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Showing 14 results for Sensitivity Analysis

S. Shojaee, N. Valizadeh , M. Arjomand,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

One primary problem in shape optimization of structures is making a robust link between design model (geometric description) and analysis model. This paper investigates the potential of Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) for solving this problem. The generic framework of shape optimization of structures is presented based on Isogeometric analysis. By discretization of domain via NURBS functions, the analysis model will precisely demonstrate the geometry of structure. In this study Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used for Isogeometric shape optimization. The option of selecting the position and weight of control points as design variables, needless to sensitivity analysis relationships, is the superiority of the proposed method over gradient-based methods. The other advantages of this method are its straightforward implementation
S. Gerist, S.s. Naseralavi , E. Salajegheh,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

In damage detection the number of elements is generally more than the number of measured frequencies. Consequently, the corresponding damage detection equation is undetermined and thus has infinite solutions. Since in the damaged structures most of their elements remain healthy, the sparsest solution for the damage detection equation is mostly the actual damage. In the proposed method, the damage equation is first linearized in various ways using random finite difference increments. The sparsest solutions for created linear system of equations are derived using basis pursuit. These solutions are considered as the first population for a continuous genetic algorithm to obtain the damage solution. For investigation of the proposed method three case studies are considered. Simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed method compared to those found in the literature.
S.s. Naseralavi, E. Salajegheh, J. Salajegheh, M. Ziaee,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (10-2012)
Abstract

A novel two-stage algorithm for detection of damages in large-scale structures under static loads is presented. The technique utilizes the vector of response change (VRC) and sensitivities of responses with respect to the elemental damage parameters (RSEs). It is shown that VRC approximately lies in the subspace spanned by RSEs corresponding to the damaged elements. The property is leveraged in the first stage of the proposed method by seeking RSEs whose spanned subspace best contains the VRC. Consequently, the corresponding elements are regarded as damage candidates. To alleviate the exploration among RSEs, they are first partitioned into several clusters. Subsequently, discrete ant colony optimization (ACO) is utilized to find the clusters containing the RSEs of damaged elements. In the second stage of the algorithm, damage amounts for the restricted elements are determined using a continuous version of ACO. Two numerical examples are studied. The results illustrate that the method is both robust and efficient for detection of damages in large-scale structures.
F. Sarvi , S. Shojaee , P. Torkzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2014)
Abstract

This paper presents an efficient method for updating the structural finite element model. Model updating is performed through minimizing the difference of recorded acceleration of real damaged structure and hypothetical damaged structure, by updating physical parameters in each phase using iterative process of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. This algorithm is based on sensitivity analysis and provides a linear solution for nonlinear damage detection problem. The presented method is capable of detecting the exact location and ratio of structural damage in the presence of noise or incomplete data.
M. Goharriz , S. M. Marandi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2016)
Abstract

During an earthquake, significant damage can result due to instability of the soil in the area affected by internal seismic waves. A liquefaction-induced lateral ground displacement has been a very damaging type of ground failure during past strong earthquakes. In this study, neuro-fuzzy group method of data handling (NF-GMDH) is utilized for assessment of lateral displacement in both ground slope and free face conditions. The NF-GMDH approach is improved using gravitational search algorithm (GSA). Estimation of the lateral ground displacements requires characterization of the field conditions, principally seismological, topographical and geotechnical parameters. The comprehensive database was used for development of the model obtained from different earthquakes. Contributions of the variables influencing the lateral ground displacement are evaluated through a sensitivity analysis. Performance of the NF-GMDH-GSA models are compared with those obtained from gene-expression programming (GEP) approach, and empirical equations in terms of error indicators parameters and the advantages of the proposed models over the conventional method are discussed. The results showed that the models presented in this research may serve as reliable tools to predict lateral ground displacement. It is clear that a precise correlation is easier to be used in the routine geotechnical projects compared with the field measurement techniques.


M. Roodsarabi, M. Khatibinia , S. R. Sarafrazi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2016)
Abstract

This study focuses on the topology optimization of structures using a hybrid of level set method (LSM) incorporating sensitivity analysis and isogeometric analysis (IGA). First, the topology optimization problem is formulated using the LSM based on the shape gradient. The shape gradient easily handles boundary propagation with topological changes. In the LSM, the topological gradient method as sensitivity analysis is also utilized to precisely design new holes in the interior domain. The hybrid of these gradients can yield an efficient algorithm which has more flexibility in changing topology of structure and escape from local optimal in the optimization process. Finally, instead of the conventional finite element method (FEM) a Non–Uniform Rational B–Splines (NURBS)–based IGA is applied to describe the field variables as the geometry of the domain. In IGA approach, control points play the same role with nodes in FEM, and B–Spline functions are utilized as shape functions of FEM for analysis of structure. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed method, three benchmark examples widely used in topology optimization are presented. Numerical results show that the proposed method outperform other LSMs.


H. Bahadori , M. S. Momeni,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2016)
Abstract

Shear wave velocity (Vs) is known as one of the fundamental material parameters which is useful in dynamic analysis. It is especially used to determine the dynamic shear modulus of the soil layers. Nowadays, several empirical equations have been presented to estimate the shear wave velocity based on the results from Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and soil type. Most of these equations result in different estimation of Vs for the same soils. In some cases a divergence of up to 100% has been reported. In the following study, having used the field study results of Urmia City and Artificial Neural Networks, a new correlation between Vs and several simple geotechnical parameters (i.e. Modified SPT value number (N60), Effective overburden stress, percentage of passing from Sieve #200 (Fc), plastic modulus (PI) and mean grain size (d50)) is presented. Using sensitivity analysis it is been shown that the effect of PI in Vs prediction is more than that of N60 in over consolidated clays. It is also observed that Fc has a high influence on evaluation of shear wave velocity of silty soils.


H. A. Tavazo , A. Ranjbaran,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (10-2016)
Abstract

Due to several uncertainties  which  affect structural responses of Reinforced concrete (RC) frames,  it is sensibly required  to  apply  a vulnerability analysis tool such as fragility curve. To  construct an analytical fragility curve, the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) method has been extensively used as an applicable seismic analysis tool. To employ the IDA method for constructing fragility curves of RC frames,  it is important  to know  how many records will  be  adequate  to  assess  seismic  risk  analysis  properly?  Another  issue  is  to  know  how many IDA steps  are  required for developing an accurate fitted fragility function? For this purpose,  two 3D RC frames  called  3STRCF and 5STRCF have been nonlinearly modeled and 200 2-componets actual records have been considered for  the  IDA. The results  reveal that at least 15 IDA steps  are  required  to  reduce  fragility function error to less than 5% and 10  IDA  steps  are  required  to  yield  less  than  10%  error.  In  addition,  it  is  revealed  that  a selection of 100 records is completely adequate to be certain   to have  an accurate fragility curve. It is concluded that at least 25 records are required to decrease fragility curve error to less than 5% and 15 records to  have  less than 10%. The closeness of fragility curve error variation for two models and in all limit states show that these results can be generalized to other RC frames.


S. H. Mirmohammadi, E. Babaee Tirkolaee, A. Goli, S. Dehnavi - Arani,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (1-2017)
Abstract

The travel times among demand points are strongly influenced by traffic in a supply chain. Due to this fact, the service times for customers are variable. For this reason, service time is often changes over a time interval in a real environment. In this paper, a time-dependent periodic green vehicle routing problem (VRP) considering the time windows for serving the customers and multiple trip is developed with this assumption that urban traffic would disrupt timely services. The objective function of proposed problem is to minimize the total amount of carbon dioxide emissions produced by the vehicle, earliness and lateness penalties costs and costs of used vehicles. At first, a novel linear integer mathematical model is formulated and then the model is validated via solving some test problems by CPLEX solver. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is carried out to study the role of two critical parameters in the optimal solution.


V. Nandha Kumar, C. R. Suribabu,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (7-2017)
Abstract

Optimal design of cantilever reinforced concrete retaining wall can lead considerable cost saving if its involvement in hill road formation and railway line formation is significant.  A study of weight reduction optimization of reinforced cantilever retaining wall subjected to a sloped backfill using Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA) is carried out in the present research.  The retaining wall carrying a sloped backfill is investigated manually and the problem is solved using the algorithm and results were compared. The Indian Standard design philosophy is followed throughout the research. The design variables, constraint equations were determined and optimized with DEA. The single objective constrained optimization problem deals with seven design variables of cantilever retaining wall in which four design variables constitutes  to geometric dimensions and remaining three variables constitutes to the reinforcement steel area. Ten different constraints are considered and each of it deals with ten failure modes of retaining wall. Further, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the parameters namely, height of the stem and thickness of stem at top, both of it being a constant design variable in the normal optimization problem. Results show that about 15% weight reduction is achieved while comparing with manual solution.


S. M. Eslami, F. Abdollahi, J. Shahmiri, S. M. Tavakkoli,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (1-2019)
Abstract

This paper aims to introduce topology optimization as a robust tool for damage detection in plane stress structures. Two objective functions based on natural frequencies and shape modes of the structure are defined to minimize discrepancy between dynamic specifications of the real damaged structure and the updating model. Damage area is assumed as a porous material where amount of porosity signifies the damage intensity. To achieve this, Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) model is employed. Sensitivity analysis is achieved and a mathematical based method is used for solving the optimization problems. In order to demonstrate efficiency and robustness of the method to identify various type of damages in terms of both location and intensity, several numerical examples are presented and the results are discussed.
F. Abdollahi , S. M. Tavakkoli,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (9-2019)
Abstract

In this paper, topology optimization is utilized for damage detection in three dimensional elasticity problems. In addition, two mode expansion techniques are used to derive unknown modal data from measured data identified by installed sensors. Damages in the model are assumed as reduction of mass and stiffness in the discretized finite elements. The Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) method is used for parameterizing topology of the structure. Difference between mode shapes of the model and real structure is minimized via a mathematical based algorithm. Analytical sensitivity analysis is performed to obtain derivatives of objective function with respect to the design variables. In order to illustrate the accuracy of the proposed method, four numerical examples are presented.
M. Mohebbi, H. Dadkhah,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (1-2020)
Abstract

In this paper, a design method is proposed for base isolation system under blast loading that this method is based on transforming design problem into an optimization problem. Genetic algorithm has been employed to solve the optimization problem whereas base isolation system properties have been considered as design variables and a linear combination of base drift and inter-story drift has been defined as objective function. A sensitivity analysis has been also conducted to investigate the effect of base isolation system properties on the blast performance of isolated structure. For numerical simulation, base isolation system is designed using the proposed method for controlling the response of an eight-story nonlinear shear-type building frame under blast loading. It has been found from the results that base isolation system is an effective control system under blast loading that its performance is dependent on the base isolation system characteristics especially the base mass. The optimization results also show that base isolation system designed using the proposed method is a well-designed control system for mitigating the blast response of structure and the proposed design method can be considered as an effective design approach under blast loading.
H.a. Jahangiry, M. Gholhaki, M. K. Sharbatdar ,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (1-2020)
Abstract

This research focuses on the effects of stiffeners and architectural opening on the steel shear wall topology optimization. To this aim, four relevant issues have been considered. The first issue is the optimality Pattern of the shear wall without stiffeners. The second is the Optimality Pattern of the shear wall with stiffeners in two directions. The third is the investigation on the topology optimization of the shear walls with fixed opening and the fourth is the multi-material topology optimization of the above issues. In the optimize process, the level set method based on the shape sensitivity and the finite element analysis for two-dimensional linear elastic problems has been used. The level set function implicitly indicated the boundaries of the design domain. Several numerical examples are used to demonstrate the optimal paths in the steel shear walls. The results show that optimal values have been changed by replacing stiffeners and creating openings in the wall, but the optimal topologies almost have a shape like a concentric bracing. Also, in the conventional shear walls (one material) the horizontal stiffeners have a significant effect on their performance.

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