IRANIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING
http://ijeee.iust.ac.ir
Iranian Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Journal articles for year 2021, Volume 17, Number 1Yektaweb Collection - https://yektaweb.comen2021/3/11Shearlet-Based Adaptive Noise Reduction in CT Images
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1485&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:Times New Roman;"><span style="color:#000000;"><span style="font-size:14px;">The noise in reconstructed slices of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is of unknown distribution, non-stationary, oriented and difficult to distinguish from main structural information. This requires the development of special post-processing methods based on the local statistical evaluation of the noise component. This paper presents an adaptive method of reducing noise in CT images employing the shearlet domain in order to obtain such an estimate. The algorithm for statistical noise assessment takes into account the distribution of signal energy in different scales and directions. The method efficiently uses the strong targeted sensitivity of shearlet systems in order to reflect more accurately the anisotropic information in the image. Because of the complex characteristics of the noise in these images, the threshold constant is determined by means of the relative entropy change criterion. The comparative analysis, which has been conducted, shows that the proposed method achieves higher values for the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), as well as lower values for the Mean Squared Error (MSE), in comparison with the other methods considered. For the MATLAB’S Shepp Logan Phantom test image, the numerical value of this superiority is on average more than 23% for the first quantitative measure, and 37% for the second. Its efficiency, which is greater than that of the wavelet-based method, is confirmed by the results obtained – the edges have been preserved during noise reduction in real CT images.</span></span></span></div>M. PetrovA Study of the Linear Electromagnetic Generator for Harvesting Electrical Energy from Initial Acceleration: Design, Optimization, and Experimental Validation
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1490&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="color:#000000;">One of the important requirements in projectiles is to design a power supply for fuse consumption. In this study, an optimum design for the power supply, which includes a Miniaturized Inertia Generator (MIG), was introduced. The main objective of this research was to optimize the dimensions of the MIG with the aim of increasing energy. To achieve this, the design of experiment (DOE) was carried out through RSM-BBD to optimize six parts of the MIG. Numerical simulations were performed using Maxwell’s software. After analyzing of results by ANOVA and extracting the optimum result from the RSM, a Miniaturized Inertia Generator was fabricated with optimum dimensions. The results showed that the MIG with optimum dimensions at an acceleration of 800’g could generate 15.25V and stores the generated energy using an RLC circuit within 1ms. The experimental results which were obtained by the shock test system showed that 14.75V was charged on a capacitor within 1.1ms which has good conformity with the numerical results. The results indicated that the proposed design not only increased the MIG efficiency, but also determined the effect of each parameter on the produced energy and efficiency.</span></span></span></div>H. LexianDesign and Implementation of a High-Precision Position Controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on a New Gain Scheduling Approach
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1502&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="color:#000000;">The direct drive permanent magnet synchronous motor (DD-PMSM) is a suitable choice for high-precision position control applications. Among various control methods of this motor, the vector control approaches especially the field oriented control has a high-performance in the industrial drives. In this method, the components of stator current are controlled independently and as a result, the torque and flux are controlled continuously. Since there are some limitations and constraints in the motor, inverter, and control system, a new anti-windup gain scheduling PID controller based on the adaptive control principles is proposed for the position control loop. In the proposed method, different values are assigned to coefficients of the PID controller according to the position error to achieve high precision. Also, a very high-accuracy encoder and an ARM processor are used for measuring the instantaneous position and implementation of the proposed method, respectively. The simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness, high accuracy, and good dynamic behavior of the proposed control method.</span></span></span></div>A. Damaki AliabadDirect Power Control With NSTSM Algorithm for DFIG Using SVPWM Technique
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1518&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="color:#000000;">The paper presents a super-twisting sliding mode (STSM) regulator with neural networks (NN) of direct power command (DPC) for controlling the active/reactive power of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) using a two-level space vector pulse width modulation (2L-SVPWM). Traditional DPC strategy with proportional-integral (PI) controllers (DPC-PI) has significantly more active/reactive power ripples, electromagnetic torque ripple, and harmonic distortion (THD) of voltages. The proposed DPC strategy based on a neural super-twisting sliding mode controller (NSTSM) minimizes the THD of stator/rotor voltage, reactive/active power ripple, rotor/stator current, and torque ripples. Also, the DPC method with NSTSM controllers (DPC-NSTSM) is a simple algorithm compared to the vector control method. Both methods are developed and programmed in Matlab on a 1.5MW DFIG-based wind turbines. The simulation studies of the DPC technique with the NSTM algorithm have been performed, and the results of these studies are presented and discussed.</span></span></span></div>H. BenbouhenniAnalytical Field Study on Induction Motors under Fluctuated Voltages
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1620&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color:#000000;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="font-family:Times New Roman;">Nowadays study of input voltage quality on induction motors behavior has become a controversial subject due to the wide application of these motors in the industry. The impact of grid voltage fluctuations on the performance of induction motors can be included in this area. The majority of papers devoted to the influence of voltage fluctuations on the induction motors are focusing only on the solving of d-q state equations or steady-state equivalent circuit analysis. In this paper, a new approach to this issue is investigated by field analysis which studies the effects of voltage fluctuations on the magnetic fluxes of induction motors. New analytical expressions to approximate the airgap flux density and the torque under-voltage fluctuation conditions are presented. These characteristics are also calculated directly by the finite-element method considering the magnetic saturation and the harmonic fields. Finally, experimental results on a typical induction motor are employed to validate the accuracy of analytical and simulation results.</span></span></span></div>M. GhaseminezhadImplementation of Control Strategy for Predicting Energy Consumption Management in a Food and Beverage Industry Using Regression Analysis
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1649&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="font-family:Times New Roman;"><span style="color:#000000;">The philosophy of efficient energy consumption is vitally crucial to profitable production cost in manufacturing industries. This is because the unit production cost is largely determined by the cost of unit energy supply; which is quite higher than the cost of raw materials in Nigeria. It has been established that the Nigerian industrial sector is responsible for 8.7% of the total energy consumption in the nation. Out of this chunk, the food and beverage industry appropriates approximately 2%. Meanwhile, it is observed that the energy consumption trend in most industrial electric motors is always high due to continuous operation even during the idle time/period in production. In this study, data gathered has a coefficient of determination of 99.7%. This is, thus, subjected to regression analysis which assists in predicting the energy consumption trend for a period of one year. Further to this, the capacity of control principles in efficient energy consumption is demonstrated by practical real time implementation of a smart energy saving in the food industries using PLClogicx software. In this sense, the developed programmable logic control (PLC) ladder diagram was further designed and implemented using fuzzy logic control (FLC). This is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink toolbox. By this arrangement; it is observed that there was a significant reduction in energy consumption. This is obviously revealed in the obtained results. In this case, there was an average electrical energy savings of 65.59% in the plant’s case sealing section while an energy saving of approximately 0.13% was achieved in reference to the overall energy consumption of the industrial plant’s processes. Finally, based on the mathematical calculations obtained from observations of typical production processes in the multinational food and beverage company, the FLC is discovered to provide 99.83% efficiency in optimizing energy consumption.</span></span></span></div>P. O. OluseyiModified Impedance-Based OOS Protection Based on On-Line Thévenin Equivalent Estimation
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1690&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color:#000000;"><span style="font-family:Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;">In this paper, a novel approach based on the Thévenin tracing is presented to modified conventional impedance-based out-of-step (OOS) protection. In conventional approach, the OOS detection is done by measuring positive sequence impedance. However, the measured impedance may be change due to different factors such as capacitor bank switching and reactive power compensators that it can cause the relay to malfunction. In this paper, first, an on-line Thévenin equivalent (TE) approach based on the recursive least square (RLS) is presented. Then, a protection function is developed based on online network Thévenin equivalent parameters to correct the measured impedance path. The main feature of this method is the use of local voltage and current measurements for Thévenin equivalent estimation and OOS protection. The performance of the proposed method is investigated by simulation of synchronous generator OOS protection function in the presence of a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The simulation results show that, STATCOM changes the impedance path and can cause the incorrect diagnosis of OOS relay. Furthermore, the proposed method corrects the impedance path and improves the accuracy of OOS impedance-based function when the STATCOM is installed in system.</span></span></span></div>M. KarrariSemi-Analytical Modeling of Electromagnetic Performances in Magnet Segmented Spoke-Type Permanent Magnet Machine Considering Infinite and Finite Soft-Magnetic Material Permeability
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1711&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="color:#000000;">In this paper, we present a semi-analytical model for determining the magnetic and electromagnetic characteristics of spoke-type permanent magnet (STPM) machine considering magnet segmentation and finite soft-material relative permeability. The proposed model is based on the resolution of the Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations in a Cartesian pseudo-coordinate system with respect to the relative permeability effect of iron core in a subdomain model. Two different magnet-segmented STPM machine was studied analytically and numerically. The effect of the iron core relative permeability on the STPM machine performances was investigated at no-load and on-load conditions with respect to certain values of iron core relative permeability by comparing cogging torque, electromagnetic torque ripple, and reluctance torque ripple waveforms. In order to validate the results of the proposed analytical model, the analytical and numerical results were compared. It can be seen that the analytical modeling results are consistent with the results of numerical analysis.</span></span></span></div>A. JabbariImpact of Human Error Modeling on Failure Rate and Optimum Routine Test Interval of Protection System
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1734&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color:#000000;"><span style="font-family:Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;">Power systems should have acceptable reliability in order to operate properly. Highly available and dependable protective relays help to obtain the desirable reliability. The relays should be periodically evaluated during specific intervals to achieve the mentioned characteristics. The Routine Test Interval (<em>RTI</em>) should be optimized in order to economically maximize the reliability of the protection system. The failure rate of the relays plays a vital role in determination of the Optimum Routine Test Interval (ORTI). Human error is one of the effective factors in the failure rate of the relays. Therefore, in this paper, a Markov model is proposed to investigate the impact of human error on the failure rate and the ORTI of the protection system. The model is applied for the protection system of power transformer. The obtained results indicated that human error has a significant impact on the increase of protection system failure, the decrease of the desired reliability indices, and the reduction of ORTI of the protection system.</span></span></span></div>M. AssiliEffects of Moving Landmark’s Speed on Multi-Robot Simultaneous Localization and Mapping in Dynamic Environments
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1740&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="color:#000000;">Even when simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solutions have been broadly developed, the vast majority of them relate to a single robot performing measurements in static environments. Researches show that the performance of SLAM algorithms deteriorates under dynamic environments. In this paper, a multi-robot simultaneous localization and mapping (MR-SLAM) system is implemented within a dynamic environment. A probabilistic approach based on extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to detect moving landmarks and consequently improve the performance of SLAM in dynamic environments. The expected landmark area (ELA) is introduced. This concept allows identifying and filtering the moving landmarks. Several experiments are performed varying the speed and number of moving landmarks within the environment to investigate the effect of dynamism level and landmark speed on. The root mean square error (RMSE) is used as a form of measuring the performance of the algorithm. Results show moving landmarks, degrade the performance of classical EKF-SLAM. However, the proposed method is robust to environmental changes and is less affected by the increasing speed of the moving landmarks.</span></span></span></div>R. HavangiSynthesis of Antenna Arrays of Maximum Directivity for a Specified Sidelobe Level
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1747&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="color:#000000;">Linear and planar antenna arrays are synthesized to have maximum directivity for a specified sidelobe level. The directivity is maximized subject to a given SLL. The beamwidth and the zeros of array factor are studied as well as the directivity. Maximum directivity-arrays are compared through some examples with super-directive, uniform, Dolph-Chebyshev and Riblet-Chebychev arrays to find a complete definition of optimum arrays. Also, the optimum value of <em>n</em>-bar is intuitively found for Taylor arrays.</span></span></span></div>M. Khalaj-AmirhosseiniComplementary Split Ring Resonator Effects on Radiation Pattern Reconfigurable Circular Microstrip Antennas
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1775&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="color:#000000;">In this study, a radiation pattern reconfigurable microstrip antenna is designed and fabricated. The antenna’s radiation pattern is directed in 9 different angles by employing a radiating patch and embedding complementary split ring resonators (CSRR) on the ground plane. The radiating patch is of circular shape, while for CSRR elements both circular and rectangular shapes are investigated. The antenna is excited through coaxial feed. There are four CSRR cells on the ground plane. With applying slots on CSRR’s arms and loading them by pin diodes, variable length CSRRs are obtained which result in radiation pattern reconfigurable property. Radiation characteristics of the antenna versus different switching modes of pin diodes are investigated and illustrated. The proposed antenna is also compact. The designed antenna was fabricated on FR4 substrate with thickness of 1.6 mm, and measurement results are provided. The results demonstrate that the presented antenna has impedance bandwidth of 2.39-2.47 GHz with a gain of more than 7 dBi.</span></span></span></div>S. JarchiASIC Design of Butterfly Unit Based on Non-Redundant and Redundant Algorithm
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1809&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="color:#000000;">Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processors employed with pipeline architecture consist of series of Processing Elements (PE) or Butterfly Units (BU). BU or PE of FFT performs multiplication and addition on complex numbers. This paper proposes a single BU to compute radix-2, 8 point FFT in the time domain as well as frequency domain by replacing a series of PEs. This BU comprises of fused floating point (FP) addition-subtraction (FFAS) and modified booth algorithm based floating point multiplier (FMULT). BU performs all arithmetic operations in floating pointform to overcome the nonlinearities available in fixed word length (FWL). FP arithmetic is slower as compared with FWL. To improve the speed of operation, symmetrical property of twiddle constant is used and they are embedded in the BU. BU outputs two halves of computation simultaneously with a single FFAS and two FMULT. BU design is synthesized, placed and routed for 45nm technology of nangate open cell library. Synthesized results show that proposed BU consumes 23910µm<sup>2 </sup>area with latency of 3.44ns which are 5.05% smaller in area, 7.02% faster and replaces a set of two five operand adder and two multipliers by a single FFAS as compared with previously reported smallest work.</span></span></span></div>P. Kulkarni