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Showing 117 results for Analysis

A. Nozari , H.e. Estekanchi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

Numerical simulation of structural response is a challenging issue in earthquake engineering and there has been remarkable progress in this area in the last decade. Endurance Time (ET) method is a new response history based analysis procedure for seismic assessment and structural design in which structures are subjected to a gradually intensifying dynamic excitation and their seismic performance is evaluated based on their responses at different excitation levels. Generating appropriate artificial dynamic excitation is essential in this type of analysis. In this paper, an optimization procedure is presented for computation of the intensifying acceleration functions utilized in the ET method and the results of this procedure are discussed. A set of the ET acceleration functions (ETAFs) is considered which has been produced utilizing numerical optimization considering 2048 acceleration points as optimization variables by an unconstrained optimization procedure. The ET formulation is then modified from the continuous time condition into the discrete time state thus the optimization problem is reformulated as a nonlinear least squares problem. In this way, a second set of the ETAFs is generated which better satisfies the proposed objective function. Subsequently, acceleration points are increased to 4096, for 40 seconds duration, and the third set of the ETAFs is produced using a multi level optimization procedure. Improvement of the ETAFs is demonstrated by analyzing several SDOF systems.
R. Kamyab, E. Salajegheh,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2011)
Abstract

This study deals with predicting nonlinear time history deflection of scallop domes subject to earthquake loading employing neural network technique. Scallop domes have alternate ridged and grooves that radiate from the centre. There are two main types of scallop domes, lattice and continuous, which the latticed type of scallop domes is considered in the present paper. Due to the large number of the structural nodes and elements of scallop domes, nonlinear time history analysis of such structures is time consuming. In this study to reduce the computational burden radial basis function (RBF) neural network is utilized. The type of inputs of neural network models seriously affects the computational performance and accuracy of the network. Two types of input vectors: cross-sectional properties and natural periods of the structures can be employed for neural network training. In this paper the most influential natural periods of the structure are determined by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and then are used as the input vector of the RBF network. Results of illustrative example demonstrate high performance and computational accuracy of RBF network.
F.r. Rofooei, A. Kaveh, F.m. Farahani,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2011)
Abstract

Heavy economic losses and human casualties caused by destructive earthquakes around the world clearly show the need for a systematic approach for large scale damage detection of various types of existing structures. That could provide the proper means for the decision makers for any rehabilitation plans. The aim of this study is to present an innovative method for investigating the seismic vulnerability of the existing concrete structures with moment resisting frames (MRF). For this purpose, a number of 2-D structural models with varying number of bays and stories are designed based on the previous Iranian seismic design code, Standard 2800 (First Edition). The seismically–induced damages to these structural models are determined by performing extensive nonlinear dynamic analyses under a number of earthquake records. Using the IDARC program for dynamic analyses, the Park and Ang damage index is considered for damage evaluation of the structural models. A database is generated using the level of induced damages versus different parameters such as PGA, the ratio of number of stories to number of bays, the dynamic properties of the structures models such as natural frequencies and earthquakes. Finally, in order to estimate the vulnerability of any typical reinforced MRF concrete structures, a number of artificial neural networks are trained for estimation of the probable seismic damage index.
A. Afshar, E. Kalhor,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

In this paper, an efficient multi-objective model is proposed to solve time-cost trade off problem considering cash flows. The proposed multi-objective meta-heuristic is based on Ant colony optimization and is called Non Dominated Archiving Ant Colony Optimization (NAACO). The significant feature of this work is consideration of uncertainties in time, cost and more importantly interest rate. A fuzzy approach is adopted to account for uncertainties. Mathematics of cash-flow analysis in a fuzzy environment is described. A case study is done using the proposed approach
A. Kaveh, M. Hassani,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

In this paper nonlinear analysis of structures are performed considering material and geometric nonlinearity using force method and energy concepts. For this purpose, the complementary energy of the structure is minimized using ant colony algorithms. Considering the energy term next to the weight of the structure, optimal design of structures is performed. The first part of this paper contains the formulation of the complementary energy of truss and frame structures for the purpose of linear analysis. In the second part material and geometric nonlinearity of structure is considered using Ramberg-Osgood relationships. In the last part optimal simultaneous analysis and design of structure is studied. In each part, the efficiency of the methods is illustrated by means simple examples.
J. Salajegheh, S. Khosravi,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

A hybrid meta-heuristic optimization method is introduced to efficiently find the optimal shape of concrete gravity dams including dam-water-foundation rock interaction subjected to earthquake loading. The hybrid meta-heuristic optimization method is based on a hybrid of gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), which is called GSA-PSO. The operation of GSA-PSO includes three phases. In the first phase, a preliminary optimization is accomplished using GSA as local search. In the second phase, an optimal initial swarm is produced using the optimum result of GSA. Finally, PSO is employed to find the optimum design using the optimal initial swarm. In order to reduce the computational cost of dam analysis subject to earthquake loading, weighted least squares support vector machine (WLS-SVM) is employed to accurately predict dynamic responses of gravity dams. Numerical results demonstrate the high performance of the hybrid meta-heuristic optimization for optimal shape design of concrete gravity dams. The solutions obtained by GSA-PSO are compared with those of GSA and PSO. It is revealed that GSA-PSO converges to a superior solution compared to GSA and PSO, and has a lower computation cost.
S. Shojaee, N. Valizadeh , M. Arjomand,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

One primary problem in shape optimization of structures is making a robust link between design model (geometric description) and analysis model. This paper investigates the potential of Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) for solving this problem. The generic framework of shape optimization of structures is presented based on Isogeometric analysis. By discretization of domain via NURBS functions, the analysis model will precisely demonstrate the geometry of structure. In this study Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used for Isogeometric shape optimization. The option of selecting the position and weight of control points as design variables, needless to sensitivity analysis relationships, is the superiority of the proposed method over gradient-based methods. The other advantages of this method are its straightforward implementation
A. Kaveh, T. Bakhshpoori, M. Ashoory,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

Different kinds of meta-heuristic algorithms have been recently utilized to overcome the complex nature of optimum design of structures. In this paper, an integrated optimization procedure with the objective of minimizing the self-weight of real size structures is simply performed interfacing SAP2000 and MATLAB® softwares in the form of parallel computing. The meta-heuristic algorithm chosen here is Cuckoo Search (CS) recently developed as a type of population based algorithm inspired by the behavior of some Cuckoo species in combination with the Lévy flight behavior. The CS algorithm performs suitable selection of sections from the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) wide-flange (W) shapes list. Strength constraints of the AISC load and resistance factor design specification, geometric limitations and displacement constraints are imposed on frames. Effective time-saving procedure using simple parallel computing, as well as utilizing reliable analysis and design tool are also some new features of the present study. The results show that the proposed method is effective in optimizing practical structures.
S. Gholizadeh, M.r. Sheidaii , S. Farajzadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

The main contribution of the present paper is to train efficient neural networks for seismic design of double layer grids subject to multiple-earthquake loading. As the seismic analysis and design of such large scale structures require high computational efforts, employing neural network techniques substantially decreases the computational burden. Square-on-square double layer grids with the variable length of span and height are considered. Back-propagation (BP), radial basis function (RBF) and generalized regression (GR) neural networks are trained for efficiently prediction of the seismic design of the structures. The numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the GR over the BP and RBF neural networks.
S. Shojaee, M. Mohamadianb , N. Valizadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

In the present paper, an approach is proposed for structural topology optimization based on combination of Radial Basis Function (RBF) Level Set Method (LSM) with Isogeometric Analysis (IGA). The corresponding combined algorithm is detailed. First, in this approach, the discrete problem is formulated in Isogeometric Analysis framework. The objective function based on compliance of particular locations of materials in the structure is used and find the optimal distribution of material in the domain to minimize the compliance of the system under a volume constraint. The refinement is employed for construction of the physical mesh to be consistent with the mesh is used for level set function. Then a parameterized level set method with radial basis functions (RBFs) is used for structural topology optimization. Finally, several numerical examples are provided to confirm the validity of the method.
M.a. Youssef , I.a. Mohammed, A.n. Ibraheem, I.m. Hussein,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

General Authority for Educational Buildings (GAEB) in Egypt is responsible for new construction and maintenance of the educational building [1]. According to the Sixth Five- Years Plan in Egypt, the program of educational structures includes new construction of about 2915 schools, with 39.8 thousand classes. Also, maintenance works for buildings about 1250 schools. These works needs a high budget but the available budget is less than the required budget. Therefore, GAEB should apply optimization techniqes to save cost and optimize the benefit from the avaliable budget with the same quality level or more. This paper aims to apply value engineering technique on educational building to maximuize the utiltization of the available constructuion and maintenace budget. In this paper value engineering technique, is applied on a model of primary school. The paper suggested that GAEB should construct a value engineering department included in its organization structure. Finally it draws overall conclusions about the application of value engineering (VE) in the GAEB in Egypt. Also, to get the optimum set of activities, alternatives for cost saving and maximize the utilization of the available funds for new construction and maintenance works. The value engineering technique application is based on data collected from GAEB.
A. Farshidianfar, S. Soheili,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

This paper investigates the optimized parameters for the tuned liquid column dampers to decrease the earthquake vibrations of high-rise buildings. Considering soil effects, the soilstructure interaction (SSI) is involved in this model. The Tuned Liquid Column Damper (TLCD) is also utilized on the roof of the building. Since the TLCD is a nonlinear device, the time domain analysis based on nonlinear Newmark method is employed to obtain the displacement, velocity and acceleration of different stories and TLCD. To illustrate the results, Kobe earthquake data is applied to the model. In order to obtain the best settings for TLCD, different parameters of TLCD are examined with constant mass quantity. The effective length, head loss coefficient, cross sectional ratio and length ratio of TLCD are assumed as the design variables. The objective is to reduce the maximum absolute and Root Mean Square (RMS) values of displacement and acceleration during earthquake vibration. The results show that the TLCDs are very effective and beneficial devices for decreasing the oscillations of high-rise buildings. It is indicated that the soil type highly affects the suitable parameters of TLCD subjected to the earthquake oscillations. This study helps the researchers to the better understanding of earthquake vibration of the structures including soil effects, and leads the designers to achieve the optimized TLCD for the high-rise buildings.
H. Rahami, A. Kaveh, H. Mehanpour,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

In this paper an efficient method is developed for the analysis of non-regular graphs which contain regular submodels. A model is called regular if it can be expressed as the product of two or three subgraphs. Efficient decomposition methods are available in the literature for the analysis of some classes of regular models. In the present method, for a non-regular model, first the nodes of the non-regular part of such model are ordered followed by ordering the nodes of the regular part. With this ordering the graph matrices will be separated into two blocks. The eigensolution of the non-regular part can be performed by an iterative method, and those of the regular part can easily be calculated using decomposition approaches studied in our previous articles. Some numerical examples are included to illustrate the efficiency of the new method.
S. Shojaee, E. Izadpenah, A. Haeri,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

NURBS-based isogeometric analysis (IGA) has currently been applied as a new numerical method in a considerable range of engineering problems. Due to non-interpolatory characteristic of NURBS basis functions, the properties of Kronecker Delta are not satisfied in IGA, and as a consequence, the imposition of essential boundary condition needs special treatment. The main contribution of this study is to use the well-known Lagrange multiplier method to impose essential boundary conditions for improving the accuracy of the isogeometric solution. Unlike the direct and transformation methods which are based on separation of control points, this method is capable of modeling incomplete Dirichlet boundaries. The solution accuracy and convergence rates of proposed method are compared with direct and transformation methods through various numerical examples.
M. Jamshidi Avanaki , H.e. Estekanchi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

Estimation of collapse performance is primarily conducted through Collapse Fragility Curves (CFC’s). The EDP-based approach is the main scheme for attaining such curves and employs IDA. Obtaining CFC’s from IDA results is tremendously time consuming and computationally demanding. Introduction of more efficient methods of seismic analysis, can potentially improve this issue. The Endurance Time (ET) method is a straightforward method for dynamic analysis of structures subjected to multilevel excitation intensities. In this paper, collapse analysis using ET analysis results to obtain EDP-based CFC’s, has been explained and demonstrated by a model. For verification, the resulting CFC has been compared to that obtained by IDA.
S. Gerist, S.s. Naseralavi , E. Salajegheh,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

In damage detection the number of elements is generally more than the number of measured frequencies. Consequently, the corresponding damage detection equation is undetermined and thus has infinite solutions. Since in the damaged structures most of their elements remain healthy, the sparsest solution for the damage detection equation is mostly the actual damage. In the proposed method, the damage equation is first linearized in various ways using random finite difference increments. The sparsest solutions for created linear system of equations are derived using basis pursuit. These solutions are considered as the first population for a continuous genetic algorithm to obtain the damage solution. For investigation of the proposed method three case studies are considered. Simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed method compared to those found in the literature.
A. Kaveh, P. Zakian,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (7-2012)
Abstract

In this article optimal design of shear walls is performed under seismic loading. For practical aims, a database of special shear walls is created. Special shear walls are used for seismic design optimization employing the charged system search algorithm as an optimizer. Constraints consist of design and performance limitations. Nonlinear behavior of the shear wall is taken into account and performance based seismic design optimization is accomplished. Capacity curves of the optimal solution are determined and compared incorporates soil–structure interaction. Also an optimization based method is proposed for bilinear approximation of capacity curve. These are a new methodology for seismic RC shear wall optimum design.
S.s. Naseralavi, E. Salajegheh, J. Salajegheh, M. Ziaee,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (10-2012)
Abstract

A novel two-stage algorithm for detection of damages in large-scale structures under static loads is presented. The technique utilizes the vector of response change (VRC) and sensitivities of responses with respect to the elemental damage parameters (RSEs). It is shown that VRC approximately lies in the subspace spanned by RSEs corresponding to the damaged elements. The property is leveraged in the first stage of the proposed method by seeking RSEs whose spanned subspace best contains the VRC. Consequently, the corresponding elements are regarded as damage candidates. To alleviate the exploration among RSEs, they are first partitioned into several clusters. Subsequently, discrete ant colony optimization (ACO) is utilized to find the clusters containing the RSEs of damaged elements. In the second stage of the algorithm, damage amounts for the restricted elements are determined using a continuous version of ACO. Two numerical examples are studied. The results illustrate that the method is both robust and efficient for detection of damages in large-scale structures.
A. Abdelraheem Farghaly,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (10-2012)
Abstract

High tall buildings are more susceptible to dynamic excitations such as wind and seismic excitations. In this paper, design procedure and some current applications of tuned mass damper (TMD) were studied. TMD was proposed to study response of 20 storey height building to seismic excitations using time history analysis with and without the TMD. The study indicates that the response of structures such as storey displacements and shear force of columns can be dramatically reduced by using TMD groups with specific arrangement in the model. The study illustrates the group of four TMDs distributed on the plane can be effective as reinforced concrete core shear wall.
M.a. Hariri Ardebili, H. Mirzabozorg, R. Kianoush,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (10-2012)
Abstract

In the present paper, nonlinear behavior of mass concrete simulated by smeared crack model is combined with Endurance Time Analysis (ETA) method for studying seismic response of arch dams. ETA is a time-history based dynamic pushover procedure in which special predesigned intensifying acceleration functions are used for analysis and estimation of structural responses in various performance levels by just a single analysis. For this purpose 203m DEZ arch dam is selected as case study and the finite element model of dam-reservoir-foundation system is excited in various performance levels. It was found that ETA provides reasonable responses in comparison with Time-History Analysis (THA) at equivalent target time. In addition, ETAleads to acceptable estimation of crack profiles within dam body and can reduce the total time of analyses, meaningfully. Generally, it was concluded that ETA can be considered as an alternative of THA in nonlinear analysis of arch dams.

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