International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir
Iran University of Science & Technology - Journal articles for year 2016, Volume 6, Number 3Yektaweb Collection - http://www.yektaweb.comen2016/9/11PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF CBO AND ECBO FOR LOCATION FINDING PROBLEMS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=253&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p style="text-align: left">The p-median problem is one of the discrete optimization problem in location theory which aims to satisfy total demand with minimum cost. A high-level algorithmic approach can be specialized to solve optimization problem. In recent years, meta-heuristic methods have been applied to support the solution of Combinatorial Optimization Problems (COP). Collision Bodies Optimization algorithm (CBO) and Enhanced Colliding Bodies Optimization (ECBO) are two recently developed continuous optimization algorithms which have been applied to some structural optimization problems. The main goal of this paper is to provide a useful comparison between capabilities of these two algorithms in solving p-median problems. Comparison of the obtained results shows the validity and robustness of these two new meta-heuristic algorithms for p-median problem.</p>
A. Kaveh RELIABILITY–BASED DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAMS USING SUBSET SIMULATION
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=254&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p style="text-align: left">The paper deals with the reliability–based design optimization (RBDO) of concrete gravity dams subjected to earthquake load using subset simulation. The optimization problem is formulated such that the optimal shape of concrete gravity dam described by a number of variables is found by minimizing the total cost of concrete gravity dam for the given target reliability. In order to achieve this purpose, a framework is presented whereby subset simulation is integrated with a hybrid optimization method to solve the RBDO approach of concrete gravity dam. Subset simulation with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling is utilized to estimate accurately the failure probability of dams with a minimum number of samples. In this study, the concrete gravity dam is treated as a two–dimensional structure involving the material nonlinearity effects and dam–reservoir–foundation interaction. An efficient metamodel in conjunction with subset simulation–MCMC is provided to reduce the computational cost of dynamic analysis of dam–reservoir–foundation system. The results demonstrate that the RBDO approach is more appropriate than the deterministic optimum approach for the optimal shape design of concrete gravity dams.</p>
M. KhatibiniaRELATIONSHIP OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE BASED ON GENETIC PROGRAMMING
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=255&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p style="text-align: left">Estimating mechanical properties of concrete before designing reinforced concrete structures is among the design requirements. Steel fibers have a considerable effect on the mechanical properties of reinforced concrete, particularly its tensile strength. So far, numerous studies have been done to estimate the relationship between tensile strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) and other SFRC characteristics using regression analyses. But, in order to determine appropriate relations according to these methods, we need to estimate the basic structure of relations. Genetic programming (GP) method has solved this problem. In this study, the results of 367 laboratory specimens collected from the literature are used to present some relations to predict the tensile strength of SFRC using GP. The proposed relations are more accurate than the relations which have been presented thus far.</p>
M. MoradiINTERVAL ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED RESPONSE OF UNCERTAIN SYSTEM SUBJECT TO EARTHQUAKE MOTIONS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=256&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p style="text-align: left">Earthquakes are one of the most destructive natural phenomena which consist of rapid vibrations of rock near the earth’s surface. Because of their unpredictable occurrence and enormous capacity of destruction, they have brought fear to mankind since ancient times. Usually the earthquake acceleration is noted from the equipment in crisp or exact form. But in actual practice those data may not be obtained exactly at each time step, rather those may be with error. So those records at each time step are assumed here as intervals. Then using those interval acceleration data, the structural responses are found. The primary background for the present study is to model Interval Artificial Neural Network (IANN) and to compute structural response of a structural system by training the model for Indian earthquakes at Chamoli and Uttarkashi using interval ground motion data. The neural network is first trained here for real interval earthquake data. The trained IANN architecture is then used to simulate earthquakes by feeding various intensities and it is found that the predicted responses given by IANN model are good for practical purposes. The above may give an idea about the safety of the structural system in case of future earthquakes. Present paper demonstrates the procedure for simple case of a simple shear structure but the procedure may easily be generalized for higher storey structures as well.</p>
D. M. SahooAN OPTIMIZED NEURO-FUZZY GROUP METHOD OF DATA HANDLING SYSTEM BASED ON GRAVITATIONAL SEARCH ALGORITHM FOR EVALUATION OF LATERAL GROUND DISPLACEMENTS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=257&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p style="text-align: left">During an earthquake, significant damage can result due to instability of the soil in the area affected by internal seismic waves. A liquefaction-induced lateral ground displacement has been a very damaging type of ground failure during past strong earthquakes. In this study, neuro-fuzzy group method of data handling (NF-GMDH) is utilized for assessment of lateral displacement in both ground slope and free face conditions. The NF-GMDH approach is improved using gravitational search algorithm (GSA). Estimation of the lateral ground displacements requires characterization of the field conditions, principally seismological, topographical and geotechnical parameters. The comprehensive database was used for development of the model obtained from different earthquakes. Contributions of the variables influencing the lateral ground displacement are evaluated through a sensitivity analysis. Performance of the NF-GMDH-GSA models are compared with those obtained from gene-expression programming (GEP) approach, and empirical equations in terms of error indicators parameters and the advantages of the proposed models over the conventional method are discussed. The results showed that the models presented in this research may serve as reliable tools to predict lateral ground displacement. It is clear that a precise correlation is easier to be used in the routine geotechnical projects compared with the field measurement techniques.</p>
S. M. MarandiISOGEOMETRIC TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF STRUCTURES USING LEVEL SET METHOD INCORPORATING SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=259&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p dir="ltr">This study focuses on the topology optimization of structures using a hybrid of level set method (LSM) incorporating sensitivity analysis and isogeometric analysis (IGA). First, the topology optimization problem is formulated using the LSM based on the shape gradient. The shape gradient easily handles boundary propagation with topological changes. In the LSM, the topological gradient method as sensitivity analysis is also utilized to precisely design new holes in the interior domain. The hybrid of these gradients can yield an efficient algorithm which has more flexibility in changing topology of structure and escape from local optimal in the optimization process. Finally, instead of the conventional finite element method (FEM) a Non–Uniform Rational B–Splines (NURBS)–based IGA is applied to describe the field variables as the geometry of the domain. In IGA approach, control points play the same role with nodes in FEM, and B–Spline functions are utilized as shape functions of FEM for analysis of structure. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed method, three benchmark examples widely used in topology optimization are presented. Numerical results show that the proposed method outperform other LSMs.</p>
M. Khatibinia EVALUATION OF CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODELS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=260&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p dir="ltr">In the present study, two different data-driven models, artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models, have been developed to predict the 28 days compressive strength of concrete. Seven different parameters namely 3/4 mm sand, 3/8 mm sand, cement content, gravel, maximums size of aggregate, fineness modulus, and water-cement ratio were considered as input variables. For each set of these input variables, the 28 days compressive strength of concrete were determined. A total number of 140 input-target pairs were gathered, divided into 70%, 15%, and 15% for training, validation, and testing steps in artificial neural network model, respectively, and divided into 85% and 15% for training and testing steps in multiple linear regression model, respectively. Comparing the testing steps of both of the models, it can be concluded that the artificial neural network model is more capable in predicting the compressive strength of concrete in compare to multiple linear regression model. In other words, multiple linear regression model is better to be used for preliminary mix design of concrete, and artificial neural network model is recommended in the mix design optimization and in the case of higher accuracy requirements.</p>
K. BehfarniaSTRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION USING BIG BANG-BIG CRUNCH ALGORITHM: A REVIEW
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=261&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p dir="ltr">The big bang-big crunch (BB-BC) algorithm is a popular metaheuristic optimization technique proposed based on one of the theories for the evolution of the universe. The algorithm utilizes a two-phase search mechanism: big-bang phase and big-crunch phase. In the big-bang phase the concept of energy dissipation is considered to produce disorder and randomness in the candidate population while in the big-crunch phase the randomly created solutions are shrunk into a single point in the design space. In recent years, numerous studies have been conducted on application of the BB-BC algorithm in solving structural design optimization instances. The objective of this review study is to identify and summarize the latest promising applications of the BB-BC algorithm in optimal structural design. Different variants of the algorithm as well as attempts to reduce the total computational effort of the technique in structural optimization problems are covered and discussed. Furthermore, an empirical comparison is performed between the runtimes of three different variants of the algorithm. It is worth mentioning that the scope of this review is limited to the main applications of the BB-BC algorithm and does not cover the entire literature.</p>
O. HasançebiVOLUME MINIMIZATION WITH DISPLACEMENT CONSTRAINTS IN TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF CONTINUUM STRUCTURES
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=262&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p dir="ltr">In this paper, a displacement-constrained volume-minimizing topology optimization model is present for two-dimensional continuum problems. The new model is a generalization of the displacement-constrained volume-minimizing model developed by Yi and Sui [1] in which the displacement is constrained in the loading point. In the original model the displacement constraint was formulated as an equality relation, which practically means that the number of “interesting points” may be exactly one. The recent model resolves this weakness replacing the equality constraint with an inequality constraint. From engineering point of view it is a very important result because we can replace the inequality constraint with a set of inequality constraints without any difficulty. The other very important fact, that the modified displacement-oriented model can be extended very easily to handle stress-oriented relations, which will be demonstrated in the forthcoming paper. Naturally, the more general theoretical model needs more sophisticated numerical problem handling method. Therefore, we replaced the original “optimality-criteria-like” solution searching process with a standard nonlinear programming approach which is able to handle linear (nonlinear) objectives with linear (nonlinear) equality (inequality) constrains. The efficiency of the new approach is demonstrated by an example investigated by several authors. The presented example with reproducible numerical results as a benchmark problem may be used for testing the quality of exact and heuristic solution procedures to be developed in the future for displacement-constrained volume-minimization problems.</p>
A. CsébfalviANN FOR CORRELATION BETWEEN SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY OF SOIL AND SOME GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=263&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p dir="ltr">Shear wave velocity (V<sub>s</sub>) is known as one of the fundamental material parameters which is useful in dynamic analysis. It is especially used to determine the dynamic shear modulus of the soil layers. Nowadays, several empirical equations have been presented to estimate the shear wave velocity based on the results from Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and soil type. Most of these equations result in different estimation of V<sub>s</sub> for the same soils. In some cases a divergence of up to 100% has been reported. In the following study, having used the field study results of Urmia City and Artificial Neural Networks, a new correlation between V<sub>s</sub> and several simple geotechnical parameters (i.e. Modified SPT value number (N<sub>60</sub>), Effective overburden stress, percentage of passing from Sieve #200 (Fc), plastic modulus (PI) and mean grain size (d<sub>50</sub>)) is presented. Using sensitivity analysis it is been shown that the effect of PI in V<sub>s</sub> prediction is more than that of N<sub>60</sub> in over consolidated clays. It is also observed that Fc has a high influence on evaluation of shear wave velocity of silty soils.</p>
H. Bahadori