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Showing 7 results for Efficiency

H. Ghariblu, A. Behroozirad , A. Madandar ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2014)

This paper concerns the design and analysis, of a ball type continuously variable transmission, (B-CVT). This B-CVT has a simple kinematic structure, and same as a toroidal CVT, transmits power by friction on the contact points between input and output discs, that are connected to each other by balls. After, a brief introduction of our B-CVT structure, the performance and traction efficiency of B-CVT is analyzed. The geometry and speed ratio of the proposed CVT is obtained. Then, by finding the contact areas between rotating elements and stress distribution through them, the torque capacity of B-CVT is computed. Next, the power loss of the system caused by various parameters such as relative arrangement of rotating elements as well as relative velocity at contact areas is found. Finally, after presenting the influence of the different geometrical and assembly conditions at efficiency of the system, the efficiency of the system compared with the efficiency of a Toroidal CVT.
S. M. R. Tousi, P. Bayat, P. Bayat,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2015)

Electric vehicles (EVs) have gained the attention of many authorities, automakers and researchers due to their considerable energy saving and emission reduction. One of the main issues that must be considered in design of a road vehicle is the calculation of aerodynamic forces. This issue also must be scrutinized in the design of EVs. Installation of rear spoiler is one of the solutions proposed for reduction of aerodynamic drag in racing cars and consequently increasing their maximum speed. This study focuses on the effects of installing a rear spoiler on an EV. The vehicle's drag and lift coefficients are determined by solving a 3D steady-state incompressible solution of Navier-Stokes equations with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis in ANSYS FLUENT. In order to verify the effects of installing a rear spoiler on an EV, all the components were modelled in MATLAB /SIMULINK also, practical tests were performed to confirm and verify the simulation results. The results show that installing a rear spoiler on an EV, not only improves the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicle but also improves operating efficiency of electric motor and some operational aspects of batteries. In addition, it is shown that an EV with a rear spoiler is able to travel more in comparison with an EV without rear spoiler.

M.h. Shojaeefard, P. Azarikhah, A. Qasemian,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2017)

Heat transfer in internal combustion engines is one of the most significant topics. Heat transfer may take place through thermal conduction and thermal convection in spark ignition engines. In this study, valve cover heat transfer and thermal balance of an air-cooled engine are investigated experimentally. The thermal balance analysis is a useful method to determine energy distribution and efficiency of internal combustion engines. In order to carry out experiments, a single cylinder, air-cooled, four-stroke gasoline engine is applied. The engine is installed on proper chassis and equipped with measuring instruments. Temperature of different points of valve cover and exhaust gases is measured with the assistance of K-type thermocouples. These experiments are conducted in various engine speeds. Regarding to the first law of thermodynamics, thermal balance is investigated and it is specified that about one-third of total fuel energy will be converted to effective power. It is also evaluated that for increasing brake power, fuel consumption will increase and it is impossible to prevent upward trends of wasted energies. In addition, it is resulted that, there is a reduction heat transfer to brake power ratio by increasing engine speed. Furthermore, it is found that, at higher engine speed, lower percentage of energy in form of heat transfer will be lost.
Prof. Dr. Ataur Rahman, Mr Mohammad Amysar,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2018)

ABSTRACT: Deceleration or stopping the vehicle without any diving and lateral acceleration is essential to develop an effective braking system. The hydraulic braking system with intelligent braking called Antilock Braking system (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) has been introduced.  However, due to the insufficient human effort, the ABS and ESC to some extent, not function well.  This has been emphasised to develop a DC motor assist hydraulic braking system by associating the wheel speed and engine fuel flow sensor to stop the vehicle in required braking distance without any diving and lateral movement.  This study investigates theoretically by Solid work simulation model and experimentally by product development. The simulation model has shown that a full load passenger car needs 15.7Mpa of braking pressure to stop 50km/h vehicle in 10m.  The experimental results of the model show that the pressure develops when the pedal fully applied without and with aids of the DC motor is 910 kPa and 1130 kPa respectively, which contribute to 23.3% of pressure increase.
KEYWORDS: DC motor assist hydraulic braking system; Digital Control System; Braking efficiency.

Hesam Moghadasi, Sasan Asiaei,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2018)

This paper investigates 3D simulation of fluid flow in a centrifugal pump from the Detroit Diesel company to extract possible engine cooling trends.  The velocity and pressure profile of water, the coolant, is analyzed and the characteristic curves of the pump are derived. This provides a useful evaluation of the pump performance at all working conditions. For this aim, a computational fluid dynamic model is developed using ANSYS CFX for a wide span of flow rates and a number of shaft angular velocities. The variation of constituting parameters are examined using dimension-less descriptive parameters of flow, head and power coefficients, finally, the efficiency of the pump is examined. In this analysis, sst-k-w turbulent model is employed which is a combination of two different models for pumps and turbomachines. Numerical results show that prolonged cooling duty cycles of the vehicle should accompany a flow factor of 10%. In addition, the peak of the vehicle’s loading should match the maximum efficiency of the pump that can be increased to 62% by augmentation of flow rate and flow coefficient.
Mohammad Reza Azmoodeh, Prof. Ali Keshavarz, Alireza Batooei, Hojjat Saberinejad, Mohammad Payandeh Doost, Hossein Keshtkar,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2020)

A multi-objective optimization and thermal analysis is performed by both experimental and numerical approaches on a Stirling engine cooler and heater. The power generated is measured experimentally by an electrical engine coupled with the crank case, and the friction is estimated by the difference between the necessary power used for rotating the engine at a specific pressure and speed, versus the actual power measured experimentally. In the experimental approach, different conditions were considered; for example, the charge pressure varied from 5-9 bars, and the engine speed varied from 286-1146 rpm. The maximum power generated was 461.3 W and was reported at 9 bars of charge pressure and 1146 rpm engine speed. Numerical approach was carried to simulate thermal balance for investigations on the effect of friction, engine speed and efficiency on generated engine power. Average values of Nusselt number and coefficient of friction were suggested from simulation results.
The multi-objective optimization was held using DOE method for maximizing engine efficiency and power, and also minimizing pressure drop. The top and bottom boundary values for our optimization were 5-9 bars of pressure and 286-1146 rpm of engine speed; for both helium and carbon dioxide. To do so, all three significance factors (engine speed, efficiency and friction) were given different weights, thus different combinations of weight value was investigated
Amongst different interesting findings, results showed that if the efficiency weight factor changed from 1 to 3, for helium in a specific condition, the optimum engine speed would increase by approximately 30.6 %
Mahdi Ajami, Hossein Jannat, Masoud Masih-Tehrani,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2020)

Braking test is one of the most important tests of a mechanized technical inspection line. In this study, the effect of tire pressure changes on the accuracy of the braking test results is investigated at technical inspection centers. This study is conducted in three stages. In the first step, the braking efficiency at different tire pressures is examined using a roller brake tester. In the second step, the tests at different pressures and velocities on the road are done. These tests are carried out in terms of stopping distance, to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the first step test results. The results of the first and second steps showed that the effect of tire pressure changes on the braking efficiency is significant. In the third step, the braking test results of a thousand vehicles that received technical inspection certificate are studied. Analysis of these results, considering the results of the first and second steps cleared that about 16% of vehicles that received technical inspection certificate have lower braking efficiency than the minimum acceptable efficiency. The obtained results specified the necessity of adjusting the pressure of tires before the braking test at vehicle technical inspection centers in Iran.

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