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Showing 12 results for Frames

A. Kaveh, A. Zolghadr,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (7-2012)

It is well known that damaged structural members may alter the behavior of the structures considerably. Careful observation of these changes has often been viewed as a means to identify and assess the location and severity of damages in structures. Among the responses of a structure, natural frequencies are both relatively easy to obtain and independent from external excitation, and therefore, could be used as a measure of the structure's behavior before and after an extreme event which might have lead to damage in the structure. Inverse problem of detection and assessment of structural damage using the changes in natural frequencies is addressed in this paper. This can be considered as an optimization problem with the location and severity of the damages being its variables. The objective is to set these variables such that the natural frequencies of the finite element model correspond to the experimentally measured frequencies of the actual damaged structure. In practice, although the exact number of damaged elements is unknown, it is usually believed to be small compared to the total number of elements of the structure. In beams and frames particularly, the necessity to divide the structural members into smaller ones in order to detect the location of the cracks more accurately, deepens this difference. This can significantly improve the performance of the optimization algorithms in solving the inverse problem of damage detection. In this paper, the Charged System Search algorithm developed by Kaveh and Talatahari [1] is improved to comprise the above mentioned point. The performance of the improved algorithm is then compared to the standard one in order to emphasize the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in damage detection inverse problems.
S. Talatahari, M. Nouri, F. Tadbiri,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (10-2012)

Over the past few years, swarm intelligence based optimization techniques such as ant colony optimization and particle swarm optimization have received considerable attention from engineering researchers. These algorithms have been used in the solution of various structural optimization problems where the main goal is to minimize the weight of structures while satisfying all design requirements imposed by design codes. In this paper, artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) is utilized to optimize different skeletal structures. The results of the ABC are compared with the results of other optimization algorithms from the literature to show the efficiency of this technique for structural design problems.
M. Grigorian, A. Kaveh,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2013)

This article introduces three simple ideas that lead to the efficient design of regular moment frames. The finite module concept assumes that the moment frame may be construed as being composed of predesigned, imaginary rectangular modules that fit into the bays of the structure. Plastic design analysis aims at minimizing the demand-capacity ratios of elements of ductile moment frames by inducing the strength and stiffnesses of groups of members in accordance with certain design criteria, rather than investigating their suitability against the same rules of compliance. Collapse modes and stability conditions are imposed rather than investigated. In short, theory of structures is applied rather than followed. Plastic displacement control suggests that in addition to conducting failure analysis, the maximum displacements of plausible failure modes at incipient collapse should also be taken into consideration. While two collapse mechanisms may share the same carrying capacity, their maximum displacements may be different.
S. Kazemzadeh Azad, O. Hasançebi , S. Kazemzadeh Azad,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2014)

Computational cost of metaheuristic based optimum design algorithms grows excessively with structure size. This results in computational inefficiency of modern metaheuristic algorithms in tackling optimum design problems of large scale structural systems. This paper attempts to provide a computationally efficient optimization tool for optimum design of large scale steel frame structures to AISC-LRFD specifications. To this end an upper bound strategy (UBS), which is a recently proposed strategy for reducing the total number of structural analyses in metaheuristic optimization algorithms, is used in conjunction with an exponential variant of the well-known big bang-big crunch optimization algorithm. The performance of the UBS integrated algorithm is investigated in the optimum design of two large-scale steel frame structures with 3860 and 11540 structural members. The obtained numerical results clearly reveal the usefulness of the employed technique in practical optimum design of large-scale structural systems even using regular computers.
A. Kaveh, M.h. Ghafari,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2015)

In rigid plastic analysis one of the most widely applicable methods that is based on the minimum principle, is the combination of elementary mechanisms which uses the upper bound theorem. In this method a mechanism is searched which corresponds to the smallest load factor. Mathematical programming can be used to optimize this search process for simple frames, and meta-heuristic algorithms are the best choice for larger frame structures. In this paper, the Colliding Bodies Optimization (CBO) and its enhanced variant (ECBO) are employed to optimize the process of finding an upper bound for the collapse load factor of the planar frames. The efficiency of these algorithms is compared to that of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm through four numerical examples form multi-bay multi-story frames and pitched roof frames.
H. A. Tavazo , A. Ranjbaran,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (10-2016)

Due to several uncertainties  which  affect structural responses of Reinforced concrete (RC) frames,  it is sensibly required  to  apply  a vulnerability analysis tool such as fragility curve. To  construct an analytical fragility curve, the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) method has been extensively used as an applicable seismic analysis tool. To employ the IDA method for constructing fragility curves of RC frames,  it is important  to know  how many records will  be  adequate  to  assess  seismic  risk  analysis  properly?  Another  issue  is  to  know  how many IDA steps  are  required for developing an accurate fitted fragility function? For this purpose,  two 3D RC frames  called  3STRCF and 5STRCF have been nonlinearly modeled and 200 2-componets actual records have been considered for  the  IDA. The results  reveal that at least 15 IDA steps  are  required  to  reduce  fragility function error to less than 5% and 10  IDA  steps  are  required  to  yield  less  than  10%  error.  In  addition,  it  is  revealed  that  a selection of 100 records is completely adequate to be certain   to have  an accurate fragility curve. It is concluded that at least 25 records are required to decrease fragility curve error to less than 5% and 15 records to  have  less than 10%. The closeness of fragility curve error variation for two models and in all limit states show that these results can be generalized to other RC frames.

H. Rahami, P. Mohebian, M. Mousavi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (7-2017)

The present study sets out to integrate the performance-based seismic design approach with the connection topology optimization method. Performance-based connection topology optimization concept aims to simultaneously optimize the size of members and the type of connections with respect to the framework of performance-based seismic design. This new optimization concept is carried out for unbraced and X-braced steel frames in order to assess its efficiency. The cross-sectional area of components and the type of beam-to-column connections are regarded as design variables. The objective function is formulated in terms of the material costs and the cost of rigid connections. The nonlinear pushover analysis is adopted to acquire the response of the structure at various performance levels. In order to cope with the optimization problem, CBO algorithm is employed. The achieved results demonstrate that incorporating the optimal arrangement of beam-to-column connections into the optimum performance-based design procedure of either unbraced or X-braced steel frame could lead to a design that significantly reduces the overall cost of the structure and offers a predictable and reliable performance for the structure subjected to hazard levels.

B. Ganjavi , I. Hajirasouliha,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (4-2019)

This paper presents a practical methodology for optimization of concentrically braced steel frames subjected to forward directivity near-fault ground motions, based on the concept of uniform deformation theory. This is performed by gradually shifting inefficient material from strong parts of the structure to the weak areas until a state of uniform deformation is achieved. In this regard, to overcome the complexity of the ordinary steel concentrically braced frames a simplified analytical model for seismic response prediction of concentrically braced frames is utulized. In this approach, a multistory frame is reduced to an equivalent shear-building model by performing a pushover analysis. A conventional shear-building model has been modified by introducing supplementary springs to account for flexural displacements in addition to shear displacements. It is shown that modified shear-building models provide a better estimation of the nonlinear dynamic response of real framed structures compared to nonlinear static procedures. Finally, the reliability of the proposed methodology has been verified by conducting nonlinear dynamic analysis on 5, 10 and 15 story frames subjected to 20 forward directivity pulse type near-fault ground motions.
A. Kaveh, R. A. Izadifard, L. Mottaghi,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (1-2020)

In structural design, either the experience of designer is used or a uniform grouping is usually utilized to group the elements. This type of grouping affects the fundamental cost of the buildings, including the cost of concrete, steel and formwork, as well as secondary costs such as laboratory, checking, fabrication and etc. However, the secondary costs are not usually considered in the cost function. Strategies can also be used to automate the grouping of members in structural design. In this strategy beams and columns are automatically grouped into a limited number of groups to achieve the lowest cost. In this study, enhanced colliding bodies optimization algorithm is used to automatically group the beams and columns of the reinforced concrete structures and also to optimize their cost. The proposed procedure applied to three reinforced concrete frames with four, eight and twelve stories and the influence of automatic grouping of the members in optimal cost is investigated. Using this method, the beams and columns are automatically grouped and the results show that the optimal cost obtained from the automatic grouping is less than the manual grouping of the members.
A. Kaveh, S. R. Hoseini Vaez, P. Hosseini, H. Abedini,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (6-2020)

In this research, a new objective function has been proposed for optimal design of the Buckling Restrained Braced Frames (BRBFs) is performed using nonlinear time history analysis. The BRBF is a particular type of bracing system that has been widely utilized in recent years. The nonlinear time history analysis also provides a detailed view of the behavior of the structure. The purpose of this study is to provide an optimal design based on minimizing the weight of the structure while increasing the energy dissipation capability of the structure. Due to the complexity of the problem, the Enhanced Vibrating Particles Systems (EVPS) meta-heuristic algorithm is used to perform the optimization. Here, a 3-story frame, a 6-story frame and a 9-story frame are investigated simultaneously considering the continuous and discrete optimization.
P. Zakian,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (11-2021)

Natural frequencies of a structure give useful information about the structural response to dynamic loading. These frequencies should be far enough from the critical frequency range of dynamic excitations like earthquakes in order to prevent the resonance phenomenon sufficiently. Although there are many investigations on optimization of truss structures subjected to frequency constraints, just a few studies have been considered for optimal design of frame structures under these constraints. In this paper, a recently proposed metaheuristic algorithm called Adaptive Charged System Search (ACSS) is applied to optimal design of steel frame structures considering the frequency constraints. Benchmark design examples are solved with the ACSS, and optimization results are illustrated in terms of some statistical indices, convergence history and solution quality. The design examples include three planar steel frames with small to large number of design variables. Results show that the ACSS outperforms the charged system search algorithm in this sizing optimization problem.
A. Kaveh, A. Zaerreza, J. Zaerreza,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (4-2023)

Vibrating particles system (VPS) is a swarm intelligence-based optimizer inspired by free vibration with a single degree of freedom systems. VPS is one of the well-known algorithms in structural optimization problems. However, its performance can be improved to find a better solution. This study introduces an improved version of the VPS using the statistical regeneration mechanism for the optimal design of the structures with discrete variables. The improved version is named VPS-SRM, and its efficiency is tested in the three real-size optimization problems. The optimization results reveal the capability and robustness of the VPS-SRM for the optimal design of the structures with discrete sizing variables.

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