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Showing 31 results for Displacement

A. Kaveh, T. Bakhshpoori , E. Afshari,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

This paper is concerned with the economical comparison between two commonly used configurations for double layer grids and determining their optimum span-depth ratio. Two ranges of spans as small and big sizes with certain bays of equal length in two directions and various types of element grouping are considered for each type of square grids. In order to carry out a precise comparison between different systems, optimum design procedure based on the Cuckoo Search (CS) algorithm is developed. The CS is a meta-heuristic algorithm recently developed that is inspired by the behavior of some Cuckoo species in combination with the Lévy flight behavior of some birds and insects. The design algorithm obtains minimum weight grid through appropriate selection of tube sections available in AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). Strength constraints of AISC-LRFD specification and displacement constraints are imposed on grids. The comparison is aimed at finding the depth at which each of the different configurations shows its advantages. The results are graphically presented from which the optimum depth can easily be estimated for each type, while the influence of element grouping can also be realized at the same time.
A. Kaveh, T. Bakhshpoori, M. Ashoory,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

Different kinds of meta-heuristic algorithms have been recently utilized to overcome the complex nature of optimum design of structures. In this paper, an integrated optimization procedure with the objective of minimizing the self-weight of real size structures is simply performed interfacing SAP2000 and MATLAB® softwares in the form of parallel computing. The meta-heuristic algorithm chosen here is Cuckoo Search (CS) recently developed as a type of population based algorithm inspired by the behavior of some Cuckoo species in combination with the Lévy flight behavior. The CS algorithm performs suitable selection of sections from the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) wide-flange (W) shapes list. Strength constraints of the AISC load and resistance factor design specification, geometric limitations and displacement constraints are imposed on frames. Effective time-saving procedure using simple parallel computing, as well as utilizing reliable analysis and design tool are also some new features of the present study. The results show that the proposed method is effective in optimizing practical structures.
A. Farshidianfar, S. Soheili,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

This paper investigates the optimized parameters for the tuned liquid column dampers to decrease the earthquake vibrations of high-rise buildings. Considering soil effects, the soilstructure interaction (SSI) is involved in this model. The Tuned Liquid Column Damper (TLCD) is also utilized on the roof of the building. Since the TLCD is a nonlinear device, the time domain analysis based on nonlinear Newmark method is employed to obtain the displacement, velocity and acceleration of different stories and TLCD. To illustrate the results, Kobe earthquake data is applied to the model. In order to obtain the best settings for TLCD, different parameters of TLCD are examined with constant mass quantity. The effective length, head loss coefficient, cross sectional ratio and length ratio of TLCD are assumed as the design variables. The objective is to reduce the maximum absolute and Root Mean Square (RMS) values of displacement and acceleration during earthquake vibration. The results show that the TLCDs are very effective and beneficial devices for decreasing the oscillations of high-rise buildings. It is indicated that the soil type highly affects the suitable parameters of TLCD subjected to the earthquake oscillations. This study helps the researchers to the better understanding of earthquake vibration of the structures including soil effects, and leads the designers to achieve the optimized TLCD for the high-rise buildings.
M.r. Ghasemi, E. Barghi,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (7-2012)
Abstract

In this paper the performance of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) in simulating the inverse dynamic behavior of Magneto- Rheological (MR) dampers is investigated. MR dampers are one of the most applicable methods in semi active control of seismic response of structures. Various mathematical models are introduced to simulate the dynamic behavior of MR dampers. The Modified Bouc-Wen model is an appropriate model that has an acceptable accuracy in calculating the generated force of dampers compared to others. In this model displacement and voltage of a MR damper are known while the force generated by MR damper is considered as the unknown. Because of highly nonlinear characteristics of modified bouc-wen model determination of inverse dynamic behavior of MR dampers are generally done using ANNs and ANFIS. Since the ANNs and ANFIS have different mechanisms for emulating desired functions, their responses may be different. In this research the performance of a Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN), Radial Basis Functions Neural Network (RBFNN) and ANFIS in estimating the inverse dynamic behavior of MR dampers are compared. The results emphasize on the advancement of ANFIS to the other methods studied in estimation of inverse dynamic behavior of MR dampers.
A. Abdelraheem Farghaly,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (10-2012)
Abstract

High tall buildings are more susceptible to dynamic excitations such as wind and seismic excitations. In this paper, design procedure and some current applications of tuned mass damper (TMD) were studied. TMD was proposed to study response of 20 storey height building to seismic excitations using time history analysis with and without the TMD. The study indicates that the response of structures such as storey displacements and shear force of columns can be dramatically reduced by using TMD groups with specific arrangement in the model. The study illustrates the group of four TMDs distributed on the plane can be effective as reinforced concrete core shear wall.
S. Gholizadeh, P. Torkzadeh, S. Jabarzadeh,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2013)
Abstract

In this paper, a methodology is presented for optimum shape design of double-layer grids subject to gravity and earthquake loadings. The design variables are the number of divisions in two directions, the height between two layers and the cross-sectional areas of the structural elements. The objective function is the weight of the structure and the design constraints are some limitations on stress and slenderness of the elements besides the vertical displacements of the joints. To achieve the optimization task a variant of particle swarm optimization (PSO) entitled as quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm is employed. The computational burden of the optimization process due to performing time history analysis is very high. In order to decrease the optimization time, the radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are employed to predict the desired responses of the structures during the optimization process. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented methodology
M. Mashayekhi, H.e. Estekanchi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2013)
Abstract

Endurance Time Method (ET) is a dynamic analysis in which structures are subjected to intensifying accelerograms that are optimized in a way that seismic performance of structures can be estimated at different hazard levels with the best possible accuracy. For the currently available ET accelerograms, regardless of the shaking characteristic, an excitation level is recognized as a representative of a specific hazard level, when the acceleration and the displacement spectrum produced by the ET accelerograms up to that excitation level will be compatible with the acceleration and the displacement spectrum associated with that hazard level. This study compares the shaking characteristics of the current ET accelerograms with the ground motions. For this purpose, distribution of plastic cycles and the equivalent number of the cycles are considered as shaking properties of a motion. This study suggests a procedure to achieve the best possible consistency between the equivalent number of cycles of the current ET records and the ground motions. Moreover, a procedure to generate the new generation and optimization of the ET accelerograms which are more consistent with the ground motions are suggested.
O. Hasançebi, S. Kazemzadeh Azad, S. Kazemzadeh Azad,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2013)
Abstract

The present study attempts to apply an efficient yet simple optimization (SOPT) algorithm to optimum design of truss structures under stress and displacement constraints. The computational efficiency of the technique is improved through avoiding unnecessary analyses during the course of optimization using the so-called upper bound strategy (UBS). The efficiency of the UBS integrated SOPT algorithm is evaluated through benchmark sizing optimization problems of truss structures and the numerical results are reported. A comparison of the numerical results attained using the SOPT algorithm with those of modern metaheuristic techniques demonstrates that the employed algorithm is capable of locating promising designs with considerably less computational effort.
M. Grigorian, A. Kaveh,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2013)
Abstract

This article introduces three simple ideas that lead to the efficient design of regular moment frames. The finite module concept assumes that the moment frame may be construed as being composed of predesigned, imaginary rectangular modules that fit into the bays of the structure. Plastic design analysis aims at minimizing the demand-capacity ratios of elements of ductile moment frames by inducing the strength and stiffnesses of groups of members in accordance with certain design criteria, rather than investigating their suitability against the same rules of compliance. Collapse modes and stability conditions are imposed rather than investigated. In short, theory of structures is applied rather than followed. Plastic displacement control suggests that in addition to conducting failure analysis, the maximum displacements of plausible failure modes at incipient collapse should also be taken into consideration. While two collapse mechanisms may share the same carrying capacity, their maximum displacements may be different.
A. Farshidianfar, S. Soheili,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2013)
Abstract

This paper investigates the optimized parameters of Tuned Mass Dampers (TMDs) for high-rise structures considering Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) effects. Three optimization methods, namely the ant colony optimization (ACO) technique together with artificial bee colony (ABC) and shuffled complex evolution (SCE) methods are utilized for the optimization of TMD Mass, damping coefficient and spring stiffness as the design variables. The objective is to decrease the maximum displacement of structure. The 40 story structure with three soil types is employed to design TMD for six types of far field earthquakes. The results are then utilized to obtain relations for the optimized TMD parameters with SSI effects. The relations are then applied to design TMD for the same structure with another five types of far field oscillations, and reasonable results are achieved. For further investigations, the obtained relations are utilized to design TMD for a new structure, and the reduction values are obtained for five types of earthquakes, which show acceptable results. This study improves the understanding of earthquake oscillations, and helps the designers to achieve the optimized TMD for high-rise buildings.
M. Mohebbi, S. Moradpour , Y. Ghanbarpour,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

In this research, optimal design and assessment of multiple tuned mass dampers (MTMDs) capability in mitigating the damage of nonlinear steel structures subjected to earthquake excitation has been studied. Optimal parameters of TMDs on nonlinear multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structures have been determined based on minimizing the maximum relative displacement (drift) of structure where for solving the optimization problem the genetic algorithm (GA) has been used successfully. For numerical analysis, three and nine storey 2-D moment resisting nonlinear steel frames subjected to far-field and near-field earthquakes and optimal MTMDs has been designed for different values of mass ratio and TMDs number. According to the results of numerical simulations, it can be said that MTMDs mechanism could reduce the damage of nonlinear steel structures where the effectiveness increases by increasing TMDs mass ratio. Also the performance of MTMDs depends on earthquake characteristics, mass ratio and TMDs configuration where in this research the effective case has been locating TMDs on top floor in parallel configuration.
B. Mohebi, Gh. Ghodrati Amiri, M. Taheri,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (11-2014)
Abstract

This paper presents a suitable and quick way to choose earthquake records in non-linear dynamic analysis using optimization methods. In addition, these earthquake records are scaled. Therefore, structural responses of three different soil-frame models were examined, the change in maximum displacement of roof was analyzed and the damage index of whole structures was measured. The soil classification of project location was divided into 4 different types according to the velocity of shear waves in the Iranian Code for Seismic Design. As a result, 8 frame models were considered. The selection and scaling were carried out in 2 stages. In the first stage, the matching with design spectrum was carried out using genetic algorithm in order to achieve the mean of structural response. In the second stage, the matching with average of structural responses were carried out using PSO to achieve 1 or 3 accelerograms with related factors in order to be used in structural analysis.
J. C. Liang, L. J. Li, N. He,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (1-2015)
Abstract

A multi-objective heuristic particle swarm optimiser (MOHPSO) based on Pareto multi-objective theory is proposed to solve multi-objective optimality problems. The optimality objectives are the roof displacement and structure weight. Two types of structure are analysed in this paper, a truss structure and a framework structure. Performance-based seismic analysis, such as classical and modal pushover analysis, is carried out for the structures. Four optimality algorithms, namely, NSGA-II, MOPSO, MGSO, and MOHPSO, were used for structural optimisation to compare the effectiveness of the algorithms. The calculation results indicate that MOHPSO outperformed the other algorithms in terms of solution stability, universality, and consistency of the distribution of the Pareto front and the ability to consider constraints. The population can converge to the true Pareto front in the latter generations, which indicates that MOHPSO is effective for engineering multi-objective optimality problems.
H. Fattahi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (8-2015)
Abstract

Displacements induced by earthquake can be very large and result in severe damage to earth and earth supported structures including embankment dams, road embankments, excavations and retaining walls. It is important, therefore, to be able to predict such displacements. In this paper, a new approach to prediction of earthquake induced displacements of slopes (EIDS) using hybrid support vector regression (SVR) with particle swarm optimization (PSO) is presented. The PSO is combined with the SVR for determining the optimal value of its user-defined parameters. The optimization implementation by the PSO significantly improves the generalization ability of the SVR. In this research, the input data for the EIDS prediction consist of values of geometrical and geotechnical input parameters. As an output, the model estimates the EIDS that can be modeled as a function approximation problem. A dataset that includes 45 data points was applied in current study, while 36 data points (80%) were used for constructing the model and the remainder data points (9 data points) were used for assessment of degree of accuracy and robustness. The results obtained show that the SVR-PSO model can be used successfully for prediction of the EIDS.
R. Sheikholeslami , A. Kaveh,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (8-2015)
Abstract

The main functional purpose of a water distribution network is to transport water from a source to several domestic and industrial units while at the same time satisfying various requirements on hydraulic response. All the water distribution networks perform two basic operations: firstly the water network needs to deliver adequate amounts of water to meet specific requirements, and secondly the water network needs to be reliable therefore, the required amount of water needs to be continuously available 24 hours a day and 365 days per year. Due to the inevitable failures of some components such as pump stations, reservoirs and/or pipelines in a large-scale water distribution network, in designing a reliable network, the topological structure with low vulnerability must be achieved. Consequently, the study of connectivity, which is the key graph-theoretical notion, becomes crucial. This paper highlights some fundamental concepts from graph theory for vulnerability assessment of water distribution networks, addresses the mathematical properties of the link and node-deletion problems, and outlines some well-established results on the deterministic measures to assess the fault tolerance of networks.
M. Mashayekhi, E. Salajegheh , M. Dehghani,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (8-2015)
Abstract

In this paper, for topology optimization of double layer grids, an efficient optimization method is presented by combination of Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) and Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) which is called ICA-GSA method. The present hybrid method is based on ICA but the moving of countries toward their relevant imperialist is done using the law of gravity of GSA. In topology optimization process, the weight of the structure is minimized subjected to displacements of joints, internal stress and slenderness ratio of members constraints. Through numerical example, topology optimization of a typical large-scale double layer grid is obtained by ICA, GSA and ICA-GSA methods. The numerical results indicate that the proposed algorithm, ICA-GSA, executes better than ICA, GSA and the other methods presented in the literatures for topology optimization of largescale skeletal structures.
A. Zare Hosseinzadeh, G. Ghodrati Amiri, S. A. Seyed Razzaghi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2016)
Abstract

In  this  paper  a  new  method  is  presented  for  structural  damage  identification.  First,  the damaged structure is  excited by short  duration impact acceleration  and then, the  recorded structural displacement time history responses under free vibration conditions are analyzed by Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Wavelet Residual Force (WRF) is calculated. Finally, an effective damage-sensitive index is proposed to localize structural damage with a high  level  of  accuracy.  The  presented  method  is  applied  to  three  numerical  examples, namely  a  fifteen-story  shear  frame,  a  concrete  cantilever  beam  and  a  four-story,  two-bay plane steel frame, under different damage patterns, to detect structural damage either in free noise or noisy states. In addition, some comparative studies are carried out to compare the presented  index  with  other  relative  indices.  Obtained  results,  not  only  illustrate  the  good performance of the presented approach for damage identification in engineering structures, but  also  introduce  it  as  a  stable  and  viable  strategy  especially  when  the  input  data  are contaminated with different levels of random noises.


A. Choubey, M. D. Goel,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2016)
Abstract

The  study  aims  to  investigate  the  progressive  collapse  behaviour  of  RCC  building  under extreme  loading  events  such  as  gas  explosion  in  kitchen,  terroristic  attack,  vehicular collisions  and  accidental  overloads.  The  behavioural  changes  have  been  investigated  and node displacements  are computed when the building is subjected to sudden collapse of the 
load bearing elements.  Herein, a RCC  building  designed based on Indian standard code of practice  is  considered.  The  investigation  is  carried  out  using  commercially  available software. The node displacement values are found under the column removal conditions and collapse  resistance  of  building  frame  is  studied  due  to  increased  loading  for  different 
scenarios.  This  simple analysis  can be used to quickly analyse the  structures  for  different failure conditions and then optimize it for various threat scenarios.


M. Goharriz , S. M. Marandi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2016)
Abstract

During an earthquake, significant damage can result due to instability of the soil in the area affected by internal seismic waves. A liquefaction-induced lateral ground displacement has been a very damaging type of ground failure during past strong earthquakes. In this study, neuro-fuzzy group method of data handling (NF-GMDH) is utilized for assessment of lateral displacement in both ground slope and free face conditions. The NF-GMDH approach is improved using gravitational search algorithm (GSA). Estimation of the lateral ground displacements requires characterization of the field conditions, principally seismological, topographical and geotechnical parameters. The comprehensive database was used for development of the model obtained from different earthquakes. Contributions of the variables influencing the lateral ground displacement are evaluated through a sensitivity analysis. Performance of the NF-GMDH-GSA models are compared with those obtained from gene-expression programming (GEP) approach, and empirical equations in terms of error indicators parameters and the advantages of the proposed models over the conventional method are discussed. The results showed that the models presented in this research may serve as reliable tools to predict lateral ground displacement. It is clear that a precise correlation is easier to be used in the routine geotechnical projects compared with the field measurement techniques.


A. Csébfalvi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2016)
Abstract

In this paper, a displacement-constrained volume-minimizing topology optimization model is present for two-dimensional continuum problems. The new model is a generalization of the displacement-constrained volume-minimizing model developed by Yi and Sui [1] in which the displacement is constrained in the loading point. In the original model the displacement constraint was formulated as an equality relation, which practically means that the number of “interesting points” may be exactly one. The recent model resolves this weakness replacing the equality constraint with an inequality constraint. From engineering point of view it is a very important result because we can replace the inequality constraint with a set of inequality constraints without any difficulty. The other very important fact, that the modified displacement-oriented model can be extended very easily to handle stress-oriented relations, which will be demonstrated in the forthcoming paper. Naturally, the more general theoretical model needs more sophisticated numerical problem handling method. Therefore, we replaced the original “optimality-criteria-like” solution searching process with a standard nonlinear programming approach which is able to handle linear (nonlinear) objectives with linear (nonlinear) equality (inequality) constrains. The efficiency of the new approach is demonstrated by an example investigated by several authors. The presented example with reproducible numerical results as a benchmark problem may be used for testing the quality of exact and heuristic solution procedures to be developed in the future for displacement-constrained volume-minimization problems.



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