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Showing 5 results for Turbulence

M. H. Shojaeefard, I. Sohrabiasl, E. Sarshari,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)

Intake system design as well as inlet ports and valves configuration is of paramount importance in the optimal performance of internal combustion engines. In the present study, the effect of inlet ports design is investigated on OM-457LA diesel engine by using a CFD analysis and the AVL-Fire code as well. A thermodynamic model of the whole engine equipped with a turbocharger and an intercooler is used to obtain the initial and boundary conditions of the inlet and outlet ports of the engine cylinder which are necessary for performing the three dimensional CFD analysis. The intake stroke as well as the compression and power strokes are included in this three dimensional CFD model. As a mean of validation the performance of the engine model with the base configuration of the inlet ports is compared to the experimental data. Two new alternative configurations for the inlet ports are then investigated with respect to the turbulence levels of the in-cylinder flow and the combustion characteristics as well. Finally it is demonstrated that applying the new configurations results in circa 75% reduction in nitric oxide formation besides increase of 32% in the in-cylinder flow swirl.

A. Zandi, S. Sohrabi, M. Shams,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2015)

Cavitation and turbulence in a diesel injector nozzle has a great effect on the development and primary breakup of spray. However, the mechanism of the cavitation flow inside the nozzle and its influence on spray characteristics have not been clearly known yet because of the internal nozzle flow complexities. In this paper, a comprehensive numerical simulation is carried out to study the internal flow of nozzle and the cavitation phenomenon. The internal cavitation flow of the nozzle is simulated using the Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model. In this approach, the diesel liquid and the diesel vapor are considered as two continuous phases, and the governing equations of each phase are solved separately. Simulation method is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data and good correspondence is achieved. The effective parameters on the nozzle flow are investigated, including injection pressure, back pressure, inlet curvature radius of orifice, orifice iconicity and its length. Results clearly show the importance of nozzle geometrical characteristics and dynamic parameters on the internal nozzle flow. Discharge coefficient of nozzle and cavitation distribution in the nozzle are extremely dependent on these parameters, so the effect of cavitation on the primary breakup is not negligible.
M. Siavashi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2016)

In this study, a numerical computational fluid dynamics study is conducted in order to predict the aerodynamic forces on the NP car. The turbulent air flow around the car is modeled using the realizable k-ε model. First, results are validated against those presented for the Ahmed’s body. Next, the fluid flow around the car is simulated for different car speeds ( to mph) and flow directions ( to degree) and the drag and lift forces and coefficients are calculated. Increasing the car speed leads to increase of the drag and lift forces. While, the drag and lift coefficients of the car for all studied speeds are almost constant and are respectively equal to . and . . In addition, for different flow directions the drag coefficient would increase up to . . Also, the effect of mirrors on the drag force is investigated. Results reveal that removing the mirrors leads to approximately reduction in the drag force with no significant reduction in the drag coefficient. Furthermore, the effect of car elevation on the drag and lift forces is analyzed. It has been shown that when the car elevation decreases up to mm, the drag force will decrease more than , and the drag and lift coefficients are still constant. Keywords: road sign detection, text detection, object detection from video, fuzzy logic, MSER

Dr Amirhasan Kakaee, Mr Mohammadreza Karami,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2019)

In this study, modeling of a fuel jet which has been injected by high pressure into a low-pressure tank are investigated. Due to the initial conditions and the geometry of this case and similar cases (like CNG injectors in internal combustion engines (ICE)), the barrel shocks and Mach disk are observed. Hence a turbulence and transient flow will be expected with lots of shocks and waves. According to the increasing usage of this type of injectors in ICE, more studies should be conducted to find the most accurate and beneficial models for modeling this phenomenon.

In order to find an accurate and beneficial turbulence model ,in this study, three Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) turbulence models (SST k-ω, RNG and standard k ) and large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence model were compared by the fuel jet characteristics in three regions (outlet of the nozzle, at Mach disk and at the downstream of the flow). Although the LES model needs more time for each test, the results are more reliable and accurate. On the other hand, RANS turbulence models have lots of errors (more than 10 percent) especially for predicting the characteristics of fuel jet at Mach disk.
Mr Amirhasan Kakaee, Mr Milad Mahjoorghani,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2020)

Intake and exhaust manifolds are among the most important parts in engine in which pressure loss phenomena has direct impact on with changing volumetric efficiency. In typical 1D simulation codes, the quantity of pressure loss is proportional to the fluid’s mean velocity by Pressure Loss Coefficient (Kp) value. This important coefficient which has substantial rule in engine simulation is usually determined using constant available values, extracted from complicated experiments (like Miller’s tests) in a specified situation. But these values are credible only in situations according to those tests. Coupling 3D simulations with 1D codes is a common method to gain accurate values of these coefficients but this deals with drastic high simulation costs. To address this problem, a more efficient way is replacing an algebraic relation, extracted from 3D calculations, instead of a constant value in 1D code. It’s obvious that in order to reach accurate coefficients in arbitrary conditions (geometric and flow specifications) determining the best numerical method is mandatory.  In present research, after investigating all 3D simulation aspects, six different selected numerical solutions have been implemented on four different bends in ANSYS Fluent.Results have been validated by comparing loss coefficient values of incompressible fluid (water) with Miller loss coefficient values and method with the most accurate and stable results has been discovered. It was found that all these methods are suitable in general (with less than 5% error in coefficient values) but solutions with structured grid and SST k-ω turbulence modeling represented better stability and accuracy.

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