IRANIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING
http://ijeee.iust.ac.ir
Iranian Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Journal articles for year 2019, Volume 15, Number 2Yektaweb Collection - https://yektaweb.comen2019/6/11A Novel Singing Voice Separation Method Based on Sparse Non-Negative Matrix Factorization and Low-Rank Modeling
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1240&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color:#000000;"><span style="font-family:times new roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;">A new single channel singing voice separation algorithm is presented in this paper. This field of signal processing provides important capability in various areas dealing with singer identification, voice recognition, data retrieval. This separation procedure is done using a decomposition model based on the spectrogram of singing voice signals. The novelty of the proposed separation algorithm is related to different issues listed in the following: 1) The decomposition scheme employs the vocal and music models learned using sparse non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. The vocal signal and music accompaniment can be considered as sparse and low-rank components of a singing voice segment, respectively. 2) An alternating factorization algorithm is used to decompose input data based on the modeled structures of the vocal and musical components. 3) A voice activity detection algorithm is introduced based on the energy of coding coefficients matrix in the training step to learn the basis vectors that are related to instrumental parts. 4) In the separation phase, these non-vocal atoms are updated to the new test conditions using the domain transfer approach to result in a proper separation procedure with low reconstruction error. The performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm is done using different measures and leads to significantly better results in comparison with the earlier methods in this context and the traditional procedures. The average improvement values of the proposed separation algorithm for PESQ, fwSegSNR, SDI, and GNSDR measures in comparison with previous separation methods in two defined test scenario and three mentioned SMR levels are 0.53, 0.84, 0.39, and 2.19, respectively.</span></span></span></div>
S. MavaddatiAn Intelligent Non-Trial-and-Error Design Method for Double Screen Frequency Selective Surfaces
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1256&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:times new roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="color:#000000;">An intelligent design method of double screen frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) is addressed in this paper. The employed unit cell is composed of two metallic screens, which are printed on both sides of a substrate. The presented non-trial-and-error approach is investigated based on the separate design of each screen. With the help of some physical intuition and an equivalent circuit model, it is shown that the conventional use of complement geometries restricts the final desired filtering response. Therefore, unlike the previous studies, the metallic screens are not geometrically complementary in this paper. An excellent agreement between the full-wave simulations and corresponding equivalent circuit models has been observed. Using standard lumped elements, a highly selective miniaturized FSS (0.06λ<sub>0</sub> ~ 0.08λ<sub>0</sub>) with two closely-spaced pass bands is designed, for GSM and WLAN frequencies. Simulation results show a dual-polarized characteristic with a good angular stability performance for the proposed structure.</span></span></span></div>
H. RajabalipanahClifford Algebra’s Geometric Product Properties in Image-Processing and its Efficient Implementation
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1312&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="font-family:times new roman;"><span style="color:#000000;">Clifford Algebra (CA) is an effective substitute for classic algebra as the modern generation of mathematics. However, massive computational loads of CA-based algorithms have hindered its practical usage in the past decades. Nowadays, due to magnificent developments in computational architectures and systems, CA framework plays a vital role in the intuitive description of many scientific issues. Geometric Product is the most important CA operator, which created a novel perspective on image processing problems. In this work, Geometric Product and its properties are discussed precisely, and it is used for image partitioning as a straightforward instance. Efficient implementation of CA operators needs a specialized structure, therefore a hardware architecture is proposed that achieves 25x speed-up in comparison to the software approach.</span></span></span></div>
A. SadrDesign and Fabrication of a Compact SIW Diplexer in C-Band
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1272&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color:#000000;"><span style="font-family:times new roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;">In this paper, a compact 6.8/7.6 GHz diplexer is provided with the help of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) structures. The use of this structure is for satellite communication systems. The designed diplexer includes a T-junction. In addition, our structure consists of two SIW filters of the type of bandpass. The relative bandwidth of the upper channel is 3.3% at the center frequency of 7.6 GHz and its lower channel is 3.7% at the center frequency of 6.8 GHz. The proposed diplexer offers a great benefit in terms of size decrease. In addition, it displays an optimal insertion loss. While giving the low return loss. Ultimately, the designed structure displays ideal rates of isolation and rejection. The diplexer incorporates a planar form and can be simply integrated with to the integrated circuits of the microwave. The insertion and return losses are 1.8 dB and 15d B in the lower band and they are 1.9 dB and 17 dB in the upper band. Simulations have been implemented with CST Microwave Studio. The Diplexer is completely built into a standard printed circuit board (PCB) procedure. A very favorable compromise is reached among the results of the construction and the measurement, which is the evidence of the proposed method.</span></span></span></div>
M. AfsahiDesign of the Compact Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Antenna Bandwidth Optimization Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1288&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:times new roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="color:#000000;">In this paper a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented to design a compact stepped triangle shape antenna in order to obtain the proper UWB bandwidth as defined by FCC. By changing the various cavity dimensions of the antenna, data to develop PSO program in MATLAB is achieved. The results obtained from the PSO algorithm are applied to the antenna design to fine-tune the bandwidth. Bandwidth optimization for ultra-wideband frequency of 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz is achieved by applying PSO algorithm. High-Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) software tool is used for the simulation. An optimized antenna is fabricated, tested and test results are found in accordance with simulation results.</span></span></span></div>
M. A. TrimukheEfficient Analysis of Traffic Intersection Scenes by Employing Traffic Phase Information
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1080&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:times new roman;"><span style="color:#000000;"><span style="font-size:14px;">Analyzing motion patterns in traffic videos can be employed directly to generate high-level descriptions of their content. For traffic videos captured from intersections, usually, we can easily provide additional information about traffic phases. Such information can be obtained directly from the traffic lights or through traffic lights controllers. In this paper, we focus on incorporating additional information to analyze the traffic videos more efficiently. Using side information on traffic phases, the semantic of motion patterns from traffic intersection scenes can be learned more effectively. The learning is performed based on optical ﬂow features extracted from training video clips, and applying them to supervised topic models such as MedLDA and MedSTC. Based on such models, any video clip can be represented based on the learned patterns. Such representations can be further exploited in scene analysis, rule mining, abnormal event detection, etc. Our experiments show that employing side information in intersection video analysis leads to improvement in discovering scene pattern. Moreover, supervised topic models achieve about 4% improvement in abnormal event detection, compared to the unsupervised ones, in terms of area under ROC.</span></span></span></div>
P. AhmadiAdaptive Approximation-Based Control for Uncertain Nonlinear Systems With Unknown Dead-Zone Using Minimal Learning Parameter Algorithm
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1309&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:times new roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="color:#000000;">This paper proposes an adaptive approximation-based controller for uncertain strict-feedback nonlinear systems with unknown dead-zone nonlinearity. Dead-zone constraint is represented as a combination of a linear system with a disturbance-like term. This work invokes neural networks (NNs) as a linear-in-parameter approximator to model uncertain nonlinear functions that appear in virtual and actual control laws. Minimal learning parameter (MLP) algorithm is proposed to decrease the computational load, the number of adjustable parameters, and to avoid the “explosion of learning parameters” problem. An adaptive TSK-type fuzzy system is proposed to estimate the disturbance-like term in the dead-zone description which further will be used to compensate the effect of the dead-zone, and it does not require the availability of the dead-zone input. Then, the proposed method based on the dynamic surface control (DSC) method is designed which avoids the “explosion of complexity” problem. Proposed scheme deals with dead-zone nonlinearity and uncertain dynamics without requiring the availability of any knowledge about them, and it develops a control input without singularity concern. Stability analysis shows that all the signals of the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded and the tracking error converges to the vicinity of the origin. Simulation and comparison results verify the acceptable performance of the presented controller.</span></span></span></div>
M. Shahriari-KahkeshiDesign of Fractional Order Sliding Mode Controller for Chaos Suppression of Atomic Force Microscope System
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1227&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:times new roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="color:#000000;">A novel nonlinear fractional order sliding mode controller is proposed to control the chaotic atomic force microscope system in presence of uncertainties and disturbances. In the design of the suggested fractional order controller, conformable fractional order derivative is applied. The stability of the scheme is proved by means of the Lyapunov theory based on conformable fractional order derivative. The simulation results show the advantages of the designed controller such as fast convergence speed, high accuracy and robustness against uncertainties and disturbances.</span></span></span></div>
H. Toossian ShandizModeling and Control of Water Level in Boiler Drum for Nassiriyah Thermal Power Plant
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1252&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color:#000000;"><span style="font-family:times new roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;">The boiler drum process is a nonlinear, complex and multivariable process which includes significant time delay. Therefore, the control on the water level in the drum is not easy and ideal. The first objective of this paper is to model the drum water level referring to 210 MW power unit for Nassiriyah thermal power plant. The second objective is to study the water level controller operation with its performance investigation. Firstly, the drum water level process has been modelled based on first principles by two models: the proposed simplified linearized model and the complicated nonlinear model. Then, a comparison between the extracted practical plant data and the water level results simulated by the two models demonstrate the validity of both models with very good approximations. Secondly, Proportional Integral (PI) controller based on three element water level control strategy and used in this plant, has been described and simulated by MATLAB/Simulink. The controller parameters have been selected according to practical considerations. These considerations are minimizing as possible, a number of the close and open commands to the feedwater flow control valve to extend its lifetime with maintaining the drum water level on a set point. The controller has been tested to evaluate its performance for different values of proportional gain (K<sub>p</sub>), integral gain (T<sub>i</sub>), gain of steam flow signal (Gx<sub>2</sub>), and gain of mass feedwater flow signal (Gx<sub>3</sub>). Firstly, the results show that selection of K<sub>p</sub> is difficult because of the tradeoff between fast dynamic response and steady state performance. Secondly, the results show selection of T<sub>i</sub> affects only steady state performance. Finally, the results show that selection of Gx<sub>2</sub> and Gx<sub>3</sub> plays an important role in stability of the drum water level.</span></span></span></div>
A. Fadhil HalihalOptimal Integral Sliding Mode Controller of a UAV With Considering Actuator Fault
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1258&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color:#000000;"><span style="font-family:times new roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;">In this paper, using the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) method, we propose a Robust Optimal Integral Sliding Mode Controller (ROISMC) to guarantee an optimal control law for a quadrotor which has become increasingly important by virtue of its high degrees of manoeuvres ability in presence of unknown time-varying external disturbances and actuator fault. The robustness of the controller is ensured by an Integral Sliding Mode Controller (ISMC). Subsequently, based on Luenberger linear state estimator, the control algorithm is reformed and the actuator’s faults are detected. Moreover, design of the controller is based on Lyapunov method which can provide the stability of all system states during the tracking of the desired trajectory. The stability of suggested algorithm is verified via the execution of sudden maneuvers subjected to forcible wind disturbance and actuator faults while performing accurate attitude and position tracking by running an extensive numerical simulation. It is comprehended that the proposed optimal robust method can achieve much better tracking capability compared with conventional sliding mode controller.</span></span></span></div>
A. F. EhyaeiA Low Voltage Low Power CMOS Implementation of Second Generation Orderly Current Buffer
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1273&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color:#000000;"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="font-family:times new roman;">In this paper, a novel low voltage low power current buffer was presented. The proposed structure was implemented in CMOS technology and is the second generation of OCB (orderly current buffer) called OCBII. This generation is arranged in single input-single output configuration and has modular structure. It is theoretically analyzed and the formulae of its most important parameters are derived. Pre and Post-layout plus Monte Carlo simulations were performed under ±0.75 V by Cadence using TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS technology parameters up to 3<sup>rd</sup> order. The proposed structure could expand and act as a dual output buffer in which the second output shows extremely high impedance because of its cascode configuration. The results prove that OCBII makes it possible to achieve very low values of input impedance under low supply voltages and low power dissipation. The most important parameters of 1<sup>st</sup>, 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> orders, i.e. input impedance (R<sub>in</sub>), -3 dB bandwidth (BW), power dissipation (P<sub>d</sub>) and output impedance (R<sub>o</sub>) were found respectively in Pre-layout plus Monte Carlo results as:<br>
1<sup>st</sup> order: R<sub>in</sub> (52.4 Ω), BW (733.7 MHz), P<sub>d</sub> (225.6 µW), R<sub>o</sub> (105.6 kΩ)<br>
2<sup>nd</sup> order: R<sub>in</sub> (3.8 Ω), BW (576.4 MHz), P<sub>d</sub> (307 µW), R<sub>o</sub> (106.4 kΩ)<br>
3<sup>rd</sup> order: R<sub>in</sub> (0.34 Ω), BW (566.9 MHz), P<sub>d</sub> (535.6 µW), R<sub>o</sub> (118.2 kΩ)<br>
And in Post-layout plus Monte Carlo results as:<br>
1<sup>st</sup> order: R<sub>in</sub> (59.9 Ω), BW (609.6 MHz), P<sub>d</sub> (212.4 µW), R<sub>o</sub> (106.9 kΩ)<br>
2<sup>nd</sup> order: R<sub>in</sub> (11.3 Ω), BW (529.3 MHz), P<sub>d</sub> (389.9 µW), R<sub>o</sub> (109.8 kΩ)<br>
3<sup>rd</sup> order: R<sub>in</sub> (5.8 Ω), BW (526.5 MHz), P<sub>d</sub> (514.5 µW), R<sub>o</sub> (125.5 kΩ)<br>
Corner cases simulation results are also provided indicating well PVT insensitivity advantage of the block.</span></span></span></div>
S. J. AzhariAn Ultra-Low Power Variable Gain Current Mirror
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1305&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family:times new roman;"><span style="color:#000000;"><span style="font-size:14px;">A power efficient gain adjustment technique is described to realize programmable gain current mirror. The dissipation power changes over the wide gain range of structure are almost negligible. This property is in fact very interesting from power management perspective, especially in analog designs. The simple structure and constant frequency bandwidth are other ever-interesting merits of proposed structure. The programming gain range of structure is from zero up to 18dB under operating frequency range from 72 kHz to 173 MHz. The maximum power dissipation of designed circuit is only 3.1 µW which is drawn from 0.7 V supply voltage. Simulation results in 0.18 µm CMOS TSMC standard technology demonstrate the high performance of the proposed structure.</span></span></span></div>
H. Faraji BaghtashUltra Low Power Symmetric Pass Gate Adiabatic Logic with CNTFET for Secure IoT Applications
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijeee/browse.php?a_id=1297&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color:#000000;"><span style="font-family:times new roman;"><span style="font-size:14px;">With the advent and development of the Internet of Things, new needs arose and more attention was paid to these needs. These needs include: low power consumption, low area consumption, low supply voltage, higher security and so on. Many solutions have been proposed to improve each one of these needs. In this paper, we try to reduce the power consumption and enhance the security by using SPGAL, a DPA-resistant Logic, and Carbon Nanotube FETs (CNTFETs) instead of conventional CMOS and MOSFET technology, for IoT devices. All simulations are done with HSPICE.</span></span></span></div>
S. Mirzakuchaki