International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir
Iran University of Science & Technology - Journal articles for year 2011, Volume 1, Number 1Yektaweb Collection - http://www.yektaweb.comen2011/3/10OPTIMUM DESIGN OF ARCH DAMS FOR FREQUENCY LIMITATIONS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=4&sid=1&slc_lang=en
An efficient methodology is proposed to find optimal shape of arch dams on the basis of constrained natural frequencies. The optimization is carried out by virtual sub population (VSP) evolutionary algorithm employing real values of design variables. In order to reduce the computational cost of the optimization process, the arch dam natural frequencies are predicted by properly trained back propagation (BP) and wavelet back propagation (WBP) neural networks. The WBP network provides better generalization compared with the standard BP network. The numerical results demonstrate the computational merits of the proposed methodology for optimum design of arch dams.Saeed GholizadehOPTIMIZATION OF LARGE-SCALE TRUSS STRUCTURES USING MODIFIED CHARGED SYSTEM SEARCH
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=5&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Optimal design of large-scale structures is a rather difficult task and the computational efficiency of the currently available methods needs to be improved. In view of this, the paper presents a modified Charged System Search (CSS) algorithm. The new methodology is based on the combination of CSS and Particle Swarm Optimizer. In addition, in order to improve optimization search, the sequence of tasks entailed by the optimization process is changed so that the updating of the design variables can directly be performed after each movement. In this way, the new method acts as a single-agent algorithm while preserving the positive characteristics of its original multi-agent formulation.Ali KavehA HYBRID MODIFIED GENETIC-NELDER MEAD SIMPLEX ALGORITHM FOR LARGE-SCALE TRUSS OPTIMIZATION
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=6&sid=1&slc_lang=en
In this paper a hybrid algorithm based on exploration power of the Genetic algorithms and exploitation capability of Nelder Mead simplex is presented for global optimization of multi-variable functions. Some modifications are imposed on genetic algorithm to improve its capability and efficiency while being hybridized with Simplex method. Benchmark test examples of structural optimization with a large number of variables and constraints are chosen to show the robustness of the algorithm.Ali KavehFORCED WATER MAIN DESIGN MIXED ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=7&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Most real world engineering design problems, such as cross-country water mains, include combinations of continuous, discrete, and binary value decision variables. Very often, the binary decision variables associate with the presence and/or absence of some nominated alternatives or project’s components. This study extends an existing continuous Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to simultaneously handle mixed-variable problems. The approach provides simultaneous solution to a binary value problem with both discrete and continuous variables to locate and size design components of the proposed system. This paper shows how the existing continuous ACO algorithm may be revised to cope with mixed-variable search spaces with binary variables. Performance of the proposed version of the ACO is tested on a set of mathematical benchmark problems followed by a highly nonlinear forced water main optimization problem. Comparing with few other optimization algorithms, the proposed optimization method demonstrates satisfactory performance in locating good near optimal solutions.A. AfsharA BINARY LEVEL SET METHOD FOR STRUCTURAL TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=8&sid=1&slc_lang=en
This paper proposes an effective algorithm based on the level set method (LSM) to solve shape and topology optimization problems. Since the conventional LSM has several limitations, a binary level set method (BLSM) is used instead. In the BLSM, the level set function can only take 1 and -1 values at convergence. Thus, it is related to phase-field methods. We don’t need to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, so it is free of the CFL condition and the reinitialization scheme. This favorable properties lead to a great time advantage in this method. In this paper, the BLSM is implemented with the additive operator splitting (AOS) scheme and several numerical issues of the implementation are discussed. The proposed scheme is much more efficient than the conventional level set method. Several 2D examples are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.S. ShojaeeANT COLONY SEARCH METHOD IN PRACTICAL STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=9&sid=1&slc_lang=en
This paper is concerned with application and evaluation of ant colony optimization (ACO) method to practical structural optimization problems. In particular, a size optimum design of pin-jointed truss structures is considered with ACO such that the members are chosen from ready sections for minimum weight design. The application of the algorithm is demonstrated using two design examples with practical design considerations. Both examples are formulated according to provisions of ASD-AISC (Allowable Stress Design Code of American Institute of Steel Institution) specification. The results obtained are used to discuss the computational characteristics of ACO for optimum design of truss type structures.O. HasançebiDISCRETE SIZE AND DISCRETE-CONTINUOUS CONFIGURATION OPTIMIZATION METHODS FOR TRUSS STRUCTURES USING THE HARMONY SEARCH ALGORITHM
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=10&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Many methods have been developed for structural size and configuration optimization in which cross-sectional areas are usually assumed to be continuous. In most practical structural engineering design problems, however, the design variables are discrete. This paper proposes two efficient structural optimization methods based on the harmony search (HS) heuristic algorithm that treat both discrete sizing variables and integrated discrete sizing and continuous geometric variables. The HS algorithm uses a stochastic random search instead of a gradient search so the former has a new-paradigmed derivative. Several truss examples from the literature are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the new method, as compared to current optimization methods.Z.W. GeemA NEW HYBRID GENETIC AND SWARM OPTIMIZATION FOR EARTHQUAKE ACCELEROGRAM SCALING
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=11&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Earthquake time history records are required to perform dynamic nonlinear analyses. In order to provide a suitable set of such records, they are scaled to match a target spectrum as introduced in the well-known design codes. Corresponding scaling factors are taken similar in practice however, optimizing them reduces extra-ordinary economic charge for the seismic design. In the present work a new hybrid meta-heuristic is developed combining key features from genotypic search and particle swarm optimization. The method is applied to an illustrative example via a parametric study to evaluate its effectiveness and less probability of premature convergence compared with the standard particle swarm optimization.M. ShahrouziMATHEMATICAL AND TECHNICAL OPTIMA IN THE DESIGN OF WELDED STEEL SHELL STRUCTURES
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=12&sid=1&slc_lang=en
In some cases the optimum is the minimum of the objective function (mathematical optimum), but in other cases the optimum is given by a technical constraint (technical optimum). The present paper shows the both types in two problems. The first problem is to find the optimum dimensions of a ring-stiffened circular cylindrical shell subject to external pressure, which minimize the structural cost. The calculation shows that the cost decreases when the shell diameter decreases. The decrease of diameter is limited by a fabrication constraint that the diameter should be minimum 2 m to make it possible the welding and painting inside of the shell. The second problem is to find the optimum dimensions of a cantilever column loaded by compression and bending. The column is constructed as circular or conical unstiffened shell. The cost comparison of both structural versions shows the most economic one.J. FarkasTOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF STRUCTURES UNDER TRANSIENT LOADS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=13&sid=1&slc_lang=en
In this article, an efficient methodology is presented to optimize the topology of structural systems under transient loads. Equivalent static loads concept is used to deal with transient loads and to solve an alternate quasi-static optimization problem. The maximum strain energy of the structure under the transient load during the loading interval is used as objective function. The objective function is calculated in each iteration and then the dynamic optimization problem is replaced by a static optimization problem, which is subsequently solved by a convex linearization approach combining linear and reciprocal approximation functions.
The optimal layout of a deep beam subjected to transient loads is considered as a case study to verify the effectiveness of the presented methodology. Results indicate that the optimal layout is dependant of the loading interval.
B. Ahmadi-NedushanOPTIMUM PLACEMENT AND PROPERTIES OF TUNED MASS DAMPERS USING HYBRID GENETIC ALGORITHMS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=14&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Tuned mass dampers (TMDs) systems are one of the vibration controlled devices used to reduce the response of buildings subject to lateral loadings such as wind and earthquake loadings. Although TMDs system has received much attention from researchers due to their simplicity, the optimization of properties and placement of TMDs is a challenging task. Most research studies consider optimization of TMDs properties. However, the placement of TMDs in a building is also important. This paper considers optimum placement as well as properties of TMDs. Genetic algorithms (GAs) is used to optimize the location and properties of TMDs. Because the location of TMDs at a particular floor of a building is a discrete number, it is represented by binary coded genetic algorithm (BCGA), whereas the properties of TMDS are best suited to be represented by using real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA). The combination of these optimization tools represents a hybrid coded genetic algorithm (HCGA) that optimizes discrete and real values of design variables in one arrangement. It is shown that the optimization tool presented in this paper is stable and has the ability to explore an unknown domain of interest of the design variables, especially in the case of real coding parts. The simulation of the optimized TMDs subject to earthquake ground accelerations shows that the present approaches are comparable and/or outperform the available methods.Y. ArfiadiPREDICTION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE BY ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS
http://www.iust.ac.ir/ijoce/browse.php?a_id=15&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Neural networks have recently been widely used to model some of the human activities in many areas of civil engineering applications. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANN) for predicting compressive strength of cubes and durability of concrete containing metakaolin with fly ash and silica fume with fly ash are developed at the age of 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. For building these models, training and testing using the available experimental results for 140 specimens produced with 7 different mixture proportions are used. The data used in the multi-layer feed forward neural networks models are designed in a format of eight input parameters covering the age of specimen, cement, metakaolin (MK), fly ash (FA), water, sand, aggregate and superplasticizer and in another set of specimen which contain SF instead of MK. According to these input parameters, in the multi-layer feed forward neural networks models are used to predict the compressive strength and durability values of concrete. It shown that neural networks have high potential for predicting the compressive strength and durability values of the concretes containing metakaolin, silica fume and fly ash.P. Muthupriya