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Showing 10 results for Collapse

M. Jamshidi Avanaki , H.e. Estekanchi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Estimation of collapse performance is primarily conducted through Collapse Fragility Curves (CFC’s). The EDP-based approach is the main scheme for attaining such curves and employs IDA. Obtaining CFC’s from IDA results is tremendously time consuming and computationally demanding. Introduction of more efficient methods of seismic analysis, can potentially improve this issue. The Endurance Time (ET) method is a straightforward method for dynamic analysis of structures subjected to multilevel excitation intensities. In this paper, collapse analysis using ET analysis results to obtain EDP-based CFC’s, has been explained and demonstrated by a model. For verification, the resulting CFC has been compared to that obtained by IDA.
M. Grigorian, A. Kaveh,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2013)

This article introduces three simple ideas that lead to the efficient design of regular moment frames. The finite module concept assumes that the moment frame may be construed as being composed of predesigned, imaginary rectangular modules that fit into the bays of the structure. Plastic design analysis aims at minimizing the demand-capacity ratios of elements of ductile moment frames by inducing the strength and stiffnesses of groups of members in accordance with certain design criteria, rather than investigating their suitability against the same rules of compliance. Collapse modes and stability conditions are imposed rather than investigated. In short, theory of structures is applied rather than followed. Plastic displacement control suggests that in addition to conducting failure analysis, the maximum displacements of plausible failure modes at incipient collapse should also be taken into consideration. While two collapse mechanisms may share the same carrying capacity, their maximum displacements may be different.
S. Gholizadeh, V. Aligholizadeh , M. Mohammadi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2014)

In the present study, the reliability assessment of performance-based optimally seismic designed reinforced concrete (RC) and steel moment frames is investigated. In order to achieve this task, an efficient methodology is proposed by integrating Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and neural networks (NN). Two NN models including radial basis function (RBF) and back propagation (BP) models are examined in this study. In the proposed methodology, MCS is used to estimate the total exceedence probability associated with immediate occupancy (IO), life safety (LS) and collapse prevention (CP) performance levels. To reduce the computational burden of MCS process, the required nonlinear responses of the generated structures are predicted by RBF and BP models. The numerical results imply the superiority of BP to RBF in prediction of structural responses associated with performance levels. Finally, the obtained results demonstrate the high efficiency of the proposed methodology for reliability assessment of RC and steel frame structures.
A. Kaveh, M.h. Ghafari,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2015)

In rigid plastic analysis one of the most widely applicable methods that is based on the minimum principle, is the combination of elementary mechanisms which uses the upper bound theorem. In this method a mechanism is searched which corresponds to the smallest load factor. Mathematical programming can be used to optimize this search process for simple frames, and meta-heuristic algorithms are the best choice for larger frame structures. In this paper, the Colliding Bodies Optimization (CBO) and its enhanced variant (ECBO) are employed to optimize the process of finding an upper bound for the collapse load factor of the planar frames. The efficiency of these algorithms is compared to that of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm through four numerical examples form multi-bay multi-story frames and pitched roof frames.
A. Choubey, M. D. Goel,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2016)

The  study  aims  to  investigate  the  progressive  collapse  behaviour  of  RCC  building  under extreme  loading  events  such  as  gas  explosion  in  kitchen,  terroristic  attack,  vehicular collisions  and  accidental  overloads.  The  behavioural  changes  have  been  investigated  and node displacements  are computed when the building is subjected to sudden collapse of the 
load bearing elements.  Herein, a RCC  building  designed based on Indian standard code of practice  is  considered.  The  investigation  is  carried  out  using  commercially  available software. The node displacement values are found under the column removal conditions and collapse  resistance  of  building  frame  is  studied  due  to  increased  loading  for  different 
scenarios.  This  simple analysis  can be used to quickly analyse the  structures  for  different failure conditions and then optimize it for various threat scenarios.

A. Heidari, J. Raeisi , R. Kamgar,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (1-2018)

Cumulative absolute velocity (CAV), Arias intensity (AI), and characteristic intensity (CI) are measurable characteristics to show collapse potential of structures, evaluation of earth movement magnitude, and detection of structural failure in an earthquake. In this paper, parameters which describe three characteristics of ground motion have been investigated by using wavelet transforms (WT). In fact, in this paper, a series of twenty eight earthquake records (ER) are decomposed to a pre-defined certain levels by the use of WT. The high and low frequencies are separated. Since higher frequencies do not have any significant effect on the ER, then the low frequencies of ER have been used. For this purpose, each ER is decomposed into 5 levels. Then, for low frequencies of ER, the CAV, AI, and CI are calculated for each level and the results are compared with the values of CAV, AI, and CI which have been computed for the original ER. The results indicate that the value of error is less than 1 percent in the first and second level and this value is less than 10 percent for the third level. In addition, this value is more than 15 percent for the fourth and fifth levels. If the acceptable value for error is considered to be less than 10 percent, it is recommended to use the third level of decomposition for determining these parameters, since the value of error is low and also, the required time is reduced.

M. Grigorian, A. Biglari, M. Kamizi, E. Nikkhah,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (6-2019)

The research leading to this paper was prompted by the need to estimate strength and stiffness of Rigid Rocking Cores (RRCs) as essential elements of resilient earthquake resisting structures. While a limited number of such studies have been reported, no general study in terms of physical properties of RRCs, their appendages and adjoining structures have been published. Despite the growing knowledge on RRCs there are no design guidelines on their applications for seismic protection of buildings. The purpose of the present article is to propose effective rigidity limits beyond which it would be unproductive to use stiffer cores and to provide basic guidelines for the preliminary design of RRCs with a view to collapse prevention, re-centering and post-earthquake repairs/replacements. Several examples supported by computer analysis have been provided to demonstrate the applications and the validity of the proposed solutions.
M. Danesh, S. Gholizadeh, C. Gheyratmand,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (6-2019)

The main aim of the present study is to optimize steel moment frames in the framework of performance-based design and to assess the seismic collapse capacity of the optimal structures. In the first phase of this study, four well-known metaheuristic algorithms are employed to achieve the optimization task. In the second phase, the seismic collapse safety of the obtained optimal designs is evaluated by conducting incremental dynamic analysis and generating fragility curves. Three illustrative examples including 3-, 6-, and 12-story steel moment frames are presented. The numerical results demonstrate that all the performance-based optimal designs obtained by the metahuristic algorithms are of acceptable collapse margin ratio.
A. Kaveh, M.r. Seddighian, E. Ghanadpour,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (6-2019)

Despite widespread application of grillage structures in many engineering fields such as civil, architecture, mechanics, their analysis and design make them more complex than other type of skeletal structures. This intricacy becomes more laborious when the corresponding
analysis and design are based on plastic concepts.
In this paper, Finite Element Method is utilized to find the lower and the upper bounds solutions of rectangular planner grids and this method is compared with analogues Finite Difference Method to indicate the efficiency of proposed approach.

A. Hajishabanian, K. Laknejadi, P. Zarfam,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (9-2019)

One of the most important problems discussed recently in structural engineering is the structural reliability analysis considering uncertainties. To have an efficient optimization process for designing a safe structure, firstly it is required to study the effects of uncertainties on the seismic performance of structure and then incorporate these effects on the optimization process. In this study, a new procedure developed for incorporating two important sources of uncertainties in design optimization process of steel moment resisting frames, is proposed. The first source is related to the connection parameter uncertainties and the second one to seismic demand uncertainty. Additionally Mont Carlo (MC) simulation and a variance reduction technique (VRT) are utilized to deal with uncertainties and to reduce the corresponding computational cost. In the proposed procedure two design objectives are considered, which are structural weight and collapse prevention reliability index for a moment resisting frame in such a way that leads to a set of optimum designs with minimum weight and less possible amounts of sensitivity to connection parameters uncertainties and spectral acceleration uncertainty as seismic demand variation. Additionally, in this procedure the reliability index is computed considering all FEMA-356 performance acceptance criteria, the approach that has never been investigated in other studies. The efficiency of this approach is illustrated by exhibiting a set of optimum designs, in the form of both objective values and investigating nonlinear behavior of optimum designs compared with non-optimum designs. This procedure is introduced in this paper with emphasize on the collapse limit state and applying pushover analysis for studying the nonlinear behavior of structural elements.

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