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Showing 78 results for Cost

Saeed Gholizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Seyedpoor,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

An efficient methodology is proposed to find optimal shape of arch dams on the basis of constrained natural frequencies. The optimization is carried out by virtual sub population (VSP) evolutionary algorithm employing real values of design variables. In order to reduce the computational cost of the optimization process, the arch dam natural frequencies are predicted by properly trained back propagation (BP) and wavelet back propagation (WBP) neural networks. The WBP network provides better generalization compared with the standard BP network. The numerical results demonstrate the computational merits of the proposed methodology for optimum design of arch dams.
J. Farkas,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

In some cases the optimum is the minimum of the objective function (mathematical optimum), but in other cases the optimum is given by a technical constraint (technical optimum). The present paper shows the both types in two problems. The first problem is to find the optimum dimensions of a ring-stiffened circular cylindrical shell subject to external pressure, which minimize the structural cost. The calculation shows that the cost decreases when the shell diameter decreases. The decrease of diameter is limited by a fabrication constraint that the diameter should be minimum 2 m to make it possible the welding and painting inside of the shell. The second problem is to find the optimum dimensions of a cantilever column loaded by compression and bending. The column is constructed as circular or conical unstiffened shell. The cost comparison of both structural versions shows the most economic one.
S. Shojaee, S. Hasheminasab,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

Although Genetic algorithm (GA), Ant colony (AC) and Particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) have already been extended to various types of engineering problems, the effects of initial sampling beside constraints in the efficiency of algorithms, is still an interesting field. In this paper we show that, initial sampling with a special series of constraints play an important role in the convergence and robustness of a metaheuristic algorithm. Random initial sampling, Latin Hypercube Design, Sobol sequence, Hammersley and Halton sequences are employed for approximating initial design. Comparative studies demonstrate that well distributed initial sampling speeds up the convergence to near optimal design and reduce the required computational cost of purely random sampling methodologies. In addition different penalty functions that define the Augmented Lagrangian methods considered in this paper to improve the algorithms. Some examples presented to show these applications.
A. Kaveh, V.r. Mahdavi,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

In recent years, the importance of economical considerations in the field of dam engineering has motivated many researchers to propose new methods for minimizing the cost of dames and in particular arch dams. This paper presents a method for shape optimization of double curvature arch dams corresponding to minimum construction cost while satisfying different constraints such as natural frequencies, stability and geometrical limitations. For optimization, the charged system search (CSS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are employed. To validate the finite element model, a real arch dam is considered as a test example. The results of the present method are compared to those of other optimization algorithms for the selected example from literature.
A. Afshar, E. Kalhor,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

In this paper, an efficient multi-objective model is proposed to solve time-cost trade off problem considering cash flows. The proposed multi-objective meta-heuristic is based on Ant colony optimization and is called Non Dominated Archiving Ant Colony Optimization (NAACO). The significant feature of this work is consideration of uncertainties in time, cost and more importantly interest rate. A fuzzy approach is adopted to account for uncertainties. Mathematics of cash-flow analysis in a fuzzy environment is described. A case study is done using the proposed approach
J. Salajegheh, S. Khosravi,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

A hybrid meta-heuristic optimization method is introduced to efficiently find the optimal shape of concrete gravity dams including dam-water-foundation rock interaction subjected to earthquake loading. The hybrid meta-heuristic optimization method is based on a hybrid of gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), which is called GSA-PSO. The operation of GSA-PSO includes three phases. In the first phase, a preliminary optimization is accomplished using GSA as local search. In the second phase, an optimal initial swarm is produced using the optimum result of GSA. Finally, PSO is employed to find the optimum design using the optimal initial swarm. In order to reduce the computational cost of dam analysis subject to earthquake loading, weighted least squares support vector machine (WLS-SVM) is employed to accurately predict dynamic responses of gravity dams. Numerical results demonstrate the high performance of the hybrid meta-heuristic optimization for optimal shape design of concrete gravity dams. The solutions obtained by GSA-PSO are compared with those of GSA and PSO. It is revealed that GSA-PSO converges to a superior solution compared to GSA and PSO, and has a lower computation cost.
A. Tahershamsia, A. Kaveh, R. Sheikholeslamia , S. Talatahari,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

The Big Bang-Big Crunch (BB–BC) method is a relatively new meta-heuristic algorithm which inspired by one of the theories of the evolution of universe. In the BB–BC optimization algorithm, firstly random points are produced in the Big Bang phase then these points are shrunk to a single representative point via a center of mass or minimal cost approach in the Big Crunch phase. In this paper, the BB–BC algorithm is presented for optimal cost design of water distribution systems and employed to optimize different types of hydraulic networks with discrete variables. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method compared to other algorithms.
M.a. Youssef , I.a. Mohammed, A.n. Ibraheem, I.m. Hussein,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

General Authority for Educational Buildings (GAEB) in Egypt is responsible for new construction and maintenance of the educational building [1]. According to the Sixth Five- Years Plan in Egypt, the program of educational structures includes new construction of about 2915 schools, with 39.8 thousand classes. Also, maintenance works for buildings about 1250 schools. These works needs a high budget but the available budget is less than the required budget. Therefore, GAEB should apply optimization techniqes to save cost and optimize the benefit from the avaliable budget with the same quality level or more. This paper aims to apply value engineering technique on educational building to maximuize the utiltization of the available constructuion and maintenace budget. In this paper value engineering technique, is applied on a model of primary school. The paper suggested that GAEB should construct a value engineering department included in its organization structure. Finally it draws overall conclusions about the application of value engineering (VE) in the GAEB in Egypt. Also, to get the optimum set of activities, alternatives for cost saving and maximize the utilization of the available funds for new construction and maintenance works. The value engineering technique application is based on data collected from GAEB.
P. Valli, C. Antony Jeyasehar,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

Equipment selection is a key factor in modern construction industry. As it is a complex factor, current models offered by literatures fail to provide adequate solutions for major issues like systematic evaluation of soft factors and weighting of soft benefits in comparison with costs. This paper aims at making a comparative study between GA and AHP by utilising MATLAB as a tool. It is a convenient tool offering an orderly methodical thinking. It guides them in making consistent decisions and provides a facility for all necessary computation.
A. Csébfalvi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

The cumulative resource constraints of the resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) do not treat the resource demands as geometric rectangles, that is, activities are not necessarily assigned to the same resource units over their processing times. In spite of this fact, most papers on resource-constrained project scheduling mainly in the motivation phase use a strip packing of rectangles (SPR) like visualization to illustrate the resource allocation. A novice researcher inspired by the "artistic" SPR visualization may think that the "rectangles" are essential elements of the RCPSP, and that the RCPSP is a special counter-intuitive strip packing problem (SPP) which can be solved without explicitly defined strip packing constraints. In this context "artistic" means, that we have to use a "drawing tool" to produce a SPR like visualization, because the standard model of the RCPSP knows nothing about the rectangles. In the RCPSP, the rectangles can be torn vertically and horizontally, which is absurd in the SPP, and the existence of a cumulative solution is only a necessary but not sufficient condition of the existence of the SPR like visualization, as proven by several researchers. Therefore the popular SPR visualization is theoretically wrong and misleading, and hides a real problem, which is connected to the dedicated resource assignment. In this paper, we prove that replacing the rectangles with a set of strips with unit height we can always generate a theoretically correct strip packing of strips (SPS) like dedicated assignment, where dedicated means that each demand unit is served by exactly one resource unit over its duration without "hidden" transfer time and cost.
V. C. Castilho, M.c.v. Lima,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (7-2012)
Abstract

In the precast structures, optimization of structural elements is of great interest mainly due to a more rationalized way that elements are produced. There are several elements of precast prestressed concrete that are objects of study in optimization processes, as the prestressed joist applied in buildings slabs. This article inquires into cost minimization of continuous and simply supported slabs, formed by unialveolar beams and prestressed joist, using Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Comparative analyses of the final costs were made for these two precast elements, previously investigated in Castilho [1] and Castilho [2]. Furthermore, parcels of cost function were analyzed for the cases of prestressed joist and unialveolar beam, and the results show that the production stage of the element matches the largest part of the cost function. Also, although the prestressed joist is more economical, unialveolar beam reaches the market to compete with the other precast elements for slabs.
S. Gharehbaghi, M. J. Fadaee,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (10-2012)
Abstract

This paper deals with the optimization of reinforced concrete (RC) structures under earthquake loads by introducing a simple methodology. One of the most important problems in the design of RC structures is the existing of various design scenarios that all of them satisfy design constraints. Despite of the steel structures, a large number of design candidates due to a large number of design variables can be utilized. Doubtless, the economical and practical aspects are two effective parameters on accepting a design candidate. As such, in this paper the conventional design process that uses a trial and error process is replaced with an automated process using optimization technique. Also, the cost of construction is selected as an objective function in the automated process. A real valued model of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is utilized to perform the optimization process. Design constraints conform to the ACI318-08 code and standard 2800-code recommendations. Three ground motion records modified based on Iranian Design Spectrum is considered as earthquake excitations. Moreover, to reveal the effectiveness and robustness of the presented methodology, for example, a three-bay eighteen-story RC frame is optimized against the combination of gravity and earthquake loads. The entire process is summarized in a computer programming using a link between MATLAB platform and OpenSEES as open source object-oriented software.
A. Kaveh, B. Ahmadi, F. Shokohi, N. Bohlooli,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2013)
Abstract

The present study encompasses a new method to simultaneous analysis, design and optimization of Water Distribution Systems (WDSs). In this method, analysis procedure is carried out using Charged System Search (CSS) optimization algorithm. Besides design and cost optimization of WDSs are performed simultaneous with analysis process using a new objective function in order to satisfying the analysis criteria, design constraints and cost optimization. Comparison of achieved results clearly signifies the efficiency of the present method in reducing the WDSs construction cost and computational time of the analysis. These comparisons are made for three benchmark practical examples of WDSs.
A. Ahrari, A. A. Atai,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2013)
Abstract

The prevalent strategy in the topology optimization phase is to select a subset of members existing in an excessively connected truss, called Ground Structure, such that the overall weight or cost is minimized. Although finding a good topology significantly reduces the overall cost, excessive growth of the size of topology space combined with existence of varied types of design variables challenges applicability of evolutionary algorithms tailored for simultaneous optimization of topology, shape and size (TSS) in more complicated cases which are of great practical interest. In practice, large-scale truss structures are often modular, formed by joining periodically repeated units. This article organizes a novel simulation approach for this class of truss structures where the main drawbacks of the ground structure-based simulation approach are greatly moderated. The two approaches are independently employed for simultaneous TSS optimization of a modular truss example and the size of topology space as well as the required computation budget to generate an acceptable candidate design is compared. Result comparison reveals by employing the novel approach, problem complexity grows linearly with respect to the number of modules which allows for expanding application of TSS optimizers to complex modular trusses. Use of relative coordinates is also warranted for shape optimization which concludes to a more efficient optimization process.
S. Gholizadeh , V. Aligholizadeh,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2013)
Abstract

The main aim of the present study is to achieve optimum design of reinforced concrete (RC) plane moment frames using bat algorithm (BA) which is a newly developed meta-heuristic optimization algorithm based on the echolocation behaviour of bats. The objective function is the total cost of the frame and the design constraints are checked during the optimization process based on ACI 318-08 code. Design variables are the cross-sectional assignments of the structural members and are selected from a data set containing a finite number of sectional properties of beams and columns in a practical range. Three design examples including four, eight and twelve story RC frames are presented and the results are compared with those of other algorithms. The numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the BA to the other meta-heuristic algorithms in terms of the frame optimal cost and the convergence rate.
S. Kazemzadeh Azad, O. Hasançebi,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (10-2013)
Abstract

This paper attempts to improve the computational efficiency of the well known particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for tackling discrete sizing optimization problems of steel frame structures. It is generally known that, in structural design optimization applications, PSO entails enormously time-consuming structural analyses to locate an optimum solution. Hence, in the present study it is attempted to lessen the computational effort of the algorithm, using the so called upper bound strategy (UBS), which is a recently proposed strategy for reducing the total number of structural analyses involved in the course of design optimization. In the UBS, the key issue is to identify those candidate solutions which have no chance to improve the search during the optimum design process. After identifying those non-improving solutions, they are directly excluded from the structural analysis stage, diminishing the total computational cost. The performance of the UBS integrated PSO algorithm (UPSO) is evaluated in discrete sizing optimization of a real scale steel frame to AISC-LRFD specifications. The numerical results demonstrate that the UPSO outperforms the original PSO algorithm in terms of the computational efficiency.
S. Danka,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (10-2013)
Abstract

This paper, we presents a new primary-secondary-criteria scheduling model for resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) with uncertain activity durations (UD) and cash flows (UC). The RCPSP-UD-UC approach producing a “robust” resource-feasible schedule immunized against uncertainties in the activity durations and which is on the sampling-based scenarios may be evaluated from a cost-oriented point of view. In the presented approach, it is assumed that each activity-duration and each cash flow value is an uncertain-but-bounded parameter, which is characterized by its optimistic and pessimistic estimations. The evaluation of a given robust schedule is based on the investigation of variability of the makespan as a primary and the net present value (NPV) as secondary criterion on the set of randomly generated scenarios given by a sampling-on-sampling-like process. Theoretically, the robust schedule-searching algorithm is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming problem, which is combined with a cost-oriented sampling-based approximation phase. In order to illustrate the essence of the proposed approach we present detailed computational results for a larger and very challenging project instance. A problem specific fast and efficient harmony search algorithm for large uncertain problems will be presented in a forthcoming paper.
S. Danka,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (10-2013)
Abstract

In this paper, we present a new idea for robust project scheduling combined with a cost-oriented uncertainty investigation. The result of the new approach is a makespan minimal robust proactive schedule, which is immune against the uncertainties in the activity durations and which can be evaluated from a cost-oriented point of view on the set of the uncertain-but-bounded duration and cost parameters using a sampling-based approximation. In this paper, we assume that the sources of uncertainty are the variability of the activity durations and the cash flow values, and present an appropriate hybrid method, which is a combination of mathematical programming, metaheuristic and sampling-based elements, to cope with this "uncertainty in uncertainty" like real problem.
H. Fattahi, S. Shojaee , M. A Ebrahimi Farsangi,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (10-2013)
Abstract

The development of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around an underground excavation can change the physical, mechanical and hydraulic behaviors of the rock mass near an underground space. This might result in endangering safety, achievement of costs and excavation planed. This paper presents an approach to build a prediction model for the assessment of EDZ, based upon rock mass characteristics changed. Rock engineering systems (RES) was used as an appropriate method for choosing the best parameter that expresses the occurrence of EDZ. Modulus of deformation with the highest weight in the system was selected as the most effective changed parameter. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with modulus of deformation as input was used to build a prediction model for the assessment of EDZ. Three ANFIS models were implemented, grid partitioning (GP), subtractive clustering method (SCM) and fuzzy c-means clustering method (FCM). A comparison was made between these three models and the results show the superiority of the ANFIS-SCM model. Furthermore, a case study in a test gallery of the Gotvand dam, Iran was carried out to illustrate the capability of the ANFIS model defined.
R. Sheikholeslami, A. Kaveh, A. Tahershamsi , S. Talatahari,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

A charged system search algorithm (CSS) is applied to the optimal cost design of water distribution networks. This algorithm is inspired by the Coulomb and Gauss’s laws of electrostatics in physics. The CSS utilizes a number of charged particles which influence each other based on their fitness values and their separation distances considering the governing law of Coulomb. The well-known benchmark instances, Hanoi network, double Hanoi network, and New York City tunnel problem, are utilized as the case studies to evaluate the optimization performance of CSS. Comparison of the results of the CSS with some other meta-heuristic algorithms indicates the performance of the new algorithm.

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