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Showing 6 results for Kabir

Kabir Sadeghi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (September 2011)

An energy based damage index based on a new nonlinear Finite element (FE) approach applicable to RC structures subjected to cyclic, earthquake or monotonic loading is proposed. The proposed method is based on the evaluation of nonlinear local degradation of materials and taking into account of the pseudo-plastic hinge produced in the critical sections of the structure. A computer program is developed, considering local behavior of confined and unconfined concretes and steel elements and also global behavior and damage of reinforced concrete structures under cyclic loading. The segments located between the pseudoplastic hinges at critical sections and the inflection points are selected as base-models through simulation by the proposed FE method. The proposed damage index is based on an energy analysis method considering the primary half-cycles energy absorbed by the structure during loading. The total primary half-cycles absorbed energy to failure is used as normalizing factor. By using the proposed nonlinear analytical approach, the structure's force-displacement data are determined. The damage index is then calculated and is compared with the allowable value. This damage index is an efficient means for deciding whether to repair or demolish structures after an earthquake. It is also useful in the design of new structures as a design parameter for an acceptable limit of damage defined by building codes.  The proposed approach and damage index are validated by results of tests carried out on reinforced concrete columns subjected to cyclic biaxial bending with axial force.

M. Z. Kabir, A. Hojatkashani,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (December 2012)

The aim of current study is to investigate the effect of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites on the fatigue

response of reinforced concrete beams. 6 reinforced concrete (RC) beams from which 3 were retrofitted with CFRP sheets, were

prepared and subjected to fatigue load cycles. To predict and trace the failure occurrence and its growth, a small notch was

induced at the middle span in bottom surface of all RC specimens. At the certain points, strains in concrete and CFRP were

measured in each cycle. The upper limit of applied load was considered at the level of design service load of bridges. In addition,

strain measurements facilitated to the calculation of interfacial shear stresses between concrete substrate and the CFRP layer.

The variation of such stresses through load cycles has been presented and discussed. Also, a discussion on possibility of the local

debonding phenomenon resulted from such interfacial stresses was presented. Load–deflection curves, strain responses and

propagation of tensile cracks provided an insight on the performance of the CFRP strengthened beams subjected to different

cycles of fatigue loading. Variation of load-deflection curves through fatigue load cycles depicted stiffness degradation which

was discussed in the research.

Kabir Sadeghi,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (Transaction A: Civil Engineering 2016)

A fast converging and fairly accurate nonlinear simulation method to assess the behavior of reinforced concrete columns subjected to static oriented pushover force and axial loading (sections under biaxial bending moment and axial loading) is proposed. In the proposed method, the sections of column are discretized into “Variable Oblique Finite Elements” (VOFE). By applying the proposed oblique discretization method, the time of calculation is significantly decreased and since VOFE are always parallel to neutral axis, a uniform stress distribution along each oblique element is established. Consequently, the variations of stress distribution across an element are quite small which increases the accuracy of the calculations. In the discretization of section, the number of VOFE is significantly smaller than the number of “Fixed Rectangular Finite Elements” (FRFE). The advantages of using VOFE compared to FRFE are faster convergence and more accurate results. The nonlinear local degradation of materials and the pseudo-plastic hinge produced in the critical sections of the column are also considered in the proposed simulation method. A computer program is developed to calculate the local and global behavior of reinforced concrete columns under static oriented pushover and cyclic loading. The proposed simulation method is validated by the results of tests carried out on the full-scale reinforced concrete columns. The application of the “Components Effects Combination Method” (CECM) is compared with the proposed “Simultaneous Direct Method” (SDM). The obtained results show the necessity of applying SDM for nonlinear calculations. Especially during the post-elastic phase, which occurs frequently during earthquake loading.

Kabir Sadeghi,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (Transaction A: Civil Engineering 2017)

A nonlinear Finite Element (FE) algorithm is proposed to analyze the Reinforced Concrete (RC) columns subjected to Cyclic Biaxial Bending Moment and Axial Loading (CBBMAL). In the proposed algorithm, the following parameters are considered: uniaxial behavior of concrete and steel elements, the pseudo-plastic hinge produced in the critical sections, and global behavior of the columns. In the proposed numerical simulation, the column is discretized into two Macro-Elements (ME) located between the pseudo-plastic hinges at critical sections and the inflection point. The critical sections are discretized into Fixed Rectangular Finite Elements (FRFE). The basic equilibrium is justified over a critical hypothetical cross-section assuming the Kinematics Navier’s hypothesis with an average curvature. The method used qualifies as a “Strain Plane Control Process” that requires the resolution of a quasi-static simultaneous equations system using a triple iteration process over the strains in each section. In order to reach equilibrium, three main strain parameters (the strains in the extreme compressive point, the strains in the extreme tensile point and the strains in another corner of the section) are used as three main variables. The proposed algorithm has been validated by the results of tests carried out on full-scale RC columns. The application of the Components Effects Combination Method (CECM) is also compared with the proposed Simultaneous Direct Method (SDM). The results obtained show the necessity of applying SDM for the post-elastic phase, which occurs frequently during earthquake loading.

Dr. Kabir Sadeghi, Dr. Fatemeh Nouban,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (Transaction A: Civil Engineering 2017)

This paper describes both global and local versions of an energetic analytical model to quantify the damage caused to reinforced concrete (RC) structures under monotonic, cyclic or fatigue loading. The proposed model closely represents the damage to structures and yields a damage index (DI) for the RC members. The model is cumulative and is based on the energy absorbed. The energy under the monotonic envelope curve at the failure of the member is taken as a reference capacity. The data required to apply the model in any given situation or member can be obtained either by numerical simulation or from experimental tests. An analytical computer program was developed to simulate numerically the response of RC members taking into account the nonlinear behavior of the materials and structures involved. The proposed model was verified by comparison with practical tests undertaken by other researchers on over 20 RC columns. The comparison demonstrates that the model provides a realistic estimation of the damage of the RC structural members. The comparison between values of the proposed DI calculated based on experimental test data and numerical simulation results for a cyclic loading case shows that to calculate DI, it is not necessary to perform expensive experimental tests and that using a nonlinear structural analytical simulation is sufficient. The results are also compared to a damage model proposed by Meyer (1988).

Dr. Ali Massumi, Dr. Kabir Sadeghi, Mr. Morteza Nekuei,
Volume 15, Issue 7 (Transaction A: Civil Engineering 2017)

One of the main concerns in an essential or highly important building is finding the appropriate structural system, while the efficiency of each conventional structural system varies in different cases. In this paper a new multi objective structural configuration is proposed and its efficiency for protecting buildings against the multi-hazards including earthquake, explosion and typhoon is shown in a case study of a 10 stories building sample. To create the optimum and efficient configuration of the structural elements, and to make some large spans, a configuration including Vierendeel girders is used. In this type of configuration, the inner suspended floor parts protect the outer elements by balancing perimeter span loads. This system makes a new condition for the building to be protected against the progressive collapse due to the terrorism attacks. Furthermore, the partially suspended floors in special stories act like tuned mass dampers (TMDs), which are suitable to decrease the amplitude of the displacement response of the structure during an earthquake.

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