International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir
Iran University of Science & Technology - Journal articles for year 2021, Volume 11, Number 3Yektaweb Collection - https://yektaweb.comen2021/8/10COST OPTIMIZATION OF STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE I-GIRDER BRIDGES WITH SKEW ANGLE AND LONGITUDINAL SLOPE, USING THE SM TOOLBOX AND THE PARALLEL PATTERN SEARCH ALGORITHM
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=488&sid=1&slc_lang=en
In this research, the optimization problem of the steel-concrete composite I-girder bridges is investigated. The optimization process is performed using the <a name="_Hlk27003341">pattern search algorithm</a>, and a parallel processing-based approach is introduced to improve the performance of this algorithm. In addition, using the open application programming interface (OAPI), the SM toolbox is developed. In this toolbox, the OAPI commands are implemented as MATLAB functions. The design variables represent the number and dimension of the longitudinal beam and the thickness of the concrete slab. The constraints of this problem are presented in three steps. The first step includes the constraints on the web-plate and flange-plate proportion limits and those on the operating conditions. The second step consists of considering strength constraints, while the concrete slab is not yet hardened. In the third step, strength and deflection constraints are considered when the concrete slab is <a name="_Hlk28432479">hardened</a>. The AASHTO LRFD code (2007) for steel beam design and AASHTO LRFD (2014) for concrete slab design are used. The numerical examples of a sloping bridge with a skew angle are presented. Results show that active constraints are those on the operating conditions and component strength and that in terms of CPU time, a 19.6% improvement is achieved using parallel processing.B. Ahmadi-NedushanRELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF OPTIMALLY DESIGNED DOUBLE LAYER BARREL VAULTS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=480&sid=1&slc_lang=en
The present work deals with optimization and reliability assessment of double layer barrel vaults. In order to achieve the optimization task an improved colliding bodies optimization algorithm is employed. In the first phase of this study, different forms of double layer barrel vaults namely, square-on-square, square-on-diagonal, diagonal-on-diagonal and diagonal-on-square are considered and designed for optimal weight by the improved colliding bodies optimization algorithm. In the second phase, in order to account for the existing uncertainties in action and resistance of the structures, the reliability of the optimally designed double layer barrel vaults is assessed using importance sampling method by taking into account a limit-state function on the maximum deflection of the structures. The results demonstrate that the minimum reliability index of the optimal designs is 0.92 which means that all the optimally designed double layer barrel vaults are reliable and safe against uncertainties. S. GholizadehOPTIMIZED FLOORING SYSTEMS SELECTION BY ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=481&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Selecting an appropriate flooring system is essential for structures. Flooring system design has traditionally focused on weight loss and minimizing costs. However, in recent years, the focus of this sector has changed to include improving the environmental performance of building materials and construction systems. This paper illustrates a knowledge-based expert system as a tool to assess of flooring systems such as block joisted (BJ), steel-concrete composite (SCC), composite steel deck (CSD) and concrete slab (CS) based on sustainability criteria that are further divided into twenty sub-criteria. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is utilized as a multi-criteria decision making technique that helps to compute weights and rankings of sustainability criteria. For this purpose, some questionnaires completed by construction industry experts in order to compare criterions and sub-criteria in addition to assessment of optimized flooring systems. Then, results of the questionnaires are ranked by AHP and the most significant alternative is selected. The AHP results indicate that CSD system 47.9%, CS; 29.8%, SCC; 12.7% and BJ system 9.6% are the most and the least efficient systems, respectively.H. DehghaniFORM-FINDING USING OPTIMIZATION-BASED FORCE DENSITY METHOD
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=482&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Force Density Method is a well-known form-finding method for discrete networks that is based on geometrical equilibrium of forces and could be used to design efficient structural forms. The choice of force density distribution along the structure is mostly upon user which in most cases is set be constant, with peripheral members having relatively larger force density to prevent excessive shrinking. In order to direct FDM towards more efficient structures, an optimization strategy can be used to inform the form-finding process by minimizing certain objective function, e.g. weight of the structure. Desired structural, constructional or geometrical constraints can also be incorporated in this framework that otherwise user may not have direct control over. It has been shown that considerable weight reduction is possible compared to uniform force density in the structure while satisfying additional constraints. In this way, form-finding can be augmented and novel structural forms can be designed.H. RahamiSTRUCTURAL DAMAGE QUANTIFICATION USING A CONDENSED FORM OF THE MODAL FLEXIBILITY MATRIX AND CHAOTIC IMPERIALIST COMPETITIVE ALGORITHM
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=483&sid=1&slc_lang=en
This paper presents an optimization-based model updating approach for structural damage detection and quantification. A new damage-sensitive objective function is proposed using a condensed form of the modal flexibility matrix. The objective function is solved using Chaotic Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (CICA), as an enhanced version of the original Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA), and the optimal solution is reported as the damage detection results. The application of the CICA in vibration-based damage detection and quantification has been successfully investigated in a feasibility study published by the authors of the present paper and herein, its application is generalized for a case in which a complex (but more sensitive) objective function is utilized to formulate the damage detection problem as an inverse model updating problem. The method is validated by studying different damage patterns simulated on three numerical examples of the engineering structures. Comparative studies are carried out to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of the proposed method in comparison with other vibration-based damage detection methods. The obtained results introduce the proposed damage detection approach as a robust method with high level of accuracy even in the presence of noisy inputs.A. Ghadimi HamzehkolaeiPRACTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES USING
GRID SEARCH SENSITIVITY BASED PSO
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=484&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Pedestrian bridge is a structure constructed to maintain the safety of citizens in crowded and high-traffic areas. With the expansion of cities and the increase in population, the construction of bridges is necessary for easier and faster transportation, as well as the safety of pedestrians and vehicles. In this article, it is decided to consider the most economical cross-sections for these bridges according to the design regulations and codes of Practice in order to achieve the minimum weight, which will ultimately reduce the cost of construction and production and the usage of less resources<span dir="RTL">.</span> For this purpose, new GSS-PSO algorithm has been used and its results have been compared with GA and PSO algorithms, by the means of which an enhancement of PSO algorithm is seen. This enhancement on the conventional PSO technique reduces the search space more desirably and swiftly to a space close to the global optimum point. This algorithm has been implemented with MATLAB mathematical software and has been integrated with SAP2000v22 structural design software for analysis and optimum design under resistance and displacement constraints. The final results of the analyses are compared with an already designed and implemented infrastructure. In addition to a bridge optimization, a bench-mark frame optimization was also used in order for a better comparison between this algorithm and the other ones.M. R. GhasemiOPTIMAL DESIGN OF THE IMPACT DAMPER IN FREE VIBRATIONS OF SDOF SYSTEM USING ICACO
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=485&sid=1&slc_lang=en
The impact damper is a passive method for controlling vibrations of dynamic systems. It is designed by placing one or several masses in a container, which is installed on the structure. Damping performance is affected by many parameters, such as the mass ratio of the primary structure, size, number, and material of the particles, friction and restitution coefficients of the particles and gap distance. Impact damper is effective, economical, and practical and its functionality can be further enhanced by an optimal design. In this paper, first, the mathematical modeling of a rigid impact damper used in free vibration reduction of a single degree of freedom (SDOF) system is performed. The results on this step are validated with those results of previous studies, and a good agreement is achieved. Next, the robust hybrid optimization method that is called Imperialist Competitive Ant Colony Optimization (ICACO) is introduced. After that, the damper function is optimized using ICACO, and the optimum values of the effective parameters for maximizing damping effectiveness are obtained. Comparing the results of the optimized and the basic designs shows that the optimization method is robust and the optimal results are practical. The optimum design of damper parameters using ICACO method can damp more than %94 of the system’s initial energy in a short time.H. SafaeifarOPTIMIZATION AND ENHANCEMENT OF THE PERFORMANCE OF SMART SYSTEMS IN HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS BY MEANS OF META-HEURISTIC ALGORITHM
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=486&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Nowadays, energy crisis is one of the most important issues faced by most countries. Given the accommodation of a large population, high-rise buildings have a significant role in creating or resolving this crisis. A recent solution with regard to the optimization and reduction of energy consumption is using smart systems in buildings. In fact, with the help of modern knowledge, smart buildings consume energy in the right place and time. By transforming a simple building into a dynamic one, not only will it be able to adapt to changing environmental conditions, it will also consider the living habits of dwellers and comfort standards in order to provide maximum satisfaction. Moreover, the money spent on making smart appliances will be fully compensated after a short while, saving the overall costs and energy. This descriptive-analytical study, conducted using library resources, e-books and papers, is an attempt to examine the effect of smartization on optimizing and increasing the efficiency of high-rise buildings. The results of comprehensive surveys in various sectors related to smart buildings show that one can optimize energy consumption to take an effective step in solving global energy issues using smart systems in buildings. This study is devoted to energy consumption of smart systems employing an efficient continuous evolutionary meta-heuristic algorithm.M. DaneshOPTIMUM DESIGN OF SINGLE-LAYER DOME STRUCTURES USING A HYBRID CHARGED SYSTEM SEARCH AND TEACHING-LEARNING-BASED OPTIMIZATION
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=487&sid=1&slc_lang=en
The optimal design of dome structures is a challenging task and therefore the computational performance of the currently available techniques needs improvement. This paper presents a combined algorithm, that is supported by the mixture of Charged System Search (CSS) and Teaching-Learning-based optimization (TLBO). Since the CSS algorithm features a strong exploration and may explore all unknown locations within the search space, it is an appropriate complement to enhance the optimization process by solving the weaknesses with using another optimization algorithm’s strong points. To enhance the exploitation ability of this algorithm, by adding two parts of Teachers phase and Student phase of TLBO algorithm to CSS, a method is obtained that is more efficient and faster than standard versions of these algorithms. In this paper, standard optimization methods and new hybrid method are tested on three kinds of dome structures, and the results show that the new algorithm is more efficient in comparison to their standard versions.H. VeladiTHE EFFECT OF NON-LINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ON THE DESCRIPTION OF THE GLOBAL BEHAVIOR OF A PREFABRICATED RC SKELETON
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=489&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Nowadays, the behavior of designed structures is mostly studied using numerical software products. It is important that the models are sufficiently simple, but the calculated values approximate well the real behavior of the structures. In order for a numerical model to realistically describe the structural behavior, the software used must have material models that are parametrized accordingly. The primary purpose of this article is to create various prefabricated reinforced concrete specific joints in a simply prefabricated RC frame. Thus, in the present study, we examined prefabricated column-cup foundation and column-beam connections. The numerical analyses were carried out in the ATENA 3D software, in which the modeling technique we have developed can be used to examine reinforced concrete structures and structural details at a high level. In these studies, we highlight the differences between linear and nonlinear numerical methodologies. During our investigations, we analyze the joints of the examined frame in separate models on which we operate monotonically increasing vertical and horizontal loads. We examine the obtained load-displacement graphs, the failure of the connections, and the behavior of the elements that make up each connection.<br>
Finally, we extended the relationship by modeling the beam of the frame position, pointing out the behavior of the entire structure.Z. RoszevĂˇk