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Pouria Ahmadi, Hossein Gharaei, Mehdi Ashjaee,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2020)

This study uses real driving cycles of a city bus and a standard driving cycle “WLTP” to implement a full comparison for energy demand and fuel consumption for different propulsion systems (i.e., Diesel ICE, Fuel cell and Electric engines). To better understand the comparison, a life cycle assessment is conducted using “GREET” and “GHGenius” software, which represents a clear demonstration of side effects and emissions of each engine on the environment. The results show that for “WLTP” cycle the bus needs 2423kJ energy for traveling each kilometer while the averaged amount of energy for traveling one kilometer of real driving cycle reaches to 1708kJ. By computing total energy use of  an electric bus we conclude, electric buses use almost 58% of electric energy for driving and the rest is lost. Then fuel cell and internal combustion engine buses have energy efficiency of 36% and 24% respectively. Concerning LCA analysis, it becomes apparent that unlike efficiency, electric buses are not environmentally benign as fuel cell buses. LCA analysis showed that fuel cell buses that use steam reforming hydrogen production process are a cleaner option than electric buses. Finally, since diesel buses produce the most emission, especially CO2, and consume the most energy in the total life cycle, they have no advantage for public transportation fleet.
Hossein Gharaei, Pouria Ahmadi, Pedram Hanafizade,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2021)

This paper introduces a novel powertrain system composed of a liquid ammonia internal combustion engine, a dissociation and separation unit, and a PEM fuel cell system developed for vehicular applications. Using a carbon-free fuel for the ICE and producing hydrogen on board for PEMFC use significantly enhance this novel systemchr('39')s environmental effects. The thermodynamic analyses are conducted using EES and MATLAB software. The results show that while this hybrid powertrain system produces 120 kW output power, energy and exergy efficiencies are 45.2% and 43.1%, respectively. The overall exergy destruction rate of the system becomes 237.4 kW.The fuel consumption, engine speed, and battery state of charge (SoC) analyses are calculated using three driving cycles. These vehicles consume 7.9, 5.7, and 7.7 liters of liquid ammonia per 100 km in FTP-75, NEDC, and HWFET driving cycles, respectively. The battery state of charge differentiation in these three cycles shows the practicality of this novel powertrain system specially in inner-city driving cycles as the battery does not confront any intense decline of SOC to the minimum level. HWFET results show the great dependence of the vehicle on ICE and low PEM fuel cell function, which results in releasing decomposed hydrogen to the environment.

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