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H. Khalili Shayan, J. Farhoudi, H. Hamidifar,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Because of the complexity of the physical processes in the vicinity of the hydraulic structures due to the separation of the flow, traditional methods for for prediction of maximum scour depth downstream of hydraulic structures are mostly based on empirical approaches. Hence, only a few theoretical works have been reported to study this phenomenon. The present paper describes a new approach based on the momentum principles to estimate the maximum local scour depth downstream of a submerged sluice gate flowing over horizontal or adverse stilling basin. A control volume of the fluid in the equilibrium state of the scour hole was considered and based on momentum principles, some equations are derived to estimate the scour depth at equilibrium state. To verify the proposed equations, large numbers of experiments were planned and conducted under wide range of characteristic parameters such as, incoming Froude number, sediment size, tailwater depth, length and slope of the apron. It was found that the proposed equations fall in a good agreement with experimental results. It was also observed that, in the case of horizontal apron, a specific tailwater depth exists with which the local scour depth attains a minimum value. However, in the case of adverse basins when the tailwater depth takes a specific value, the maximum depth of the scour hole reaches to its maximum and then decreases to a constant value as the tailwater depth increases. This critical tailwater depth was formulated using a semi-theoretical equation.
O. Nazari, E. Jabbari, H. Sarkardeh,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

To dissipate energy and invert excessive discharge flow away from high dams into plunge pool, flip buckets are commonly designed and optimized by hydraulic model studies. In the present study, performance of chute flip buckets in different hydraulic and geometry conditions was investigated using experimental data of five different physical models. The collected experimental data such as Froude number, radius of flip bucket and slope of chute covered a wide range of chute flip buckets in prototype. By analyzing the data, relations for dynamic values of maximum and minimum pressures and their location along the flip bucket were extracted. Moreover, pressure distribution along the central axis of flip bucket was defined. Finally, results of the present research were compared with that of the other researches. Results of this study could be used in the design of chute flip buckets in hydraulic engineering.
A. Kaveh, R. Ghaffarian,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to find the optimum shape of arch dams subjected to multiple natural frequency constraints by using an efficient methodology. The optimization is carried out by charged system search algorithm and its enhanced version. Computing the natural frequencies by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) during the optimization process is time consuming. In order to reduce the computational burden, Back Propagation (BP) neural network is trained and utilized to predict the arch dam natural frequencies. It is demonstrated that the optimum design obtained by the Enhanced Charged System Search using the BP network is the best compared with the results of other algorithms. The numerical results show the computational advantageous of the proposed methodology.
S. Pagliara, T. Roshni, M. Palermo,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2015)
Abstract

Rock chutes are natural river training structures and are efficient energy dissipaters too. From the hydraulic and environmental point of view, rock chutes have become important structures in the natural river morphology. A physical study was conducted and flow properties were measured over rough bed materials of a rock chute, which was assembled at the PITLAB center of the University of Pisa, Italy. Experiments were performed for slopes varying between 0.18≤ S ≤0.38, 0.03 < dc/H < 0.54 and for ramp lengths Lr between 1.17 m ≤Lr≤3.6 m. This paper presents the energy dissipation characteristics of the two-phase flows in the presence of two different base materials. In addition, the dissipative process was also analyzed in the presence of reinforcing boulders located on the base material. The findings showed that energy dissipation rate slightly increases with the boulder concentrations for the tested slopes and materials. The experiments were conducted for different rock chute lengths in order to understand its effect on the energy dissipation. An empirical expression is developed for determining the energy dissipation characteristics over different base materials in different ramp length conditions in twophase flows. Results have been compared with the results obtained for stepped chutes and found a similar decreasing trend of dissipation rate for dc/Lr ≤0.1.
Mr. L. Yanlong, Mr. L. Shouyi, Mr. Y. Yang, Miss T. Xing,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2015)
Abstract

This study simulates the temperature field and temperature stress of concrete face slabs, considering the cold waves that occur during construction as well as the contact friction between the face slabs and the cushion layer. The results show that when a cold wave occurs during construction, the surface and center temperature of the face slabs continually drop with the outside air temperature, with the surface temperature drop being the largest. In addition, the surface and center of face slabs are subjected to tensile stress, with the maximum principal stress on the surface being greater than that on the center. The maximum principal stress of the surface and center occurs at approximately half of the dam height. This study also examines the surface insulation of concrete face slabs. Surface insulation can significantly improve the temperature drop range and the maximum principal stress amplitude caused by the cold wave. A stronger heat preservation results in smaller tensile stress and an increase in the amplitude of face slabs.


H. Khalili Shayan, E. Amiri-Tokaldany,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2015)
Abstract

Upstream blankets, drains and cutoff walls are considered as effective measures to reduce seepage, uplift pressure and exit gradient under the foundation of hydraulic structures. To investigate the effectiveness of these measures, individually or in accordance with others, a large number of experiments were carried out on a laboratory model. To extend the investigation for unlimited arrangements, the physical conditions of all experiments were simulated with a mathematical model. Having compared the data obtained from experiments with those provided from the mathematical model, a good correlation was found between the two sets of data indicating that the mathematical model could be used as a useful tool for calculating the effects of various measures on designing hydraulic structures. Based on this correlation a large number of different inclined angles of cutoff walls, lengths of upstream blankets, and various positions of drains within the mathematical model were simulated. It was found that regardless of their length, the blankets reduce seepage, uplift pressure and exit gradient. However, vertical cutoff walls are the most effective. Moreover, it was found that the best positions of a cutoff wall to reduce seepage flow and uplift force are at the downstream and upstream end, respectively. Also, having simulated the effects of drains, it was found that the maximum reduction in uplift force takes place when the drain is positioned at a distance of 1/3 times the dam width at the downstream of the upstream end. Finally, it was indicated that the maximum reduction in exit gradient occurs when a drain is placed at a distance of 2/3 times of the dam width from upstream end or at the downstream end.


Fatemeh Kazemi, Dr Saeed Reza Khodashenas, Hamed Sarkardeh,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (1-2016)
Abstract

Stilling basins dissipate energy in order to form hydraulic jumps and rotational flows. Hydraulic jump and rotational current phenomenon produces pressure fluctuation at the bottom of stilling basins. In the present study, pressure fluctuations and their locations have been studied in a physical model of Nimrod Dam. Results showed that fluctuations in presence of jump in the basin are high and therefore the fluctuation factors are respectively high. Regarding available empirical equations, the thickness of slab for different hydraulic conditions were calculated and compared in 1D and 2D conditions. By analyzing collected data, it was observed that, results of 1D were underestimated in comparison by 2D calculations.


Shuai Li, Jian-Min Zhang, Wei-Lin Xu, Jian-Gang Chen, Yong Peng, Jun-Ning Li, Xiao-Long He,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (1-2016)
Abstract

The cavitation erosion induced by high flow velocities is very prominent in high head and large unit discharge tunnel. Air entrainment is an effective technology to solve this problem. In this study, numerical simulation and physical model test are applied to the comparative study of air-water flows on bottom and lateral aerator in tunnel. The flow pattern, aeration cavity, air concentration and pressure distribution were obtained and there is a close agreement between the numerical and physical model values. The hydraulic characteristic and aeration effect of anti-arc section are analyzed. The results indicated that added lateral aeration facilities on 1# and 2# aerator can weaken backwater and increase the length of the bottom cavity, but it is limited to improve the air concentration and protect sidewall downstream of the ogee section. Air concentration improved on side walls downstream of anti-arc section when added lateral aeration facility on 3# aerator. The black water triangle zone disappeared and the floor and side walls well protected.


Jianwei Tu, Guang Que, Bo Tu, Jiayun Xu,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (7-2016)
Abstract

Ship lift is a major navigation structure lifting and lowering ships to shorten the time across the dam. The ship chamber, the key equipment, serves as the carrier for ships. Due to its gigantic body and mass, complicated coupled vibrations occur between the chamber and ship lift structure during seismic process. With the engineering background of the ship lift at the Three Gorges dam, a three-dimensional shell finite element model is established for the ship lift, and then simplified into a three-dimensional truss finite element model through dynamic equivalent principle. And the numerical model of coupled vibration analysis is formed through static condensation, calculating the coupled vibration response between the ship lift structure and the ship chamber. The result shows that no connection and rigid connection between them are both inadvisable. Consequently, three connection devices: spring, viscous liquid damper and magneto-rheological fluid damper are applied to control coupled vibrations during artificial seismic waves. The result shows that the magneto-rheological fluid damper makes better vibration damping effect if suitable semi-active control strategy is applied, in comparison with passive control devices.


Jorge Garcia-Sosa, Ismael Sanchez-Pinto, Roger Gonzalez-Herrera, Eduardo Escalante-Triay,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (1-2017)
Abstract

Based on the methodology of “Understanding by Design”, UbD, the course “Design of Hydraulic Structures” was developed and implemented. A series of learning experiences, with emphasis on hydraulics and hydrology, for civil engineering undergraduate students is presented that encourages the development of high technical and scientific competence, communication skills oral and in written, the ability for teamwork and the capability to learn. The experiences were designed, using the above methodology, based on learning that is desired. Once taught the course, the results obtained were compared based on the planned framework (expectations), the characterization of the student population, the course products as well as the activities, according to the students, considered relevant in the learning process.


Akbar Safarzadeh, Behzad Noroozi,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (1-2017)
Abstract

This paper compares the hydraulics and 3D flow features of the ordinary rectangular and trapezoidal plan view piano key weirs (PKW) using two phase RANS numerical simulations. The main aim is to investigate effects of the inlet key area and side walls angle on discharge capacity of the PKW, while keeping the developing length of the crest intact. The numerical model has been used to carry out a sensitivity analysis for geometrical parameters and hydrodynamics of the rectangular and trapezoidal weirs have been compared for wide range of water head on the weir. Results show that the trapezoidal weir has higher efficiency than the ordinary rectangular PKW. This is partly related to the inlet key flow conditions. The trapezoidal geometry increases the inlet flow area resulting in reduction of the velocity along the key axis. Consequently, flow is distributed more uniformly over the side weirs. The gradual transition of the inlet key limits the development of the recirculation zones along the side walls and it also limits the formation of the critical section along the inlet key. These phenomena result in increase of the effective weir length and thus discharge capacity increases in trapezoidal weir compared with rectangular one. Discretization of the discharge along the crest of the tested weirs clearly confirms these findings.


Jiuping Xu, Qiurui Liu, Zhonghua Yang,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (1-2017)
Abstract

To fully explain hydropower unit operational problems, an optimal multi-objective dynamic scheduling model is presented which seeks to improve the efficiency of reservation regulation management. To reflect the actual hydropower engineering project environment, fuzzy random uncertainty and an integrated consideration of the natural resource constraints, such as load balance, system power balance, generation limits, turbine capacity, water head, discharge capacities, reservoir storage volumes, and water spillages, were included in the model. The aim of this research was to concurrently minimize discharges and maximize economic benefit. Subsequently, a new hybrid dynamic-programming based multi-start multi-objective simulated annealing algorithm was developed to solve the hydro unit operational problem. The proposed model and intelligent algorithm were then applied to the Xiaolongmen Hydraulic and Hydropower Station in China. The computational unit commitment schedule results demonstrated the practicality and efficiency of this optimization method.


Ali Rahmani Firoozjaee, Farzad Farvizi, Ehsan Hendi,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

A numerical meshless method is proposed to investigate shallow water equations. Because of The numerical solution of the pure convection equations represents a very important issue in many problems, an Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method is used for solving these equations, and its implementation is described. In this method there is no need to nodal connectivity and just uses nodal data which may be the same as those used in the Finite Element Methods (FEMs) and a description of the domain boundary geometry are necessary. The essential boundary condition is enforced by the penalty method, and the Moving Least Squares (MLS) approximation is used for the interpolation scheme. The numerical efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by solving several benchmark examples. Sensitivity analysis on parameters of the EFG method is carried out and results are presented.


Ziba Fazel, Masoome Fazelian, Dr. Hamed Sarkardeh,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

Air-water flow is a complex and challenging subject in many engineering fields as well as hydraulic engineering and discovery of its characteristics can help the engineers to predict and analyze a probable phenomenon. In the present paper, development of a device capable of measuring the flow velocity, air concentration, diameter and counts of bubbles in air-water flows is described. The heart of the present device is two resistive probes with a novel configuration. Being pressure and corrosion resistant and also having negligible resistivity in the flow are some of the unique features of the employed needles. Moreover, sampling frequency and time can be set for the intended application by the user. In the present electronic board, maximum available sampling frequency is in the order of KHz, while the time of sampling is not limited. The circuit is designed with ability for avoiding the polarization of the probe tip. Increasing the number of probes up to four which can operate together and suitable for more complex flows with no change in the electronic board is another advantage of the proposed device. Different tests for verification of the device accuracy have been performed and good results were reported for measurements.


Ramos-Alcazar Luis, Marchamalo-Sacristan Miguel, Martinez-Marin Ruben,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

This article presents a new approach to obtain a complete map-type plot of the precisions of TLS equipment based on the direct measurement of time of flight method at midrange distances. Tests were developed in field-like conditions, similar to dam monitoring and other civil engineering works. Taking advantage of graphic semiological techniques, a map in “distance - angle of incidence” coordinates was designed and evaluated for field-like conditions. A map-type plot was designed combining isolines and sized and colored points, proportional to precision values. Precisions under different field conditions were compared with specifications. For this purpose, processed point clouds were evaluated under two approaches: classical "plane-of-best-fit" and proposed "simulated deformation”, that showed improved performance. These results lead to a discussion and recommendations about optimal TLS operation in civil engineering works.


Sohrab Karimi, Hossein Bonakdari, Azadeh Gholami, Amir Hossein Zaji,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

Dividing open channels are varied types of open channel structures used to provide water for irrigation channels, agriculture and wastewater networks. In the present study the mean velocity is calculated in different dividing angles within the branches channel through the use of artificial Neural Network (ANN) and coputational fluid dynamices (CFD) models. First the ANSYS-CFX model is used to simulate the flow pattern within the branch with a 90° angle. The results of the CFX model correspond fairly well to the results of the experimental model with Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) of 5%. After verifying, two CFX model are generated in 30° and 60° angle in different width ratios of 0.6, 0.8, 1, 1.2, and 1.4, and the mean velocities are obtained by flowmeter. Following that ANN model trained and tested through the use of a set of experimental and CFX datas. The comparison showed that the ANN model has an acceptable level of accuracy in predicting the dividing open channel mean flow velocity with mean value R2 of 0.93. Comparing the results indicated that ANN model with the MAPE of 1.8% performs better in 0.8 m width ratio. Also, in this width ratio the MAPE are equal to 1.58, 1.87, and 2.04 % in 30°, 60°, and 90° deviation angles respectively and therefore the model performs better in 30° angle.


Yang Wang, Kai Su, Hegao Wu, Zhongdong Qian,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)
Abstract

The reinforced concrete bifurcation in hydropower station is consistently under high internal water pressure, and its diameter is usually larger than common duct junctions. In order to diminish or to decrease the heavy plastic zone and stress concentration, structure rounding is commonly used on bifurcation. This will bring some changes to the flow characteristic of bifurcation, and it is an interesting attempt to figure out the influence of structure rounding optimization. The Realizable k-ε model was employed in Computational Fluid Dynamics numerical simulation. The water pressure distribution was compared quantitatively at several certain sections. Furthermore, uneven pressure is analyzed by relative standard deviation. Hydraulic characteristics are discussed as well, including flow pattern, excavation volume and head loss in different working conditions. The results indicate that the pressure of pipe wall is uneven, and the maximum and minimum pressure value has a differential of 0.3% - 1.2% compared to relative static water pressure. The pressure unevenness will increase after structure rounding, and it has a positive correlation with structure rounding radius. At the same time, it is more reasonable for structure rounding in obtuse angle region than that in acute angle region, on account of well-distributed flow conditions and better economic benefit.


Manoochehr Fathi Moghadam,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)
Abstract

Stilling basins and hydraulic jumps are designers’ favorable choice for energy dissipation downstream of spillways and outlets. A properly designed stilling basin can ensure considerable energy dissipation in the short distance of a basin. In this study, experiments have been conducted to evaluate effects of a perforated sill and its position on the length of a favorable B-type hydraulic jump in a stilling basin. Perforated sills with different heights and ratio of openings were placed in different positions of the stilling basin. Tests were carried out for three tail water depths to assess the sensitivity of the jump to tail water. The hydraulic characteristics of the jump were measured and compared with continuous sill-controlled and free hydraulic jumps. Results of the experiments confirmed significant effect of the perforated sill on dissipation of energy and development of the jump in a shorter distance. Results are also presented in the form of mathematical models for estimation of the sill height, sill position, and basin length with the inflow measurable parameters of depth and velocity.


Mohammad Hadi Ranginkaman, Ali Haghighi, Hossein Mohammad Vali Samani,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)
Abstract

This paper investigates the frequency response method for waterhammer phenomenon in piping networks. The unsteady flow governing equations are solved in time domain using the method of characteristics. They are also solved in frequency domain using the transfer matrix method. For the pipe network under consideration, critical transient excitation scenarios are identified. For each scenario, the frequency responses of the system as well as the time history of the transient pressures at the network nodes are calculated. The model is applied against a real pipe network and the results of the transfer matrix method are compared with those of the method of characteristics. It is concluded that the frequency response method not only presents a very fast algorithm for analyzing pipe systems but also, has an acceptable accuracy compared to the method of characteristics. The frequency response method requires linearization in some terms of the governing equations. Instead of that, it needs no computational discretization and interpolation necessary in time-space domains when using the method of characteristics.


Younes Aminpour, Javad Farhoudi,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (7-2017)
Abstract

Local scour downstream of hydraulic structures is one of the critical phenomena which has absorbed a vast amount of interests by researchers. The designers of hydraulic structures, particularly, spillways try to utilize proper means to minimize the consequences of excess energies downstream of such structures which usually tend the erosion at their immediate downstream reaches. The stepped spillway is designed to create a large amount of energy dissipation by means of steps and would decrease the amount of scour evolution at its downstream. This article presents the results of 67 experiments conducted at two different scales of stepped spillways, to study the local scour downstream the structure. The experiments were planned to consider a wide range of geometrical factors, flow characteristics, and sediment properties. The time length of experiments was ranged from 6 to 24 hours which produced more than 80000 data points for analytical considerations. The results were used to render a regression equation to define the similarity among the scour hole profiles. It was observed that, a long term observation would be needed to reach the equilibrium state. However, semi-equilibrium conditions will be achieved after 24 hours. It was also noted that the depth of scour hole adjacent to channel walls was bigger than that at centerline. 



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