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Showing 40 results for Reinforced

Kheyr Aldin A., Mortezaei A.r.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2004)

Structural walls are used extensively in moderate- and high-rise buildings to resist lateral loads induced by earthquakes. The seismic performance of many buildings is, therefore, closely linked to the behavior of the reinforced concrete walls. The analytical models used in this paper are developed to study the push-over response of T-shaped reinforced concrete walls andinvestigate the influence of the flange walls on laterally loaded walls and nonlinear behavior of shear walls, namely strength, ductility and failure mechanisms. A layered nonlinear finite element method is used to study the behavior of T-shaped and rectangular (barbell) shear walls. This paper introduces a computer program to practically study three-dimensional characteristics of reinforced concrete wall response by utilizing layered modeling. The program is first verified bysimulated and reported experimental response of 3-D reinforced concrete shear walls. Subsequently, a study considering eighteen analytical test specimens of T-shaped and barbell shear walls is carried out. Finally, based on analytical results, a new equation for minimum ratio of shear wall area to floor-plan area is proposed.
Ghodrati Amiri G., Sedighi S.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)

In the past decade design procedure changed to �performance-based design� from�force-based design�, by this mean many researchers focused on nonlinear static analysis (NSA)and the procedure named �PUSHOVER�. Advantages of this method are defining the inelasticbehavior of structure without nonlinear dynamic analysis (NDA) effort and also defining plastichinges formation in critical elements, and the order of formed plastic hinges. In spite of these goodadvantages NSA is limited to short and planar structures and application of that in tall andtorsionaly asymmetric structures may yield unreliable results.In this study reliability of NSA is investigated by performing both nonlinear static and dynamicanalysis on six 2D moment resisting concrete frames. Non linear dynamic analysis has been doneby the suggested method in FEMA356 guideline called �Target Displacement Method�. A groupof 4 different lateral increasing loads were used in pushover analysis and 3 different groundmotions were applied in NDA. Results indicate that same responses can be obtained by performingNSA, but errors will be increased by frames height increment.
Khalou A.r., Ghara Chour Lou A.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)

This paper presents the results of analytical studies concerning the flexuralstrengthening of reinforced concrete beams by external bonding of high-strength lightweightcarbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates to tension face of the beam. Three groups of beamswere tested analytically and compared with existing experimental results. Results of the numericalanalyses showed that, although addition of CFRP plates to the tension face of the beam increasesthe strength, it decreases the beam ductility. Finite element modeling of fifteen different beams in aparametric study indicates that steel area ratio, CFRP thickness, CFRP ultimate strength andelastic modulus considerably influence the level of strengthening and ductility.
F.m. Wegian, M.t. Alkhamis, S.r. Sabbagh Yazdi,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2006)

This study evaluates two different types of techniques for concrete hollow-block sections reinforced with traditional steel rebars and wire meshes, and compares their structural behaviour to that of an ordinary reinforced concrete beam section. The comparisons are based on the responses both before and after they were repaired with glass fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP). The specimens were subjected to concentrated loading up to initial failure. After failure, the specimens were repaired and loaded once again until ultimate failure. It was shown that the success of the repair by GFRP depended on the mode of failure of the hollow-block concrete beams.
Ali Kheyroddin, Hosein Naderpour,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2007)

A parametric study is performed to assess the influence of the tension reinforcement index, ( ω = ρ fy /f Bc), and the bending moment distribution (loading type) on the ultimate deformation characteristics of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The analytical results for 15 simply supported beams with different amounts of tension reinforcement ratio under three different loading conditions are presented and compared with the predictions of the various formulations and the experimental data, where available. The plastic hinge rotation capacity increases as the loading is changed from the concentrated load at the middle to the third-point loading, and it is a maximum for the case of the uniformly distributed load. The effect of the loading type on the plastic rotation capacity of the heavily reinforced beams is not as significant as that for the lightly reinforced beams. Based on the analytical results obtained using the nonlinear finite element method, new simple equations as a function of the tension reinforcement index, ω, and the loading type are proposed. The analytical results indicate that the proposed equations can be used for analysis of ultimate capacity and the associated deformations of RC beams with sufficient accuracy.
M.kazem Sharbatdar,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2008)

FRPs (fiber reinforced polymer) possess many favorable characteristics suitable and applicable for construction industry when compared with steel reinforcement. There are new ideas to use FRPs as longitudinal or transverse reinforcement for new concrete elements particularly for bridge decks or beams. Although high tensile strength of FRP is main characteristic for applications at both areas, its weakness to bending and linear stress-strain behavior with virtually no ductility, makes it vulnerable to probably premature failures under reversal tension-compression loading during earthquake. A pilot research project has been conducted to explore the characteristics of large-scale cantilever concrete beams reinforced with FRP re-bars and grids and were tested under either simulated cyclic loading or monotonically increasing lateral loading. This paper presents the test parameters and results obtained during research. The analytical relationships are compared with those recorded experimentally, and test results showed the diagonal cracks and either rupturing of FRP bars in tension or stability failure in compression bars at long or short shear span beams. The comparison of nominal moment capacities between analytical and experimental values confirms that plane section analysis is applicable to FRP reinforced concrete members.
Alireza Mortezaei, Ali Kheyroddin,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2009)

The work presented in this paper investigates the causes of size effects in structural-concrete members. It is

based on the use of a finite-element model found to yield realistic predictions of structural-concrete behavior in all

cases investigated to date. In fact, the previous use of this model in investigations of size effects in reinforced-concrete

beams indicated that such effects reflect the dependence of load-carrying capacity on small unintended eccentricities

of the applied load and/or load-induced anisotropy, rather than, as widely considered, on fracture-mechanics

characteristics. The present work extends the scope of the above investigation so as to include the case of reinforced

concrete flanged shear walls, the behavior of which is already established experimentally. It is found that, unlike the

flanged shear walls with a height-to-length ratio larger than 2, the shear walls investigated in the present work, in

contrast with the interpretation given to recently published experimental findings, are size-effect independent.

A.r. Khaloo, I. Eshghi, P. Piran Aghl,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)

In this paper the response of cantilevered reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under static lateral loading has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is SuperelasticShape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium elements. The SE SMA is a unique alloy that has the ability to undergo large deformations and return to their undeformed shape by removal of stresses. In this study, different quantities of steel and smart rebars have been used for reinforcement andthe behavior of these models under lateral loading, including their load-displacement curves, residual displacements, and stiffness, were discussed. During lateral loading, rebars yield or concrete crushes in compression zone in some parts of the beams and also residual deflections are created in the structure. It is found that by using SMA rebars in RC beams, these materials tend to return to the previous state (zero strain), so they reduce the permanent deformations and also in turn create forces known as recovery forces in the structure which lead into closing of concrete cracks in tensile zone. This ability makes special structures to maintain their serviceability even after a strong earthquake

P. Ghoddousi, R. Ahmadi, Mahdi Sharifi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

 Superior performances of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) in fresh state to achieve a more uniform distribution encourage the addition of fibers in concrete which is a motivation for structural application of fiberreinforced concrete. Fiber addition reduces the workability of Self-Compacting Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SCFRC). To provide required workability of the SCFRC, more paste is needed in the mixture. Therefore, the coarse aggregate content shall be adjusted to maintain its workability. The purpose of this study is to drive a model for estimating the aggregate contents for SCFRC. This model is based on constant covering mortar thickness theory. In this paper, all parameters which are participated in coarse aggregate content are discussed and presented in a relation. Then another relation is developed for predicting the void volume in the fibrous concrete. These relations are combined and a mathematical relation is deduced for predicting the coarse volume content in the function of the fiber factors. Proposed model is validated by conducting a rheological test. The result shows that the proposed model is simple, applicable and can be used as starting point in practical project.      Finally in order to complete the proposed model, another relation has been derived that can show the interaction of parameters involved in SCFRC rheology behavior. 

A. Gharachorlou, Dr. A.a. Ramezanianpour ,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

The use of epoxy-bonded FRPcomposite for structural repair is emerging as an efficient and cost-effective technique for restoring and upgrading the capacity of concrete structures. Considerable researches have been reported in the last decades on the mechanical behavior and failure modes of the FRPstrengthened RC elements but actual data on its durability are scarce. This study intends to examine the durability of concrete specimens strengthened with FRP laminates under accelerated laboratory conditions and mimic harsh environmental situation which is the penetration of chloride ions. In this study three groups of specimens were examined. Each of these groups includes several concrete cylindrical specimens full confined with FRP laminates for investigating different types of fiber (Glass and Carbon), number of fiber layers and temperature influences. Furthermore, an apparatus was fabricated to simulate wetting and drying cycles for the second group of specimens. Moreover group III specimens were placed in a marine environment for 3 years to monitor their performance. Test results show that addition of FRP laminates reduces chloride ions penetration up to 70 percent. Results also indicate that although chloride ions penetration decreased the ultimate strength of cylindrical specimens up to 11 percent but FRP strengthened specimens achieved their initial strengths. Moreover wetting and drying cycles reduced the strength of cylinder specimens up to about ten percent especially in the high temperature laboratory condition.

A. Kaveh, A. Shakouri Mahmud Abadi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2011)

Cost optimization of the reinforced concrete cantilever soil retaining wall of a given height satisfying some structural and geotechnical design constraints is performed utilizing harmony search and improved harmony search algorithms. The objective function considered is the cost of the structure, and design is based on ACI 318-05. This function is minimized subjected to design constraints. A numerical example of the cost optimization of a reinforced concrete cantilever retaining wall is presented to illustrate the performance of the presented algorithms and the necessary sensitivity analysis is performed.
Ali Kaveh, Omid Sabzi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

This article presents the application of two algorithms: heuristic big bang-big crunch (HBB-BC) and a heuristic particle swarm

ant colony optimization (HPSACO) to discrete optimization of reinforced concrete planar frames subject to combinations of

gravity and lateral loads based on ACI 318-08 code. The objective function is the total cost of the frame which includes the cost

of concrete, formwork and reinforcing steel for all members of the frame. The heuristic big bang-big crunch (HBB-BC) is based

on BB-BC and a harmony search (HS) scheme to deal with the variable constraints. The HPSACO algorithm is a combination of

particle swarm with passive congregation (PSOPC), ant colony optimization (ACO), and harmony search scheme (HS)

algorithms. In this paper, by using the capacity of BB-BC in ACO stage of HPSACO, its performance is improved. Some design

examples are tested using these methods and the results are compared.

Kabir Sadeghi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

An energy based damage index based on a new nonlinear Finite element (FE) approach applicable to RC structures subjected to cyclic, earthquake or monotonic loading is proposed. The proposed method is based on the evaluation of nonlinear local degradation of materials and taking into account of the pseudo-plastic hinge produced in the critical sections of the structure. A computer program is developed, considering local behavior of confined and unconfined concretes and steel elements and also global behavior and damage of reinforced concrete structures under cyclic loading. The segments located between the pseudoplastic hinges at critical sections and the inflection points are selected as base-models through simulation by the proposed FE method. The proposed damage index is based on an energy analysis method considering the primary half-cycles energy absorbed by the structure during loading. The total primary half-cycles absorbed energy to failure is used as normalizing factor. By using the proposed nonlinear analytical approach, the structure's force-displacement data are determined. The damage index is then calculated and is compared with the allowable value. This damage index is an efficient means for deciding whether to repair or demolish structures after an earthquake. It is also useful in the design of new structures as a design parameter for an acceptable limit of damage defined by building codes.  The proposed approach and damage index are validated by results of tests carried out on reinforced concrete columns subjected to cyclic biaxial bending with axial force.

R. Abbasnia, A. Holakoo,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2012)

One important application of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) is to confine concrete as FRP jackets in seismic retrofit process

of reinforced concrete structures. Confinement can improve concrete properties such as compressive strength and ultimate axial

strain. For the safe and economic design of FRP jackets, the stress-strain behavior of FRP-confined concrete under monotonic

and cyclic compression needs to be properly understood and modeled. According to literature review, it has been realized that

although there are many studies on the monotonic compressive loading of FRP-confined concrete, only a few studies have been

conducted on the cyclic compressive loading. Therefore, this study is aimed at investigating the behavior of FRP-confined

concrete under cyclic compressive loading. A total of 18 cylindrical specimens of FRP-confined concretewere tested in uniaxial

compressive loading with different wrap thickness, and loading patterns. The results obtained from the tests are presented and

examined based on analysis of test results predictive equations for plastic strain and stress deterioration were derived. The

results are also compared with those from two current models,comparison revealed the lack of sufficient accuracy of the current

models to predict stress-strain behavior and accordingly some provisions should be incorporated.

A. Kaveh, O. Sabzi,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2012)

In this paper a discrete Big Bang-Big Crunch algorithm is applied to optimal design of reinforced concrete planar frames under

the gravity and lateral loads. Optimization is based on ACI 318-08 code. Columns are assumed to resist axial loads and bending

moments, while beams resist only bending moments. Second-order effects are also considered for the compression members, and

columns are checked for their slenderness and their end moments are magnified when necessary. The main aim of the BB-BC

process is to minimize the cost of material and construction of the reinforced concrete frames under the applied loads such that

the strength requirements of the ACI 318 code are fulfilled. In the process of optimization, the cost per unit length of the sections

is used for the formation of the subsequent generation. Three bending frames are optimized using BB-BC and the results are

compared to those of the genetic algorithm.

R. Ahmadii, P. Ghoddousi, M. Sharifi,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2012)

The main objective of this study is to drive a simple solution for prediction of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) behavior

under four point bending test (FPBT). In this model all the force components at the beam section (before and after cracking)

are formulated by applying these assumptions: a bilinear elastic-perfectly plastic stress-strain response for concrete behavior

in compression, a linear response for the un-cracked tension region in a concrete constitutive model, and an exponential

relationship for stress-crack opening in the crack region which requires two parameters.Then the moment capacity of the critical

cracked section is calculated by applying these assumptions and satisfying equilibrium lawat critical cracked section. After that,

parametric studies have been done on the behavior of SFRC to assess the sensitively of model. Finally the proposed model has

been validated with some existing experimental tests.The result shows that the proposed solution is able to estimate the behavior

of SFRC under FPBT with simplicity and proper accuracy.

M. Z. Kabir, A. Hojatkashani,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2012)

The aim of current study is to investigate the effect of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites on the fatigue

response of reinforced concrete beams. 6 reinforced concrete (RC) beams from which 3 were retrofitted with CFRP sheets, were

prepared and subjected to fatigue load cycles. To predict and trace the failure occurrence and its growth, a small notch was

induced at the middle span in bottom surface of all RC specimens. At the certain points, strains in concrete and CFRP were

measured in each cycle. The upper limit of applied load was considered at the level of design service load of bridges. In addition,

strain measurements facilitated to the calculation of interfacial shear stresses between concrete substrate and the CFRP layer.

The variation of such stresses through load cycles has been presented and discussed. Also, a discussion on possibility of the local

debonding phenomenon resulted from such interfacial stresses was presented. Load–deflection curves, strain responses and

propagation of tensile cracks provided an insight on the performance of the CFRP strengthened beams subjected to different

cycles of fatigue loading. Variation of load-deflection curves through fatigue load cycles depicted stiffness degradation which

was discussed in the research.

C. Torres-Machi, V. Yepes, J. Alcala, E. Pellicer,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2013)

This paper describes a methodology in designing high-performance concrete for simply supported beams, using a hybrid optimization strategy based on a variable neighborhood search threshold acceptance algorithm. Three strategies have been applied to discrete optimization of reinforced concrete beams: Variable Neighborhood Descent (VND), Reduced Neighborhood Search (RNS) and Basic Variable Neighborhood Search (BVNS). The problem includes 14 variables: two geometrical one material type one mix design and 10 variables for the reinforcement setups. The algorithms are applied to two objective functions: the economic cost and the embedded CO2 emissions. Firstly, this paper presents the application of these three different optimization strategies, which are evaluated by fitting the set of solutions obtained to a three-parameter Weibull distribution function. The Variable Neighborhood Descent with Threshold Accepting acceptance strategy algorithm (VND-TA) results as the most reliable method. Finally, the study presents a parametric study of the span length from 10 to 20 m in which it can be concluded that economic and ecological beams show a good parabolic correlation with the span length.
P. Ramadoss,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Abstract: This paper presents the influence of adding steel fibers and incorporation of silica fume on the mechanical properties of high-strength concrete. The variables investigated were steel fiber volume fraction (0 to 1.5%), silica fume replacement (5, 10 and 15%) and water-to-binder ratio (0.25, 0.30, 0.35 and 0.40). The influence of fiber content in terms of fiber reinforcing index on the compressive and splitting tensile strengths of high-strength steel fiber reinforce concrete (HSFRC) is presented. The use of silica fume increased both the compressive and splitting tensile strengths of concrete at 28 days. On the other hand, the addition of crimped steel fiber into high-strength concrete improves splitting tensile strength significantly. Based on the test data, using regression analysis, empirical expression to predict 28-day tensile strength of HSFRC in terms of fiber reinforcing index was developed and the absolute variation and integral absolute error (IAE) obtained was 3.1% and 3.3, respectively. The relationship between splitting tensile and compressive strength of SFRC was reported with regression coefficient (r) = 0.9. The experimental values of previous researchers were compared with the values predicted by the model and found to predict the values quite accurately.
M. B. Esfandiari Sowmehsaraei, R. Jamshidi Chenari,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Soil reinforced with fiber shows characteristics of a composite material, in which fiber inclusion has a significant effect on soil permeability. Concerning to the higher void ratio of carpet fibers, at first stages it may be expected that an increase in fiber content of the reinforced soil would result in an increase in permeability of the mixture. However, the present article demonstrates that fiber inclusion will decrease the permeability of sand-fiber composite.A series of constant head permeability tests have been carried out to show the effects and consequently, a new system of phase relationships was introduced to calculate the dry mass for the sand portion of the composite. Monte Carlo simulation technique adopted with finite element theory was employed to back calculate the hydraulic conductivity of individual porous fibers from the laboratory test results. It was observed that the permeability coefficient of the porous fibers are orders of magnitude less than the skeletal sand portion due to the fine sand particle entrapment and also the fiber volume change characteristics.

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