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Showing 15 results for Compressive Strength

Mazloom M., Ramezanian Pour A.a.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2004)

This paper presents the long-term deformations of reinforced high-strength concrete columns subjected to constant sustained axial forces. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of binder systems containing different levels of silica fume on time-dependent behaviour of high-strength concrete columns. The experimental part of the work focused on concrete mixes having a fixed water/binder ratio of 0.35 and a constant total binder content of 500 kg/m3. The percentages of silica fume that replaced cement in this research were: 0%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 15%. The mechanical properties evaluated in the laboratory were: compressive strength secant modulus of elasticity strain due to creep and shrinkage. The theoretical part of the work is about stress redistribution between concrete and steel reinforcement as a result of time-dependent behaviour of concrete. The technique used for including creep in the analysis of reinforced concrete columns was age-adjusted effective modulus method. The results of this research indicate that as the proportion of silica fume increased, the short-term mechanical properties of concrete such as 28-day compressive strength and secant modulus improved. Also the percentages of silica fume replacement did not have a significant influence on total shrinkage however, the autogenous shrinkage of concrete increased as the amount of silica fume increased. Moreover, the basic creep of concrete decreased at higher silica fume replacement levels. Drying creep (total creep - basic creep) was negligible in this investigation. The results of the theoretical part of this researchindicate that as the proportion of silica fume increased, the gradual transfer of load from the concrete to the reinforcement decreased and also the effect of steel bars in lowering the concrete deformation reduced. Moreover, the total strain of concrete columns decreased at higher silicafume replacement levels.
A. Allahverdi, E. Najafi Kani,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2009)

It has been shown that geopolymerization can transform a wide range of waste aluminosilicate materials into building materials with excellent chemical and physical properties such as fire and acid resistance. In this research work, geopolymerization of construction waste materials with different alkali-activators based on combinations of Na2SiO3 and NaOH has been investigated. A number of systems were designed and prepared with water-to-dry binder ratio, silica modulus, and sodium oxide concentration were adjusted at different levels and setting time and 28-day compressive strength were studied. The results obtained reveal that construction wastes can be activated using a proportioned mixture of Na2SiO3 and NaOH resulting in the formation of a geopolymer cement system exhibiting suitable workability and acceptable setting time and compressive strength. Laboratory techniques of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were utilized for studying molecular and microstructure of the materials.
M. Mazloom ,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)

 According to the Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings, soft storey phenomenon happens in a storey when the lateral stiffness of the storey is lower than 70% of the stiffness of the upper storey, or if it is lower than 80% of the average stiffness of the three upper stories. In the combined structural systems containing moment frames and shear walls, it is possible that the shear walls of the lower stories crack however, this cracking may not occur in the upper stories. The main objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of having soft storey phenomenon in the storey, which is bellow the uncracked walls. If the tension stresses of shear walls obtained from ultimate load combinations exceed the rupture modulus of concrete, the walls are assumed to be cracked. For calculating the tension stresses of shear walls in different conditions, 10 concrete structures containing 15 stories were studied. Each of the structures was investigated according to the obligations of Iranian, Canadian, and American concrete building codes. Five different compressive strengths of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 MPa were assumed for the concrete of the structures. In other words, 150 computerized analyses were conducted in this research. In each analysis, 5 load combinations were imposed to the models. It means, the tension stresses of the shear walls in each storey, were calculated 750 times. The average wall to total stiffness ratios of the buildings were from 0.49 to 0.95, which was quite a wide range. The final conclusion was that the soft storey phenomenon did not happen in any of the structures investigated in this research. 

A. Allahverdi, B. Shaverdi, E. Najafi Kani,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

:The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of sodium oxide on properties of fresh and hardened paste of alkali-activated blast furnace slag from Isfahan steel plant. The silica modulus (SiO2/Na2O) of activator was adjusted at 0.6 and a number of mixes were designed in such a way to contain different levels of sodium oxide including 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6% by weight of dry slag. The most important physico-mechanical properties of the pastes including workability, initial and final setting times, 28-day compressive strength and efflorescence severity were measured. Suitable mixes were chosen for more studies including compressive strength at different ages, 90-day autogenous and drying shrinkages. According to the results, increasing the sodium oxide content of the mixes results in increased workability, reduced setting times, and higher compressive strength. The results confirm the possibility of achieving 28-day compressive strengths up to 27.5, 50.0 and 70.0 MPa for mixes with sodium oxide content of 1, 2 and 3 wt% respectively. The measured values for autogenous shrinkage were all less than 0.1% and SEM studies showed a significant decrease in pore sizes with increasing sodium oxide concentration from 1 to 2%.

A. Allahverdi, E. Najafi Kani,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

Fast set and high early strength cements containing calcium fluoroaluminate phase (C11A7CaF2) are usually produced by sintering a proportioned raw mix from calcareous and argillaceous components as the main raw materials, at reduced temperatures about 1330 °C. In this work, the possibility of utilizing natural pozzolan as the argillaceous component in the cement raw mix and in order to decrease the sintering temperature of fast set and high early strength cement clinker containing C11A7CaF2 phase has been investigated. The results reveal that the sintering temperature can be reduced to temperatures as low as 1270 °C by utilizing a suitable natural pozzolan and improving the mix burnability. The experimental results confirm the possibility of achieving final setting times as low as 10 min and 3-day compressive strengths as high as 57 MPa

Hasan Ghasemzadeh, Ms. Esmat Akbari Jalalabad,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

In this study compressive strength of carbon nanotube (CNT)/cement composite is computed by analytical method. For this purpose representative elementary volume (REV) as an indicator element of composite is chosen and analyzed by elasticity relationships and Von miseschr('39') criterion applied to it. It is assumed that carbon nanotubes are distributed uniformly in the cement and there is perfect bonding in the interface of cement and nanotube. At first for simplicity of computations, carbon nanotubes ( CNTs) are assumed to have unidirectional orientation in the cement matrix. In following, the relations are generalized to consider random distribution of nanotubes in cement, and a new factor suggested for random orientation of fibers in the CNT/cement composite. The results of analytical method are compared with experimental results.

Kwang-Suek Oh, Tae-Hyung Kim,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (11-2013)

This study was conducted to determine the effect of vibration on the curing and compressive strength of lightweight air-trapped

soil (ATS). ATS is manufactured by mixing cement with water and sand and injecting bubbles into the mixture. It is light as

compared to regular soil, can reduce the weight on the ground, and has high fluidity. If ATS is used at construction sites with

many vibration sources, such as pile driving, blasting, and construction machinery, the effect of vibration needs to be seriously

considered. If a road is expanded using ATS to reduce traffic congestion, the ATS quality may decrease because of vibration

generated by traffic moving on the road. In particular, because ATS contains many air bubbles and needs time for curing, the

effect of vibration can be greater than expected. Therefore, the effect of vibration on ATS was evaluated during the curing process

by conducting unconfined compression tests on samples prepared with different values of variables including vibration velocity,

starting vibration time, and mixing ratio. Vibration velocities of 0.25 and 0.50 cm/s did not greatly affect the strength. However,

vibration velocities of above 2.50 cm/s significantly affected the decrease in strength, and the starting vibration time also had a

clear effect on specimens cured for less than 2 hours.

A. Allahverdi, M. Mahinroosta,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2014)

It was found out that the logarithmic models fit the cement–slag blend systems well. In the present study, based on the experimental results, a logarithmic model has been developed to predict the compressive strength of chemically activated high phosphorous slag content cement. Mixes of phosphorous slag (80 wt.%), Portland cement (14 wt.%) and compound chemical activator (6 wt.%) were prepared at different Blaine finenesses using a laboratory ball mill. Compressive strengths of mortar specimens cured in lime-saturated water were measured at different curing times. Mathematical model was prepared in terms of curing time and water-to-cement ratio as independent variables and compressive strength as dependent variable. The comparisons between the model reproductions and the experimentally obtained results confirm the applicability of the presented model.
M. Kobayashi, U. H. Issa, A. Ahmed,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)

The use of recycled bassanite, produced from gypsum wastes, in ground improvement projects is initiated recently in Japan to eliminate the huge quantities of gypsum wastes. Meanwhile the use of recycled bassanite has a positive effect on the environment and economy, it has many challenges. These challenges are related to the release of fluorine more than the standard limits results in contaminated fluorine soil. This research investigates the effect of the amount of bassanite, and water content on the release of fluorine from MC-clay soil stabilized with bassanite, taking in consideration their effect on the compressive strength. Recycled bassanite was mixed with furnace cement with a ratio of 1:1 to prevent the solubility of bassanite. Different amounts of this admixture were mixed with the tested soil at different water contents. Unconfined compression test was used to determine the compressive strength while the solubility of fluorine was used to represent the geo-environmental properties in term of the release of fluorine. Scan electron microscopic (SEM) test was done to identify the development of cementation compounds in the matrix of treated-bassanite soil. Test results showed that, the addition of bassanite had a significant effect on the improvement of compressive strength by increasing the amount of bassanite. Curing time had a significant effect on the increase of compressive strength, the strength increases with the increase of curing time, especially in the later curing time. The release of fluorine increases with increasing the amount of bassanite in soil mixture. The increase of water content had an indirect effect on the release of fluorine while it had a negative effect on the improvement of strength and consuming the amount of admixture. The increase of strength is associated with the decrease of the release of fluorine. Recycled bassanite, produced from gypsum wastes, had a potential to be used as a stabilizer material for MC-clay soil and meet the standards of environment.
A.r. Hariharan, A.s. Santhi , G. Mohan Ganesh ,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2015)

This research paper presents the use of wasteful supplementary cementitious materials like fly ash and silica fume to conserve the cement used in concrete. The cement industry is one of the major producers of greenhouse gases and an energy user. In this study, Portland cement was used as a basic cementitious material. Fly ash and silica fume were used as the cement replacements by weight. The replacement levels of fly ash were 30%, 40% and 50%, and silica fume were 6% and 10%. The water binder ratio was kept constant as 0.4 and super plasticizer was added based on the required workability. Results of the binary and ternary concrete mixtures compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural tensile strength were taken for studyup to 90 days. Based on the experimental results of compressive strength, prediction models were developed using regression analysis and coefficients were proposed to find the split tensile strength and flexural strength of binary-ternary concrete mixtures at 28 and 90 days.
A. Allahvedi, H. Hashemi,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2015)

This paper presents an investigation on durability of alkali-activated slag mortar against magnesium sulfate attack. To do so, the immersion tests in 5% magnesium sulfate solution under room temperature and wetting-drying cycles were applied. Mortar specimens from Portland cements type 2 and 5 in accordance to ASTM standard were also prepared and used as reference. The changes in compressive strength and length of specimens were measured at different time intervals and considered for evaluating the extent of degradation. After 360 days of exposure to the magnesium sulfate solution, type 2 and 5 Portland cements and alkali-activated slag cement have shown 61, 41 and 34% reduction in compressive strength and 0.093, 0.057 and 0.021% increase in length, respectively. The specimens were also studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy for characterizing the chemical products of the degradation process. Main degradation products were ettringite and gypsum for Portland cements and gypsum for alkali-activated slag cement. According to the obtained results, alkali-activated slag cement exhibits a higher sulfate resistance compared to type 2 and even type 5 Portland cements

N. Kaid, M. Cyr, H. Khelafi,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2015)

The paper presents the characterisation of an Algerian natural pozzolan (NP) intended to for use in cement-based materials. The experimental programme was based on different tests on paste and mortar. The pozzolanic activity was assessed by the means of lime consumption over time of mixtures of lime-pozzolan (75% NP and 25% Ca(OH)2, water-binder ratio of 0.45). The degree of reactivity was assessed by observing the crystallographic changes (XRD) and lime consumption (TG) up to 1 year of hydration. The effect of NP on cement-based mixtures was based on the measurement of the water demand and setting time of pastes, and on the compressive strength of mortars, up to one year. The replacement rates of cement by pozzolan were 5, 10 and 15%. A superplasticizer was used (0, 1, 2 and 3% of the binder mass). A calculation of the carbon footprint was investigated in order to assess if the natural pozzolan could be considered as eco-efficient when used in replacement of the clinker. The results showed that NP had a medium pozzolanic reactivity and with a medium-low silica content. The use of NP usually led to a small increase in the water/binder ratio (up to 10%) to maintain constant workability. The setting time was also increased by around 20%. Nevertheless, strength tests showed that the pozzolan had sufficient activity to counteract the water demand, since long-term compressive strength of the binary system (cement + pozzolan) were higher than those of cement alone. The use of NP in replacement of clinker involves a reduction in CO2 emissions for transport up to 1800 km, which is compatible with sustainable development. The results are most promising from both a performance-based and an environmental point of view

Masoud Ahmadi , Hosein Naderpour , Ali Kheyroddin ,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)

Concrete filled steel tube is constructed using various tube shapes to obtain most efficient properties of concrete core and steel tube. The compressive strength of concrete is considerably increased by the lateral confined steel tube in circular concrete filled steel tube (CCFT). The aim of this study was to present an integrated approach for predicting the steel-confined compressive strength of concrete in CCFT columns under axial loading based on large number of experimental data using artificial neural networks. Neural networks process information in a similar way the human brain does. Neural networks learn by example. The main parameters investigated in this study include the compressive strength of unconfined concrete (fchr('39')c), outer diameter (D) and length (L) of column, wall thickness (t) and tensile yield stress (fy) of steel tube. Subsequently, using the reliable network, empirical equations are developed for the confinement effect. The results of proposed model are compared with recently existing model on the basis of the experimental results. The findings demonstrate the precision and applicability of the empirical approach to determine capacity of CCFT columns.

Suresh Prasad Singh, Meena Murmu,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

This paper outlines the effects of curing conditions on the strength and hydration products of lime activated slag cement. The slag cement was prepared by activating the ground granulated blast furnace slag with lime and plaster of Paris. The curing of mortar specimens was done at temperatures of 270, 450,600,750C and the compressive strength of specimens were determined after curing periods of 3,7, 28, 56 and 90days. The curing temperature is found to influence both the early and later age strengths. For the present test conditions the highest 90days compressive strength was found to be 47.63MPa for the specimen cured at temperature of 600C. Further, the developed strength in mortar specimens were correlated with the hydration products and microstructure using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope results. Generalized reduced gradient technique is adopted to find the optimum curing temperature for the given raw material composition and this is found to vary marginally on curing period. 

Ali Allahverdi, Mostafa Mahinroosta, Shima Pilehvar,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (7-2017)

Compressive strength is as one of the most important properties of concrete and mortar that its measurement may be necessary at both early and later ages. Prediction of compressive strength by a proper model is a fast and cost-effective way for evaluating cement quality under various curing conditions. In this paper, a logarithmic model based on the results of an experimental work conducted to investigate the effects of curing time and temperature on the compressive strength development of chemically activated high phosphorous slag content cement has been presented. This model is in terms of curing time and temperature as independent variables and compressive strength as dependent variable. For this purpose, mortar specimens were prepared from 80 wt.% phosphorous slag, 14 wt.% Portland cement, and 6 wt.% compound chemical activator at Blaine fineness of 303 m2/kg. The specimens were cured in lime-saturated water under temperatures of 25, 45, 65, 85 and 100 ºC in oven. The model has two adjustable parameters for various curing times and temperatures. Modeling has been done by applying dimensionless insight. The proposed model can efficiently predict the compressive strength of this type of high phosphorous slag cement with an average relative error of less than 4%.

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