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Showing 342 results for Tic

Hadian Fard M.j.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2004)
Abstract

Effects of temperature on properties and behavior of a 20 vol % particulate SiC reinforced 6061 aluminum alloy and 6061 unreinforced Al alloy were investigated. Yield strength and elongation to failure were measured as a function of test temperatures up to 180^oC. In addition, the effects of holding time at 180^ oC on tensile properties and fracture mechanisms of the materials at this temperature were studied. The behaviors of the materials were characterized by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption (AA), hardness measurement and image analyzing (IA). The results show that an increase in temperature leads to a decrease in the yield strength and increase in the elongation to failure of the materials. On the other hand, while increasing holding time at 180^oC produces an increase in the elongation to failure of the unreinforced alloy, it reduces the elongation to failure of the composite. It was also observed that reduction in yield strength with increasing holding time at 180^oC was faster for the composite material compared to the unreinforced alloy. The results from SEM, XRD, EDS, IA and hardness tests indicated that some chemical reactions had taken place at the interface between the reinforcement and the matrix alloy during holding the specimens at elevated temperature. Therefore, different trend in elongation to failure of the unreinforced alloy and the composite material with holding time at elevated temperature could be attributed to development of chemical reactions between the reinforcement and the matrix alloy at the interface.
Choo R.t.c., Toguri J.m.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2004)
Abstract

A two dimensional mathematical model has been developed for describing the temperature, flow, and electric fields in the are column of the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) of aluminum in argon shielding gas using axisymmetric Navier-Stokes, Maxwell, and differential thermal energy equations. The predicted results are most sensitive to the cathode spot radius and an optimum cathode spot radius exists on the basis of the minimum arc power consumption. The consumable electrode shape change due to droplet detachment is simulated in a quasi-steady manner using different electrode diameters. The change in electric field profile with different electrodes gives rise to large changes in flow conditions. This flow perturbation plus the non-uniform and transient J*B force field are suspected to enhance the recoil experience by the droplet on detachment, thus leading to violent and chaotic metal transfer in GMAW.
Golmahalleh O., Zarei-Hanzaki A.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2004)
Abstract

In principal, a proper combination of strength and ductility is achieved through micro component refinement in steels. This is particularly empowered with ferrite refinement down to micron sizes in ferrite pearlite engineering steels. The latter is achieved through various well-defined methods in which strain induced transformation (SIT) has shown spectacular capabilities. In the present study, to address the effect of thermo mechanical processing parameters on the (SIT) behavior, two plain carbon steels were studied through single pass rolling. This was carried out at the corresponding Ar_3 + 20°C temperature of the steels. The results indicated that the transformation behavior and ferrite morphology would be .strongly influenced by both the chemical composition (i.e., carbon content) and the amount of applied strain. Furthermore, a high volume fraction of very fine ferrite with mean grain size of less than 2 µm was obtained. This was attributed to the ferrite nucleation at deformation bands and serrated austenite grain boundaries.
Arabi H., Rastegari S., Mohammad-Sadeghi B.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2004)
Abstract

In this research, effects of changes in aluminizing conditions on microstructure of Pt - aluminide coating applied oil a Ni - base superalloy GTD -111, has been studied. A thin layer (i.e.68,#mm ) of Pt was electroplated onto the surface of the .samples, and then they were aluminized by pack cementation technique under various conditions of time, temperature, rate of heating and pack powder compositions In addition, by application of a thin Ni layer on the substrate before applying Pt, the source of nickel available for diffusing into Pt layer during aluminizing process enhanced and the need for an extra heat treatment cycle before aluminizing process was practically omitted. Addition of a nickel layer, also prevented scaling of Pt layer during its electroplating and aluminizing processes that helps enhancement of cohesiveness of the coated layers.The general microstructure of the coating consisted of four layers, which are PtA12layer internal diffusion layer external diffusion layer and interdiffusion zone. The structure of each layer has been studied by optical and scanning electron microscopes as well as XRD technique.The results show the presence of the original Pt - electroplated layer had no effect on the thicknesses of the coating layers, but higher aluminizing time and temperature had increased the thicknesses of interdiffusion and internally diffused layers. In addition, at high temperature, aluminizing with a lower heating rate caused an increase in the thickness of internal diffusion layer. Aluminizing with a lower heating rate at high temperature (more than 900°C) had increased the thickness of interdiffusion laver Attempt has been made to justify , the changes occurred in microstructures and thick nesses of various coating layers as they exposed to different aluminizing conditions.
Akhlaghi F., Zahedi H., Sharifi M.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

In this study different volume fractions of SiC particles of various sizes were introduced into the semisolid A356 aluminum alloy by a mechanical stirrer. Then the slurry was poured into a permanent die of certain dimensions either when the metal alloy was partially solid (semisolid-semisolid or SS route) or after reheating to above the liquidus temperature of the alloy (semisolid-liquid or SL route). Both the SS and SL composite samples were solution-treated at 520°C for 8 hours followed by quenching in water at room temperature. Microstructural characterization studies have been conducted on both the SL and SS samples to quantify the effects of the size andcontent of the SiC particles as well as the solutionizing treatment on the morphology and size ofthe eutectic silicon particles and the matrix grain (globule) size. The results were rationalized in terms of the different nucleation, fragmentation, spherodization and coarsening events, which had taken place during the processing of these composites. Finally the impact of these microstructural features in improving the wear properties of the composites has been discussed.
Fazel Najafabadi M., Golazar M.a.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

The new in situ method for AI-TiC composite fabrication has been carried out. In this method, fabrication of AI-TiC composite by simultaneous introduction of titanium oxide and carbon into aluminum melt was investigated.. Under the process conditions, titanium and carbon reaction results in titanium carbide whiskers. The salt containing keriolite (Na3AIF6), titanium oxide (TiO2) and graphite used for this purpose. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD) the resulted composite was characterized. It was shown that it contains Al as matrix and TiC as the reinforcement. Then, mechanical properties of fabricated composite were examined.
Barzegar Alamdarit B., Ashrafi Zadeh S.n., Ashrafi Zadeh F.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

In the current research, the optimum conditions for the electrolytic deposition of TiO2 coatings on titanium pieces were experimentally investigated. Flat pieces of commercially available titanium with dimensions of 50 x20 x3 mm were used as the anode and cathode electrodes. The coatings were applied on the cathode in an electrolyte solution essentially from water and methanol, containing different amounts of TiCI4, and H202. Coatings of sufficient thickness and adequate adhesion to the substrate were obtained at the optimum conditions of theELD process. The latter conditions were electrode gap distance of 3 cm, TiCl4 concentration of 0.005M, H202 concentration of 0.1 M, current density of 35 mA/cm2, methanol/water volume ratio of 9, and pH of the electrolyte in the vicinity of 1.40. Results of XRD analysis revealed the presence of anatase crystals of titanium oxide in the coated layers, where the deposited coating was treated at some temperatures in the range of 400 to 600°C for a period of at least 2 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures also confirmed the formation of a uniform coating layer with cracked suiface area. At the optimum conditions of the process coatings with thicknesses of up to 10 flm were easily obtained through the application of one to three deposited layers.
Mirbagheri S.m.h., Ashouri H., Varahram N., Davami P.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

In this investigation a new model was developed to calculate gas pressure at the melt/foam interface (Gap) resulting from foam degradation during mould filling in the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) process. Different aspects of the process, such as foam degradation, gas elimination, transient mass, heat transfer, and permeability of the refractory coating were incorporated into this model. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code was developed based on the numerical technique of the SOLution Algorithm- Volume Of Fluid (SOLA- VOF) utilizing model, for the simulation and prediction of the fluid flow in the LFC process. In order to verify the computational results of the simulation, a thin plate of gray iron was poured into a transparentfoam mould. The mould filling process was recorded using a 16mm high-speed camera. Images were analysed frame by frame, in order to measuring foam depolymerization rate and the gap volume during mould filling. Comparison between the experimental method and the simulation results, for the LFC filling sequence, has shown a good agreement.
Sheikh Abdolhossein A., Nili Ahmad Abadi M.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)
Abstract

In the present research influences of different combinations of five types of inoculants and four types of nodularizers on eutectic nucleation in ductile cast iron were studied. The alloys were kept at 1320°C for 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min under nitrogen atmosphere. Cooling curves and image analysis were used to characterize the influence of holding time and different combinations of inoculants and nodularizers on the graphite morphologies and eutectic nucleation. When dominant morphology of graphite is spheroidal or flake, by decreasing the different combinations of nodularizers and inoculants fading resistance, temperature of eutectic undercooling decreases. Nevertheless, when there is combination of spheroidal, vermicular and flake graphites temperature of eutectic undercooling increases by reduction of material fading resistance.
Kaviani S., Marashi S. P. H.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)
Abstract

The surface condition and microstructure of near stoichiometric (Fe823Ndll.8B5.9) Nd-Fe-B alloy ribbons and the effect of melt spinning parameters were investigated using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM, TEM). The formation of gas pockets on the roll surface of the ribbons during melt spinning can prevent heat transform and result in local coarse grains. The local thickness would also be less in these places and thus perforates preferentially during ion beam milling. Therefore different areas of the sample should be carefully observed in the TEM. Reducing inert gas pressure in the chamber will eliminate the gas pockets. As a general trend, decrease in the ribbon thickness and mean Nd2 Fe14B grain size were observed on increasing the roll speed. By careful adjustment of the melt spinning parameters, the nanostructure will develop. An orientation relationship was found between Nd2 Fe14B and ^5-Fe precipitates for coarse grain samples melt spun at low roll speed. Dark field image of such grain also shows that some of these ^5-Fe precipitates have the same orientation. X-ray diffraction evident the development of texture by decreasing the roll speed.
Saghafian Larijani H., Rainforth W. M.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)
Abstract

An AI-7wt%Si-5vol%TiCp was worn against a cast iron disc in a tri-pin-on-disc machine, under dry sliding conditions at the sliding speed of 0.24 m/s and applied loads of 6, 20 and 40 N/pin. Stress-strain (`3-^9) curves were constructed by measuring the microhardness and the equivalent strain gradients in near surface regions on the cross-sectional surface prepared parallel to sliding direction.It was shown that, both the magnitude of plastic strains and the depth of plastic deformed zones increased with the applied load. The material exhibited considerable work softening in addition to work hardening at the highest applied load. The softened layer placed just beneath the mechanical mixed layer (MML), was mostly covered with the fine fractured eutectic Si and TiC fragments most of which were associated with microcracks at Al/Si and Al/TiC interfaces. The results were discussed in terms of some of the current work hardening models.
Tavakoli A. H., Goudarzi M.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)
Abstract

The synthesis of advanced materials from low cost minerals concentrates is a new field of study that has great potential applications. In this paper, the effect of milling time on the temperature of initiation and amount of carbothermic reduction of ilmenite has been investigated. The stoichiometric molar ratio (1:4) of ilmenite to graphite was mixed and mechanically activatedfor 30-70 hours at room temperature. Then homogenized mixture heated for one hour at 1000-1400°C in coal reducing atmosphere. The results show that complete conversion of ilmenite to Fe and TiC can not be achieved in the unmilled powder at 1400°C, while with milling of mixture for 30 hours, complete reduction of ilmenite to Fe and TiC at 1400° C was observed. With increasing milling time from 30 to 70 hours the temperature of complete reduction decreases from 1400 to 1200° C. Leaching of final product in HCI 3% solution dissolve Fe but leave pure titanium carbide intact. Determination of TiC unit cell size from X-ray diffraction pattern shows that unit cell size of synthesized TiC is less than stoichiometric one, which suggests that some oxycarbide phases (TiCxO1-x), is present into the final product.
Bafghi M. Sh., Adeli M., Mohammadi Nikoo H.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)
Abstract

Two commercial methods are used for the production of strontium carbonate:1) Direct conversion of Celsetite to strontium carbonate by hot sodium carbonate,2) Carbothermic reduction of celestite with coal followed by water leaching of strontium sulfide(SrS) and its conversion to strontium carbonate.The present study has been made on the carbothermic reduction of celestite ores of Varamin (Iran) mines. Effects of temperature, time, pellet size, particle size of celestite ore, pellet compactness and type of reducing agent have been studied. In the range of 800-1100°C, reduction rate increases notably with temperature, which may mean that the reduction is predominantly chemical controlled. Activation energy of around 22.5 kcal/mol supports the idea of chemical control mechanism. Further support for this postulation is provided by the following facts:1) Increasing rate with carbon reactivity (graphite, coal, and charcoal)2) Small dependency of rate on pellet compactness.3) Small dependency of rate on pellet size
Rand B., Ramos V. P. S., Ahmed A. S.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)
Abstract

Some of the scientific principles underlying the role of carbon and graphite in graphitic refractories are considered, with emphasis on the graphite phase. The highly anisotropic nature ofgraphite is a key factor in its ability to modify the properties of oxide refractories, resulting in the potential for anisotropy in the subsequent graphitic composite, depending upon the fabrication conditions. The thermal and mechanical properties are considered for model alumina-graphitecomposites first with no anti-oxidant additives in the formulation to reveal the intrinsic effect ofthe graphite phase and then effects of silicon as a typical additive are examined. The behaviour is modified considerably when the extent of ceramic bonding in the materials is increased through the reactions of silicon with the gaseous atmosphere and with the constituents in the refractory. Finally, a brief consideration of the structure and properties of typical binder phases is presented.
Lee W.e.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)
Abstract

Penetration and dissolution mechanisms are reviewed for predominantly single-phase oxide, two phase oxide and oxide-carbon composite refractories by liquid silicate slags. Theoretical models of these processes, as well as static (sessile drop, dipping and crucible) and dynamic (rotating finger and rotary slag) experimental tests, along with their practical limitations are considered. Direct (congruent or homogeneous) attack is controlled by the reaction rate at the slag-refractory interface or the rate of diffusive transport of species to it through the slag leading to active corrosion. Indirect (incongruent or heterogeneous) attack is controlled by diffusive transport through the slag or through a new solid phase, which forms at the original slagrefractory interface. This may lead to passive corrosion. Examples of direct and indirect attack in a range of refractory/slag systems are described highlighting the critical influence of the composition and hence viscosity of the local liquid slag adjacent the solid refractory. Penetration and corrosion can be controlled either through the local slag composition via the refractory or the bulk slag or by microstructural control of the refractory by e.g. internal generation of dense layers or external deposition/generation of passive coatings, so-called in situ refractories.
Mir Habibi A.r., Rabiei M., Agha Baba Zadeh R., Moztar Zadeh F., Hesaraki S.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)
Abstract

ZnS : Cu phosphors were prepared by using laboratory grade chemicals through coprecipitating Cu along with ZnS using H2S and thiourea. Photo- and electroluminescence studies indicate that these phosphors have better emission characteristics compared to the phosphors in which activator is externally added. Phosphors with luminescence at ~530nrn were prepared. The difference between the characteristic properties of the samples seems to be due to formation of nanoparticles during the preparation of the samples by different methods.
Javadpour J., Sakhaii K., Masihiyanpour A.a.,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2004)
Abstract

Thin sheets of hydroxyapatite were fabricated by tape casting process. The non-aqueoustape casting formulation was optimized by adjusting the concentration of organic additivesspecially those of binder and plasticizer in the slurry. The optimized slurry was cast on a glasscarrier using a designed laboratory scale doctor blade. Following a binder removal stage, thetapes were sintered at different temperatures in air atmosphere. Heat treatment at 1250 °C led tothe formation of a dense microstructure as was evidenced by the scanning electron microscopy.
Attar E., Babaei R., Homayonifar P., Asgary K., Davami P.,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2004)
Abstract

During mold filling, molten metal can only advance as quickly as the air inside thecavity is expelled. In this work an analytical model describing air flow is developed based on aincompressible flow theory. Air pressure has serious effects upon the filling behaviour such assurface profile and filling time. In this work a new mathematical model is proposed for calculationthe air pressure during the mold filling. A single phase computational fluid dynamic code based onthe SOLA-VOF algorithm used for prediction the fluid flow. Air discharged through the vents ismodelled by ideal gas assumption, conservation of mass equation and Bernoulli law. A newalgorithm was developed to interpolates the air pressure on the surface cell. The creation of airback pressure was correlated with sizes of vents and pouring basin height. In order to verify thecomputational results a series of experimental test was conducted. Comparison between theexperimental data and simulation results has shown a good agreement.
Fotoohi B., No Parast M., Oliazadeh M.,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2004)
Abstract

Gold deposits are varied regarding their geological and geochemical settings. Hence,their processing methods must be best organized for achieving the desired recovery of preciousmetals. In this research, two types of hard-rock gold ores, each with specific characteristics fromKouh-zar region (south of Damghan city) were subjected to mineral processing tests at thelaboratory scale. The reference (head) samples of both veins contained on average 3.5-4.5 ppmgold. According to mineralogical investigations no observable gold particles reported even inSEM analyses except for rare over-micrometer gold particles locked in the silica matrix.Therefore, the major (invisible) gold supposed to exist in sulfides" crystal structure. Flotationapplied to recover the gold interlocked within sulfides. The highest grades achieved were 49.2ppm @ R=77.61% for Baghu samples and 57.0 ppm @ R=61.00% for Darestan samples gold inthe sulfide concentrates. In the cyanidation diagnostic tests the optimum conditions of pH,particle size, cyanide concentration and leaching time were determined for both ores. High goldrecoveries (> 95%) were achievable for Baghu samples for the pH conditions between 10.5 and11, and cyanide and hydrated lime consumptions of 0.6 and 2.5 grams per kilogram of orerespectively. As it had been expected, direct cyanidation of Darestan samples (containing up to1.5% copper), couldn"t be established as an efficient procedure (due to cyanide consumption ofabout 20 times higher than for Baghu tests to achieve similar recoveries) and the preliminarycopper removal phase was determined as a necessity for better recovery of gold.
Yahosseini M.r.s., Simchi A., Varahram N., Davami P.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2005)
Abstract

In the present work, a model was proposed to predict the thermal history during rapid solidification (RS) of metal droplets in the gas atomization process. The classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation was based on Newtonian heat flow and enthalpy method. Solving the governing numerical equations by the finite difference method (FDM) gave up the opportunity of analyzing the temperature-time history of the droplets during cooling in the RS process. Here, cooling in the liquid state, nucleation and recalescence, segregated solidification, eutectic solidification and cooling in the solid state were considered. To verify the model, the gas atomization of Al-4.5% Cu alloy was studied and the results were compared with the Shukla's model [1]. Convincing agreement was obtained between the predicted undercoolings and the experimental results reported previously.

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