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Showing 231 results for Optimization

Ali Kaveh, Siamak Talatahari,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

Optimal design of large-scale structures is a rather difficult task and the computational efficiency of the currently available methods needs to be improved. In view of this, the paper presents a modified Charged System Search (CSS) algorithm. The new methodology is based on the combination of CSS and Particle Swarm Optimizer. In addition, in order to improve optimization search, the sequence of tasks entailed by the optimization process is changed so that the updating of the design variables can directly be performed after each movement. In this way, the new method acts as a single-agent algorithm while preserving the positive characteristics of its original multi-agent formulation.
Hossein Rahami, Ali Kaveh, M. Aslani, R. Najian Asl,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

In this paper a hybrid algorithm based on exploration power of the Genetic algorithms and exploitation capability of Nelder Mead simplex is presented for global optimization of multi-variable functions. Some modifications are imposed on genetic algorithm to improve its capability and efficiency while being hybridized with Simplex method. Benchmark test examples of structural optimization with a large number of variables and constraints are chosen to show the robustness of the algorithm.
S. Madadgar, A. Afshar,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

Most real world engineering design problems, such as cross-country water mains, include combinations of continuous, discrete, and binary value decision variables. Very often, the binary decision variables associate with the presence and/or absence of some nominated alternatives or project’s components. This study extends an existing continuous Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to simultaneously handle mixed-variable problems. The approach provides simultaneous solution to a binary value problem with both discrete and continuous variables to locate and size design components of the proposed system. This paper shows how the existing continuous ACO algorithm may be revised to cope with mixed-variable search spaces with binary variables. Performance of the proposed version of the ACO is tested on a set of mathematical benchmark problems followed by a highly nonlinear forced water main optimization problem. Comparing with few other optimization algorithms, the proposed optimization method demonstrates satisfactory performance in locating good near optimal solutions.
S. Shojaee, M. Mohammadian,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

This paper proposes an effective algorithm based on the level set method (LSM) to solve shape and topology optimization problems. Since the conventional LSM has several limitations, a binary level set method (BLSM) is used instead. In the BLSM, the level set function can only take 1 and -1 values at convergence. Thus, it is related to phase-field methods. We don’t need to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, so it is free of the CFL condition and the reinitialization scheme. This favorable properties lead to a great time advantage in this method. In this paper, the BLSM is implemented with the additive operator splitting (AOS) scheme and several numerical issues of the implementation are discussed. The proposed scheme is much more efficient than the conventional level set method. Several 2D examples are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
O. Hasançebi, S. Çarbaş,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

This paper is concerned with application and evaluation of ant colony optimization (ACO) method to practical structural optimization problems. In particular, a size optimum design of pin-jointed truss structures is considered with ACO such that the members are chosen from ready sections for minimum weight design. The application of the algorithm is demonstrated using two design examples with practical design considerations. Both examples are formulated according to provisions of ASD-AISC (Allowable Stress Design Code of American Institute of Steel Institution) specification. The results obtained are used to discuss the computational characteristics of ACO for optimum design of truss type structures.
K.s. Lee, S.w. Han, Z.w. Geem,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

Many methods have been developed for structural size and configuration optimization in which cross-sectional areas are usually assumed to be continuous. In most practical structural engineering design problems, however, the design variables are discrete. This paper proposes two efficient structural optimization methods based on the harmony search (HS) heuristic algorithm that treat both discrete sizing variables and integrated discrete sizing and continuous geometric variables. The HS algorithm uses a stochastic random search instead of a gradient search so the former has a new-paradigmed derivative. Several truss examples from the literature are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the new method, as compared to current optimization methods.
M. Shahrouzi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

Earthquake time history records are required to perform dynamic nonlinear analyses. In order to provide a suitable set of such records, they are scaled to match a target spectrum as introduced in the well-known design codes. Corresponding scaling factors are taken similar in practice however, optimizing them reduces extra-ordinary economic charge for the seismic design. In the present work a new hybrid meta-heuristic is developed combining key features from genotypic search and particle swarm optimization. The method is applied to an illustrative example via a parametric study to evaluate its effectiveness and less probability of premature convergence compared with the standard particle swarm optimization.
J. Farkas,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

In some cases the optimum is the minimum of the objective function (mathematical optimum), but in other cases the optimum is given by a technical constraint (technical optimum). The present paper shows the both types in two problems. The first problem is to find the optimum dimensions of a ring-stiffened circular cylindrical shell subject to external pressure, which minimize the structural cost. The calculation shows that the cost decreases when the shell diameter decreases. The decrease of diameter is limited by a fabrication constraint that the diameter should be minimum 2 m to make it possible the welding and painting inside of the shell. The second problem is to find the optimum dimensions of a cantilever column loaded by compression and bending. The column is constructed as circular or conical unstiffened shell. The cost comparison of both structural versions shows the most economic one.
S.a. Alavi, B. Ahmadi-Nedushan, H. Rahimi Bondarabadi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

In this article, an efficient methodology is presented to optimize the topology of structural systems under transient loads. Equivalent static loads concept is used to deal with transient loads and to solve an alternate quasi-static optimization problem. The maximum strain energy of the structure under the transient load during the loading interval is used as objective function. The objective function is calculated in each iteration and then the dynamic optimization problem is replaced by a static optimization problem, which is subsequently solved by a convex linearization approach combining linear and reciprocal approximation functions. The optimal layout of a deep beam subjected to transient loads is considered as a case study to verify the effectiveness of the presented methodology. Results indicate that the optimal layout is dependant of the loading interval.
Y. Arfiadi, M.n.s. Hadi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

Tuned mass dampers (TMDs) systems are one of the vibration controlled devices used to reduce the response of buildings subject to lateral loadings such as wind and earthquake loadings. Although TMDs system has received much attention from researchers due to their simplicity, the optimization of properties and placement of TMDs is a challenging task. Most research studies consider optimization of TMDs properties. However, the placement of TMDs in a building is also important. This paper considers optimum placement as well as properties of TMDs. Genetic algorithms (GAs) is used to optimize the location and properties of TMDs. Because the location of TMDs at a particular floor of a building is a discrete number, it is represented by binary coded genetic algorithm (BCGA), whereas the properties of TMDS are best suited to be represented by using real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA). The combination of these optimization tools represents a hybrid coded genetic algorithm (HCGA) that optimizes discrete and real values of design variables in one arrangement. It is shown that the optimization tool presented in this paper is stable and has the ability to explore an unknown domain of interest of the design variables, especially in the case of real coding parts. The simulation of the optimized TMDs subject to earthquake ground accelerations shows that the present approaches are comparable and/or outperform the available methods.
M. Mashayekhi, M.j. Fadaee, J. Salajegheh , E. Salajegheh,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

A two-stage optimization method is presented by employing the evolutionary structural optimization (ESO) and ant colony optimization (ACO), which is called ESO-ACO method. To implement ESO-ACO, size optimization is performed using ESO, first. Then, the outcomes of ESO are employed to enhance ACO. In optimization process, the weight of double layer grid is minimized under various constraints which artificial ground motion is used to calculate the structural responses. The presence or absence of elements in bottom and web grids and also cross-sectional areas are selected as design variables. The numerical results reveal the computational advantages and effectiveness of the proposed method.
A. Kaveh, M. Kalateh-Ahani, M.s. Masoudi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

Evolution Strategies (ES) are a class of Evolutionary Algorithms based on Gaussian mutation and deterministic selection. Gaussian mutation captures pair-wise dependencies between the variables through a covariance matrix. Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) is a method to update this covariance matrix. In this paper, the CMA-ES, which has found many applications in solving continuous optimization problems, is employed for size optimization of steel space trusses. Design examples reveal competitive performance of the algorithm compared to the other advanced metaheuristics.
A. Nozari , H.e. Estekanchi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

Numerical simulation of structural response is a challenging issue in earthquake engineering and there has been remarkable progress in this area in the last decade. Endurance Time (ET) method is a new response history based analysis procedure for seismic assessment and structural design in which structures are subjected to a gradually intensifying dynamic excitation and their seismic performance is evaluated based on their responses at different excitation levels. Generating appropriate artificial dynamic excitation is essential in this type of analysis. In this paper, an optimization procedure is presented for computation of the intensifying acceleration functions utilized in the ET method and the results of this procedure are discussed. A set of the ET acceleration functions (ETAFs) is considered which has been produced utilizing numerical optimization considering 2048 acceleration points as optimization variables by an unconstrained optimization procedure. The ET formulation is then modified from the continuous time condition into the discrete time state thus the optimization problem is reformulated as a nonlinear least squares problem. In this way, a second set of the ETAFs is generated which better satisfies the proposed objective function. Subsequently, acceleration points are increased to 4096, for 40 seconds duration, and the third set of the ETAFs is produced using a multi level optimization procedure. Improvement of the ETAFs is demonstrated by analyzing several SDOF systems.
S. Talatahari, A. Kaveh, R. Sheikholeslami,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

The Charged System Search (CSS) is combined to chaos to solve mathematical global optimization problems. The CSS is a recently developed meta-heuristic optimization technique inspired by the governing laws of physics and mechanics. The present study introduces chaos into the CSS in order to increase its global search mobility for a better global optimization. Nine chaos-based CSS (CCSS) methods are developed, and then for each variant, the performance of ten different chaotic maps is investigated to identify the most powerful variant. A comparison of these variants and the standard CSS demonstrates the superiority and suitability of the selected variants for the benchmark mathematical optimization problems.
S. Kazemzadeh Azad, S. Kazemzadeh Azad ,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

Nature-inspired search algorithms have proved to be successful in solving real-world optimization problems. Firefly algorithm is a novel meta-heuristic algorithm which simulates the natural behavior of fireflies. In the present study, optimum design of truss structures with both sizing and geometry design variables is carried out using the firefly algorithm. Additionally, to improve the efficiency of the algorithm, modifications in the movement stage of artificial fireflies are proposed. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, optimum designs found are compared to the previously reported designs in the literature. Numerical results indicate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed approach.
M. Shahrouzi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

Meta-heuristics have already received considerable attention in various fields of engineering optimization problems. Each of them employes some key features best suited for a specific class of problems due to its type of search space and constraints. The present work develops a Pseudo-random Directional Search, PDS, for adaptive combination of such heuristic operators. It utilizes a short term memory via indirect information share between search agents and the directional search inspired by natural swarms. Treated numerical examples illustrate the PDS performance in continuous and discrete design spaces.
A. Hadidi, A. Kaveh, B. Farahmand Azar, S. Talatahari, C. Farahmandpour,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2011)
Abstract

In this paper, an efficient optimization algorithm is proposed based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Simulated Annealing (SA) to optimize truss structures. The proposed algorithm utilizes the PSO for finding high fitness regions in the search space and the SA is used to perform further investigation in these regions. This strategy helps to use of information obtained by swarm in an optimal manner and to direct the agents toward the best regions, resulting in possible reduction of the number of particles. To show the computational advantages of the new PSO-SA method, some benchmark numerical examples are studied. The PSO-SA algorithm converges to better or at least the same solutions, while the number of structural analyses is significantly reduced
X.y. Yang, X. Huang, Y.m. Xie, Q. Li, J.h. Rong,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2011)
Abstract

This paper presents the bidirectional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method for the design of two-phase composite materials with optimal properties of stiffness and thermal conductivity. The composite material is modelled by microstructures in a periodical base cell (PBC). The homogenization method is used to derive the effective bulk modulus and thermal conductivity. BESO procedures are presented to optimize the two individual properties and their various combinations. Three numerical examples are studied. The results agree well with those of the benchmark microstructures and the Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) bounds.
R. Greco, G.c. Marano,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2011)
Abstract

Structural optimization, when approached by conventional (gradient based) minimization algorithms presents several difficulties, mainly related to computational aspects for the huge number of nonlinear analyses required, that regard both Objective Functions (OFs) and Constraints. Moreover, from the early '80s to today's, Evolutionary Algorithms have been successfully developed and applied as a computational alternative to many optimization problems, such as structural ones. In this study the effectiveness of a relatively new Evolutionary Algorithm, namely Differential Evolutionary, is investigated for constrained optimization. This presents many interesting advantages and so that it is a candidate to be widely used in many real structural optimization problems. The algorithm version here used has been developed by hybridizing some recent versions of Differential Evolutionary algorithms proposed in literature, and uses a specific way for dealing with constraints which, always, concern real structural optimization problems. The effectiveness of proposed approach has been demonstrated by developing two cases of study, which regard simple but very significant structural problems for steel structures, one of which is a standard benchmark in structural optimization. The analyses show the simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed approach, so that it can be suitably ready for practical uses out of academic contest.
A. Tahershamsi , R. Sheikholeslami,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2011)
Abstract

In engineering, flood routing is an important technique necessary for the solution of a floodcontrol problem and for the satisfactory operation of a flood-prediction service. A simple conceptual model like the Muskingum model is very effective for the flood routing process. One challenge in application of the Muskingum model is that its parameters cannot be measured physically. In this article we proposed imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) for optimal parameter estimation of the linear Muskingum model. This algorithm uses imperialism and imperialistic competition process as a source of inspiration. Optimization to identify Muskingum model parameters can be considered as a suitable field to investigate the efficiency of this algorithm.

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