, Yashar Ahmadi, Mostafa Rahnavard,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2009)

In this study, a mathematical model is developed based on algebraic equations which is capable of generating artificially normal events of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals such as P-wave, QRS complex, and T-wave. This model can also be implemented for the simulation of abnormal phenomena of electrocardiographic signals such as ST-segment episodes (i.e. depression, elevation, and sloped ascending or descending) and repolarization abnormalities such as T-Wave Alternans (TWA). Event parameters such as amplitude, duration, and incidence time in the conventional ECG leads can be a good reflective of heart electrical activity in specific directions. The presented model can also be used for the simulation of ECG signals on torso plane or limb leads. To meet this end, the amplitude of events in each of the 15-lead ECG waveforms of 80 normal subjects at MIT-BIH Database ( are derived and recorded. Various statistical analyses such as amplitude mean value, variance and confidence intervals calculations, Anderson-Darling normality test, and Bayesian estimation of events amplitude are then conducted. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) model has also been incorporated to this model with HF/LF and VLF/LF waves power ratios. Eventually, in order to demonstrate the suitable flexibility of the presented model in simulation of ECG signals, fascicular ventricular tachycardia (left septal ventricular tachycardia), rate dependent conduction block (Aberration), and acute Q-wave infarctions of inferior and anterior-lateral walls are finally simulated. The open-source simulation code of above abnormalities will be freely available.

M. Esmaili, H. A Shayanfar, N. Amjady,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2010)

Congestion management in electricity markets is traditionally done using deterministic values of power system parameters considering a fixed network configuration. In this paper, a stochastic programming framework is proposed for congestion management considering the power system uncertainties. The uncertainty sources that are modeled in the proposed stochastic framework consist of contingencies of generating units and branches as well as load forecast errors. The Forced Outage Rate of equipment and the normal distribution function to model load forecast errors are employed in the stochastic programming. Using the roulette wheel mechanism and Monte-Carlo analysis, possible scenarios of power system operating states are generated and a probability is assigned to each scenario. Scenario reduction is adopted as a tradeoff between computation time and solution accuracy. After scenario reduction, stochastic congestion management solution is extracted by aggregation of solutions obtained from feasible scenarios. Congestion management using the proposed stochastic framework provides a more realistic solution compared with the deterministic solution by a reasonable uncertainty cost. Results of testing the proposed stochastic congestion management on the 24-bus reliability test system indicate the efficiency of the proposed framework.
H. Javadi, M. Farzaneh, A. Peyda,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2010)

This paper deals with the measurement of AC corona inception voltage, Vincp, at the tip of a rod electrode using a hemispherically-capped rod-plane electrode configuration for various rod radii with a short air gap. Effects of atmospheric pressure and temperature variation on Vincp are investigated experimentally. An empirical equation for the field form factors of the hemispherically capped rod-plane electrodes is proposed with its range of applicability. The obtained results are analyzed to derive a more accurate analytical equation for the calculation of the electric field at corona inception voltage, Eincp, and the average of electric field distribution, Emean
Sh. Gorgizadeh, A. Akbari Foroud, M. Amirahmadi,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2012)

This paper proposes a method for determining the price bidding strategies of market participants consisting of Generation Companies (GENCOs) and Distribution Companies (DISCOs) in a day-ahead electricity market, while taking into consideration the load forecast uncertainty and demand response programs. The proposed algorithm tries to find a Pareto optimal point for a risk neutral participant in the market. Because of the complexity of the problem a stochastic method is used. In the proposed method, two approaches are used simultaneously. First approach is Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm for finding the best bidding strategies of market players, and another one is Mont-Carlo Method that models the uncertainty of load in price determining algorithm. It is demonstrated that with considering transmission flow constraints in the problem, load uncertainty can considerably influences the profits of companies and so using the second part of the proposed algorithm will be useful in such situation. It is also illustrated when there are no transmission flow constraints, the effect of load uncertainty can be modeled without using a stochastic model. The algorithm is finally tested on an 8 bus system.
Gh. Dastghaibyfard, N. Mansouri,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Abstract: A Data Grid connects a collection of geographically distributed computational and storage resources that enables users to share data and other resources. Data replication, a technique much discussed by Data Grid researchers in recent years creates multiple copies of file and places them in various locations to shorten file access times. In this paper, a dynamic data replication strategy, called Modified Dynamic Hierarchical Replication (MDHR) is proposed. This strategy is an enhanced version of Dynamic Hierarchical Replication (DHR). However, replication should be used wisely because the storage capacity of each Grid site is limited. Thus, it is important to design an effective strategy for the replication replacement task. MDHR replaces replicas based on the last time the replica was requested, number of access, and size of replica. It selects the best replica location from among the many replicas based on response time that can be determined by considering the data transfer time, the storage access latency, the replica requests that waiting in the storage queue, the distance between nodes and CPU process capability. Simulation results utilizing the OptorSim show MDHR achieves better performance overall than other strategies in terms of job execution time, effective network usage and storage usage.
B. Adineh, H. Rajabi Mashhadi, M. E. Hajiabadi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2014)

The main goal of this paper is to structurally analyze impact of DSM programs on reliability indices. A new approach is presented to structurally decompose reliability index Expected Energy Not Supplied (EENS) by using Monte Carlo simulation. EENS is decomposed into two terms. The first term indicates EENS which is caused by generation contingencies. The second term indicates EENS which is caused by transmission and generation contingencies. The proposed approach can be used to indicate appropriate buses for applying DSM. Furthermore, networks are studied at two levels HLI and HLII. Studies show that in some networks reliability indices are affected mostly at the HLI level. While in some other networks, reliability indices are influenced mostly at the HLII level. It means that in these networks, reliability indices are affected by transmission contingencies. Then, it is shown that the implementation of load shifting is effective in some networks and buses. These are the ones which their EENS is more influenced by generation contingencies. However it is not effective in the ones which their EENS is more influenced by transmission contingencies. The simulation results on the IEEE-RTS and Khorasan network show the efficiency of the proposed approach.
H. Bakhshandeh, A. Akbari Foroud,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2016)

This paper addresses the possibility of capacity withholding by energy producers, who seek to increase the market price and their own profits. The energy market is simulated as an iterative game, where each state game corresponds to an hourly energy auction with uniform pricing mechanism. The producers are modeled as agents that interact with their environment through reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm. Each producer submits step-wise offer curves, which include the quantity-price pairs, to independent system operator (ISO) under incomplete information. An experimental change is employed in the producer's profit maximization model that causes the iterative algorithm converge to a withholding bidding value. The producer can withhold the energy of his own generating unit in a continuous range of its available capacity. The RL relation is developed to prevent from becoming invalid in certain situations. The results on a small test system demonstrate the emergence of the capacity withholding by the producers and its effect on the market price.

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