International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir
Iran University of Science & Technology - Journal articles for year 2017, Volume 7, Number 2Yektaweb Collection - http://www.yektaweb.comen2017/3/11SEISMIC DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF STEEL STRUCTURES BY A SEQUENTIAL ECBO ALGORITHM
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=291&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>The objective of the present paper is to propose a sequential enhanced colliding bodies optimization (SECBO) algorithm for implementation of seismic optimization of steel braced frames in the framework of performance-based design (PBD). In order to achieve this purpose, the ECBO is sequentially employed in a multi-stage scheme where in each stage an initial population is generated based on the information derived from the results of previous stages. The required structural seismic responses, at performance levels, are evaluated by performing nonlinear pushover analysis. Two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed SECBO for tackling the seismic performance-based optimization problem. The numerical results demonstrate the computational advantages of the SECBO algorithm.</p>
S. GholizadehHYBRID PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION, GRID SEARCH METHOD AND UNIVARIATE METHOD TO OPTIMALLY DESIGN STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=292&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>This paper combines particle swarm optimization, grid search method and univariate method as a general optimization approach for any type of problems emphasizing on optimum design of steel frame structures. The new algorithm is denoted as the GSU-PSO. This method attempts to decrease the search space and only searches the space near the optimum point. To achieve this aim, the whole search space is divided into a series of grids by applying the grid search method. By using a method derived from the univariate method, the variables of the best particle change values. Finally, by considering an interval adjustment to the variables and generating particles randomly in new intervals, the particle swarm optimization allows us to swiftly find the optimum solution. This method causes converge to the optimum solution more rapidly and with less number of analyses involved. The proposed GSU-PSO algorithm is tested on several steel frames from the literature. The algorithm is implemented by interfacing MATLAB mathematical software and SAP2000 structural analysis code. The results indicated that this method has a higher convergence speed towards the optimal solution compared to the conventional and some well-known meta-heuristic algorithms. In comparison to the PSO algorithm, the proposed method required around 45% of the total number of analyses recorded and improved marginally the accuracy of solutions.</p>
M. R. GhasemiOPTIMAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS USING TUG OF WAR OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=293&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>In this study, the recently developed method, Tug of War Optimization (TWO), is employed for simultaneous analysis, design and optimization of Water Distribution Systems (WDSs). In this method, analysis procedure is carried out using Tug of War Optimization algorithm. Design and cost optimization of WDSs are performed simultaneous with analysis process using an objective function in order to satisfying the analysis criteria, design constraints and cost optimization. A number of practical examples of WDSs are selected to demonstrate the efficiency of the presented algorithm. The findings of this study clearly signify the efficiency of the TWO algorithm in reducing the water distribution networks construction cost.</p>
A. KavehAN EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUSLY CONSIDERING TIME-COST TRADE-OFF AND CONSTRAINT RESOURCE SCHEDULING USING NONLINEAR INTEGER FRAMEWORK
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=294&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>Critical Path Method (CPM) is one of the most popular techniques used by construction practitioners for construction project scheduling since the 1950s. Despite its popularity, CPM has a major shortcoming, as it is schedule based on two impractical acceptance that the project deadline is not bounded and that resources are unlimited. The analytical competency and computing capability of CPM thus need to be enhanced by applying some additional techniques like Time-Cost Trade-off (TCT) and Constraint Resource Scheduling (CRS) separately after the initial schedule is determined. Therefore, this paper is focusing on an effective method for considering simultaneously TCT and CRS using a nonlinear integer framework, taking help of Microsoft Project Software (MSP) and Microsoft Excel Solver. Through this method, first, a start delay technique is applied to the baseline schedule to level out the resource over allocation and then the project network diagram is modified according to the resource-leveled schedule. Secondly, a time-cost optimization is used over the resource-leveled schedule network diagram, using MS Excel solver to get the optimum duration associated with the minimum total cost of the project satisfying resource constraint. The proposed framework using overtime for activity expedition, and required less time to generate the final solution compare to the available methods considering TCT+CRS simultaneously.</p>
E. HematOPTIMAL DESIGN OF SHELLS WITH STEP-FUNCTION DISTRIBUTION OF THICKNESS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=295&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>The paper is concerned with a methodology of optimal design of shells of minimum weight with strength, stability and strain constraints. Stress and strain state of the shell is determined by Galerkin method in the mixed finite element formulation within the geometrically nonlinear theory. The analysis of the effectiveness of different optimization algorithms to solve the set problem is given. The results of solving test problems are presented.</p>
L. StupishinMATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR ESTIMATION OF SELF WEIGHT OF FLEXURAL STEEL MEMBERS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=296&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>The first step in the design of plate girder is to estimate the self-weight of it. Although empirical formulae for the same are available, the level of their accuracy (underestimate or overestimate) with respect to actual self-weight is not known. In this paper, optimized sections are obtained for different spans subjected to different live load carrying capacities and self-weights are estimated. EXCEL solver, which adopts Reduced Gradient Method (RGM) was applied for optimization. The objective function was chosen as Cross-sectional area with twelve constraints based on LRFD (IS 800: 2007) design specification for safety and serviceability. Simply supported (laterally restrained) plastic symmetric cross section without stiffeners is adopted for study. A mathematical model was developed based on best-fit curves between self-weight, span and live load carrying capacity and their trend line equations are obtained. The study revealed that, the ratio of self-weight to load carrying capacity was parabolic for a given span. The results from this equation are compared with the conventional formula and the standard deviation of the proposed model with respect to actual self-weight is in the range of -0.03 to 2.29 while that from the conventional model is in the range of -0.04 to 9.18.</p>
P. Markandeya RajuACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE IN COHESIVE-FRICTIONAL SOILS USING FEM AND OPTIMIZATION
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=297&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>Calculation of lateral earth pressure on retaining walls is one of the main issues in geotechnics. The upper and lower bound theorems of plasticity are used to analyze the stability of geotechnical structures include bearing capacity of foundations, lateral earth pressure on retaining walls and factor of safety of slopes. In this paper formulation of finite element limit analysis is introduced to determine plastic limit load in the perfect plastic materials. Elements with linear strain rates, which are used in the formulation, cause to eliminate the necessity of velocity discontinuities between the elements. Using non-linear programming based on second order cone programming (SOCP), which has good conformity with cone yield functions such as Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager, is another important advantage that remove the problem of using ordinary linear programming algorithms for yield functions such as divergent in the apexes. Finally, the optimization problem will be solved by mathematical method. The proposed method is used for calculating active earth pressure on retaining walls in cohesive-frictional soils. According to results of analysis, active earth force on retaining wall is decreased by increasing soil cohesion, wall inclination friction angle between backfill and wall and friction angle of soil wherein the force is increased by increasing surcharge on the backfill and the backfill slope. Mathematical method is used for obtaining accurate results in this research, however, heuristic methods are used when approximate solutions are sufficient.</p>
P. HamidiSIMULTANOUS OPTIMIZATION OF SIZE AND CONNECTION ARRANGEMENT FOR LOW-RISE STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALL SYSTEMS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=298&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>The present study is concerned with the simultaneous optimization of the size of components and the arrangement of connections for performance-based seismic design of low-rise SPSWs. Design variables include the size of beams and columns, the thickness of the infill panels, the type of each beam-to-column connection and the type of each infill-to-boundary frame connection. The objective function is considered to be the sum of the material cost and rigid connection fabrication cost. For comparison purposes, the SPSW model is also optimized with regard to two fixed connection arrangements. To fulfill the optimization task a new hybrid optimization algorithm called CBO-Jaya is proposed. The performance of the proposed hybrid optimization algorithm is assessed by two benchmark optimization problems. The results of the application of the proposed algorithm to the benchmark problem indicate the efficiency, robustness, and the fast convergence of the proposed algorithm compared with other meta-heuristic algorithms. The achieved results for the SPSWs demonstrate that incorporating the optimal arrangement of beam-to-column and infill-to-boundary frame connections into the optimization procedure results in considerable reduction of the overall cost.</p>
H. RahamiNONLINEAR FRAME ANALYSIS BY MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUE
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=299&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>By minimizing the total potential energy function and deploying the virtual work principle, a higher-order stiffness matrix is achieved. This new tangent stiffness matrix is used to solve the frame with geometric nonlinear behavior. Since authors’ formulation takes into account the higher-order terms of the strain vector, the convergence speed of the solution process will increase. In fact, both linear and nonlinear parts of the frame axial strains are included in the presented formulation. These higher-order terms affect the resulting unbalanced force and also frame tangent stiffness. Moreover, the finite element method, updated Lagrangian description, and arc length scheme are employed in this study. To check the efficiency of the proposed strategy, several numerical examples are solved. The findings indicate that the authors’ technique can accurately trace the structural equilibrium paths having the limit points.</p>
M. Rezaiee-Pajand