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Showing 8 results for Liquefaction

Baziar M.h., Asna Ashari M.,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2004)

An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the liquefaction resistance of silty sand utilizing laboratory techniques. In this study, liquefaction potential of silty sand by using cyclic triaxial tests on frozen samples retrieved from calibration chamber and constructed samples by dry pouring method were investigated. Correlation between cone penetration resistance and cyclic strength of undisturbed silty sand samples are also examined using CPT calibration chamber and cyclic triaxial tests. The cone penetration tests were performed on silty sand samples with fine contents ranging from 0% to 50% and overburden stresses in the range of 100-300 kPa. Then the soil sample in calibration chamber, in the same way that soil samples were prepared during CPT sounding, was frozen and undisturbed soil specimen retrieved from frozen soil sample were tested using cyclic triaxial tests. Analysis of results indicates that the quality of frozen samples is affected by fine content and overburden pressures. Also, using data obtained in this research, the relationship between cone tip resistance and cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) for silty sand soils will be presented. These correlations are in relatively good agreement with field case history data. Also increasing confining pressure in silty sand material increases the cone tip resistance and generally, cyclic resistance ratio increases by increasing silt content.
M.h. Baziar, R. Ziaie_moayed,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2006)

This paper highlights the effect of silt content on cone tip resistance in loose silty sand. In this study, twenty-seven cone penetration tests are performed in saturated silty sand samples with several different silt contents ranging from 10 to 50 percent. The samples are consolidated at three overburden stresses including 100, 200 and 300 kPa. It is shown that, as the silt content increases, the cone tip resistance decreases. In high percent of silt (30-50%), the cone tip resistance decreases more gently compared with low percent of silt (0-30%). It is also concluded that the method proposed by Olsen (1997) for stress normalization of cone tip resistance compared with the Robertson and Wride (1998) method has better agreement with the obtained results. To evaluate liquefaction potential of loose silty sand, the method presented by Robertson and Wride (1998) is also studied. The results showed that the use of Robertson and Wride (1998) method to estimate the fine content from CPT data causes some uncertainty especially for high silt content (FC>30%).
Rouzbeh Dabiri, Faradjollah Askari, Ali Shafiee, Mohammad Kazem Jafari,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2011)

Laboratory data, which relate the liquefaction resistance of Firoozkooh sand and non-plastic silt mixtures to shear wave velocity are

presented and compared to liquefaction criteria derived from seismic field measurements by Andrus and Stokoe [1]. In the work

described herein, cyclic triaxial and resonant column tests were conducted on specimens of clean sand and sand-silt mixtures with silt

content up to 60%, prepared at different densities. Cyclic undrained strength and small strain shear wave velocity were determined

for identical specimens formed by undercompaction method. It was found that silt content affects cyclic resistance and shear wave

velocity. In addition, the laboratory results indicated that using the existing field-based correlations will overestimate the cyclic

resistance of the Firoozkooh sand-silt mixtures when silt content is 60%. For clean sand and the specimens containing up to 30% fines,

results of this study on cyclic resistance are fairly consistent with Andrus and Stokoe correlations. These findings suggest the need for

further evaluation of the effects of non-plastic fines content upon liquefaction criteria derived from seismic field measurements.

Mohammad Hassan Baziar, Habib Shahnazari, Hassan Sharafi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2011)

This paper discusses the applicability of a simple model to predict pore water pressure generation in non-plastic silty soil during

cyclic loading. Several Stress-controlled cyclic hollow torsional tests were conducted to directly measure excess pore water pressure

generation at different levels of cyclic stress ratios (CSR) for the specimens prepared with different silt contents (SC=0% to 100%).

The soil specimens were tested under three different confining pressures (&sigmachr('39')3= 60, 120, 240 kPa) at a constant relative density

(Dr=60%), with different silt contents. Results of these tests were used to investigate the behavior of silty sands under undrained

cyclic hollow torsional loading conditions. In general, beneficial effects of the silt were observed in the form of a decrease in excess

pore water pressure and an increase in the volumetric strain. Modified model for pore water pressure generation model based on

the test results are also presented in this paper. Comparison of the proposed pore pressure build up model with seed’s model

indicates the advantage of proposed model for soil with large amount of silt.

Ali Kavand, S.mohsen Haeri, Arian Asefzadeh, Iraj Rahmani, Abbas Ghalandarzadeh, Ali Bakhshi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (7-2014)

In this paper, different aspects of the behavior of 2×2 pile groups under liquefaction-induced lateral spreading in a 3-layer soil profile is investigated using large scale 1-g shake table test. Different parameters of the response of soil and piles including time-histories of accelerations, pore water pressures, displacements and bending moments are presented and discussed in the paper. In addition, distribution of lateral forces due to lateral spreading on individual piles of the groups is investigated in detail. The results show that total lateral forces on the piles are influenced by the shadow effect as well as the superstructure mass attached to the pile cap. It was also found that lateral forces exerted on the piles in the lower half of the liquefied layer are significantly larger than those recommended by the design code. Based on the numerical analyses performed, it is shown that the displacement based method is more capable of predicting the pile group behavior in this experiment comparing to the force based method provided that the model parameters are tuned.
M. Alibolandi, Dr. R. Ziaie Moayed,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (12-2015)

In this study a series of cyclic triaxial tests were performed to examine the undrained dynamic resistance of silty sand reinforced with various arrangements of geotextile layers. The silt content of samples varies in percentage from 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. A total of 32 laboratory cyclic triaxial tests have been performed on silty sand samples reinforced with geotextile layers in different depths. All tests were performed with 100 kPa confining pressure, subjected to an isotropic consolidated undrained (CIU) condition. The tests were conducted at a frequency of 2 Hz. Results indicate that both the geotextile arrangement and the silt content were most essential in the liquefaction potential of reinforced sands. An increase in the number of geotextile layers enhanced the cyclic resistance of reinforced samples against the liquefaction potential. It was also found that when the geotextile layer was posited near the top of the specimen (load application part) the liquefaction resistance would increase (e.g. for clean sands, the improvement of liquefaction resistance caused by the geotextile layer had a 0.2 depth, and the sample height was 5.5 times greater than the geotextile layer inserted in mid height of sample H). Based on the obtained results, effects of geotextile on liquefaction resistance decreased as fines content increased to about 33%. Further increase in the fines content however, would lead to higher in reinforcement advantages. The liquefaction improvement is more effective with a higher number of geotextile layers. The results also revealed that the reinforcement effect in FC≈33 % is at its lowest amount. 

Behrooz Mehrzad, Abdolhosein Haddad, Yaser Jafarian,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (3-2016)

Currently, there is no reliable design procedure which considers all aspects of liquefaction effects on shallow foundations. There are many light and heavy structures resting on saturated sand with high liquefaction potential in seismic areas. The aim of this experimental and numerical study is to evaluate the performance of two shallow foundations with different contact pressures in liquefaction. The results of the centrifuge experiment of shallow foundations with surcharges of three-story and nine-story buildings on liquefiable sand are presented in detail. Although entire soil profile liquefied, no liquefaction observed under the foundations. There was a clear difference in settlement mechanisms observed beneath the shallow foundation and in the free-field. The heavy foundation fluctuated more strongly compared with the lighter one. The effect of soil permeability and contact pressure on foundation response was investigated during numerical study. The experiment was simulated two dimensionally using a fully coupled nonlinear constitutive model (UBCSAND) implemented in a finite difference program, FLAC-2D. The results show that settlement of foundations increased with the increase of soil permeability. Trends of excess pore water pressure were captured reasonably by the soil model, but the settlement mechanisms were different. The soil model underestimated total liquefaction-induced settlement of shallow foundation, especially for light foundation.

Volume 14, Issue 4 (6-2016)

Complete recognition of calcareous sediments engineering behavior considering their local expansion and wide variety of engineering properties is very important. In south parts of Iran, there are some carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs which are covered by calcareous deposits. Hormuz Island in is one of the most strategic areas in Hormuz Strait between Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. In this study, a series of undrained monotonic and cyclic simple shear tests was performed on saturated Hormuz calcareous sand specimens using hollow cylinder torsional apparatus. The tests were carried out on specimens with various relative densities under different effective consolidation stresses. Based on the results, pore pressure generation, shear strain development, stress-strain characteristics of the specimens are presented and compared with the technical literature. In addition, dissipation of strain-based energy during the cyclic loading and its relation to excess pore water pressure is described. The cyclic resistance curves of specimens with different initial conditions are plotted. Also the results of monotonic and cyclic tests are compared together for better interpretation of Hormuz calcareous sand under undrained torsional loading.

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