Search published articles

Showing 30 results for Kinetics

Bafghi M. Sh., Adeli M., Mohammadi Nikoo H.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)

Two commercial methods are used for the production of strontium carbonate:1) Direct conversion of Celsetite to strontium carbonate by hot sodium carbonate,2) Carbothermic reduction of celestite with coal followed by water leaching of strontium sulfide(SrS) and its conversion to strontium carbonate.The present study has been made on the carbothermic reduction of celestite ores of Varamin (Iran) mines. Effects of temperature, time, pellet size, particle size of celestite ore, pellet compactness and type of reducing agent have been studied. In the range of 800-1100°C, reduction rate increases notably with temperature, which may mean that the reduction is predominantly chemical controlled. Activation energy of around 22.5 kcal/mol supports the idea of chemical control mechanism. Further support for this postulation is provided by the following facts:1) Increasing rate with carbon reactivity (graphite, coal, and charcoal)2) Small dependency of rate on pellet compactness.3) Small dependency of rate on pellet size
Dehghan Manshadi A., Zarei Hanzaki A., Golmahalleh O.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2005)

The presence of bainite in the microstructure of steels to obtain a proper combination of strength and toughness has always been desired. The previous works however have shown that the presence of preferred bainite morphologies in the microstructure of any steel would not be readily accessible. In addition, the appearance of different bainite morphologies in the microstructure of any steel is dictated by different factors including the steel initial microstructure, austenitization characteristics, thermomechanical processing parameters and so on. Accordingly, in the present work, the effect of prior austenite grain size and the amount of austenite hot deformation on the bainite formation characteristics were investigated in 0.12C-2.5 Ni-1.2Cr steels. The results indicated that the prior austenite grain size and the amount of deformation in the austenite no-recrystallization region resulted in significant changes of the bainite formation kinetics and morphology.
Jalil Vahdati Khaki, Salman Hadji Soleimani, Mohsen Moosavi Nejad,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2007)

Abstract: The direct reduction of copper sulfide concentrate from Iranian Sarcheshme deposits with carbon in the presence of lime was investigated in the temperature range of 800-1000 ºC. The reduction kinetics was determined by means of weight loss measurements. It was found that the rate of reaction increased considerably with increasing the temperature. The kinetics was also improved when large excesses of lime and carbon were present in the mixture. The effects of catalytic additives of Na2CO3 and K2CO3 were also investigated. It was realized that the rate of reaction increased by higher concentrations of additives. X-ray diffraction analysis of reduced samples revealed that sulfur was fixed as solid CaS, and metallic copper was formed.
A. Zakeri,, M. Sh. Bafghi, Sh. Shahriari,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (12-2007)

Abstract: In this paper, kinetics of reductive leaching of manganese dioxide ore by ferrous ion in sulfuric acid media has been examined. Experimental results show that increasing temperature from 20 to 60 °C and decreasing ore particle size from −16+20 to −60+100 mesh considerably enhance both the dissolution rate and efficiency. Molar ratios of Fe2+/MnO2 and H2SO4/MnO2 in excess to the stoichiometric amounts were needed for successful manganese dissolution. Under the optimum condition (ore particle size of −60+100 mesh, Fe2+/MnO2 molar ratio of 3.0, H2SO4/MnO2 molar ratio of 2.0) manganese could be extracted with over 95% efficiency by 20 minutes leaching at room temperature. A kinetic analysis based on dimensionless time method showed that shrinking core – ash diffusion control model fits the experimental results reasonably well. Value of activation energy was found to be 28.1 kJ/mole for the proposed mechanism.
A. Ataie1,, S. Heshmati-Manesh1,, S. Sheibani1,, G. R. Khayati,y. Firozbakht,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2008)

Abstract: In this paper solid state reduction of high carbon ferrochromium-chromite composite pellets in the temperature range of 900-1350°C was investigated. A two stage reduction mechanism is proposed. The first stage is likely to be controlled by the chemical reaction with activation energy of 127.2kJ/mol. In the second stage, solid state diffusion of carbon through the reaction product layer is suggested to be rate controlling. The activation energy of this stage was calculated to be 93.1kJ/mol. The reduction process was found to be favored by high temperatures as well as high vacuum. The results also show that pre-milling of initial mixture has a negative effect on the reduction degree.
M. Mossanef, M. Soltanieh,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2008)

Abstract: The possibility of vanadium carbide coating formation on AISI L2 steel was studied in molten salt bath containing 33 wt% NaCl- 67 wt% CaCl2. In this research, the effects of time, temperature and bath composition on growing layer thickness were studied. The vanadium carbide coating treatment was performed in the NaCl-CaCl2 bath at 1173, 1273 and 1373 K temperatures for 3, 6, 9 hours and in bath containing 5, 10, 15, 25 wt% ferrovanadium. The presence of VC formed on the surface of the steel substrate was confirmed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis. The layer thickness of vanadium carbide and surface hardness ranged between 4.8 to 25.7 µm and 2645 to 3600 HV, respectively. The kinetics of layer growth was analyzed by measuring the depth of vanadium carbide layer as a function of time and temperature. The mean activation energy for the process is estimated to be 133 kJ/ mol.

Javad Bahrami, Mohammad Hossein Paydar, Nader Setoudeh, Mohammad Hossein Shariat,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2009)


  The effect of mechanical activation using an attrition mill on the particle size of an ilmenite concentrate and its effect on the ability of the concentrate for Iron separation during hydrochloric acid leaching and the kinetics of the dissolution process have been investigated. It was observed that mechanical activation in an attritor significantly enhances the dissolution of iron in hydrochloric acid while have a slight effect on dissolution of titanium. With the mechanically activated ilmenite using an attrition mill, leaching conversion at 90 oC reached to 80%. The kinetic data of leaching of mechanically activated ilmenite was found to follow shrinking core model. Mechanically activating ilmenite using the attrition mill was found to cause the activation energy of leaching to be decrease from 43.69 , found for samples leached without mechanically activated, to 18.23 .

R. Khoshhal, M. Soltanieh, M. Mirjalili,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2010)


titanium sheets in pure molten aluminum at 750

and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis results, TiAl

intermetallic layer thickness increases slowly at primary stages. After that an enhanced growth rate occurs due to layer

cracking and disruption. Presumably, reaction starts with solving titanium into the molten aluminum causing in

titanium super saturation and TiAl

intermetallic layer which consequently leads to TiAl

energy of intermetallic layer formation and growth was developed by measuring titanium thickness decreases.

In this work, kinetics of intermetallic compounds formation in Al-Ti system was studied by immersingoC, 850 oC and 950 oC. According to Scanning Electron Microscopy3 is the only phase can form at the interface. Observations revealed that3 formation. At this stage, growth may be controlled by aluminum diffusion through3 formation at the interface of Ti-TiAl3. Furthermore, activation

A.m. Rashidi, A. Amadeh,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2010)


nanocrystalline nickel samples with the grain size of ~25 nm were prepared via direct current electrodeposition and

aluminized for different durations by pack cementation method at 500

means of SEM, EDS and XRD techniques. According to results, short time aluminizing resulted in the formation of a

single aluminide layer whereas at long duration two distinct aluminide layers were formed. The growth kinetics of the

coating was non-parabolic at short times while it obeyed the parabolic law at long duration. The parabolic growth

rate constant of single phase coating formed on electrodeposited samples was about 30 ìm / h1/2 approximately 3 times

greater than the data reported for coarse grained nickel (8.4 ìm / h1/2). Meanwhile, the overall growth rate constant

was decreased to 11.7 ìm / h1/2, when double aluminide layers formed on nanocrystalline nickel.

In this research, aluminizing behavior of ultra fine-grained nickel was investigated. For this purpose,oC. The aluminide layers were examined by Bafghi, A.h. Emami, A. Zakeri, J. Vahdati Khaki,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2010)


has been investigated. It has been shown that the mechanism of leaching reaction is diffusion through the product layer

and does not undergo any change as a result of mechanical activation in a wide range of experimental conditions.

Leaching rate is strongly influenced by milling intensity and the effect of ball to powder mass ratio is stronger than

milling time. Curve fitting of experimental data shows that leaching rate constant is approximately a linear function

of ball to powder mass ratio, while it obeys a power function with regard to the milling time.

The kinetics of chalcopyrite leaching in a ferric sulfate media for raw and mechanically activated samples

M. Nusheh*, H. Yoozbashizadeh,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2010)


the competition between the precipitation of cobalt ions and evolution of hydrogen gas on the cathode surface during

the reduction process in a sulfate bath, investigation on the mechanism of metal precipitation is of great importance.

In the present work, study on the kinetics of cobalt electrowinning and the mechanism of the involved reactions have

been carried out. The obtained results, confirm the mechanism of cobalt precipitation by depletion of hydroxides. The

effects of temperature and scan rate parameters were studied on electrowinning of cobalt by cyclic voltammetry

technique. The diffusion coefficient and rate constant of the reactions were measured and calculated by performed


Nowadays cobalt is mostly produced through the electrowinning process of sulfate solutions. Regarding to

S. Ahmadi,, H. R. Shahverdi*, S. S. Saremi,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (10-2010)

Abstract: In this research work, crystallization kinetics of Fe55Cr18Mo7B16C4 alloy was evaluated by X-ray diffraction, TEM observations and differential scanning calorimetric tests. In practice, crystallization and growth mechanisms were investigated using DSC tests in four different heating rates. Results showed that a two -step crystallization process occurred in the alloy in which - Fe phase was crystallized in the first step after annealing treatments. Activation energy for the first step of crystallization i.e. - Fe was measured to be 276 (kj/mol) according to Kissinger model. Further, avrami exponent calculated from DSC curves was 2 and a three -dimensional diffusion controlled mechanism with decreasing nucleation rate was observed in the alloy. It is also known from the TEM observations that crystalline á – Fe phase nucleated in the structure of the alloy in an average size of 10 nm and completely mottled morphology.

M. Sh. Bafghi, A. Yarahmadi, A. Ahmadi, H. Mehrjoo,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2011)


the reduction agent. Pellets of barite ore containing about 95% BaSO

temperature, time, ore grain size and the type and grain size of the carbon materials. Graphite, coke and charcoal have

been used as the reducing agent and the reduction experiments have been performed in the temperature range of 925-

1150 °C. Apart from conducting the experiments using pellets made of ore powder, kinetic analysis of the experimental

data by use of the reduced (dimensionless) time method has been another unique feature of the present study.

Experimental results show that grain size of either carbon material or barite ore has not appreciable effect on the

reaction rate. Kinetic analysis of the experimental data revealed the rate is strongly controlled by the chemical reaction

of carbon gasification (Boudouard reaction). The reaction rate is very considerably related to the type of carbon

material so that the activation energy varies from 15.6 kcal.mol



The present study deals with the reduction of barium sulfate (Barite) to barium sulfide by use of carbon as4 has been reduced under different conditions of-1 for charcoal to 26.3 kcal.mol-1 for graphite and 20.8-1 for coke. This behavior provides further support for the postulated reaction mechanism, i.e., carbon
M. S. Kaiser,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2013)

Precipitation behaviour of wrought Al-6Mg alloys with ternary scandium and quaternary zirconium and titanium has been studied. Hardness measurements and resistivity studies are employed to assess the precipitation behaviour of scandium doped Al-6Mg alloy without or with quaternary additions of zirconium and titanium. Further, the kinetics of precipitations are studied by differential scanning calorimetric technique. Scandium has been observed to form fine coherent Al3Sc precipitates during ageing and these are responsible for strengthening of the alloys. The precipitation kinetics of Al3Sc depends on the diffusion of scandium in aluminium. Presence of fine coherent precipitates of Al3Sc impedes the migration of dislocations and increase the recovery temperature. The kinetics of recrystallisation is also delayed.
A. R. Abbasian, M. R. Rahimipour, Z. Hamnabard,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2013)

In order to evaluate the sintering behavior of lithium meta titanate (Li2TiO3) powder, the shrinkage of powder compact was measured under constant rates of heating. Densification curves for Li2TiO3 have been constructed with the help of shrinkage powder measured at different heating rates. The activation energy at the initial stage of sintering was determined by analyzing the densification curves and the value of Q=377 kJ/mol was obtained. The diffusion mechanism at the initial sintering stage was determined by the analytical method applied to the constant rates of heating data. This analysis exhibited that the dominant mechanism for initial sintering stage of Li2TiO3 is volume diffusion from grain boundary and surfaces.
S. Ahmadi, H. R. Shahverdi,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2013)

Crystallization kinetics of Fe52Cr18Mo7B16C4Nb3 alloy was evaluated using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) tests and TEM observations in this research work. In effect, crystallization and growth mechanisms were investigated using DSC tests in four different heating rates (10, 20, 30, 40 K/min) and kinetic models (i.e. Kissinger- Starink, Ozawa, and Matusita methods). Results showed that a two -step crystallization process occurred in the alloy in which α - Fe and Fe3B phases were crystallized respectively in the structure after heat treatment. Activation energy for the first step of crystallization i.e., α - Fe was measured to be 421 (kj/mol) and 442 (kj/mol) according to both Kissinger- Starink and Ozawa models respectively. Further, Avrami exponent calculated from DSC curves was 1.6 and a two -dimensional diffusion controlled mechanism with decreasing nucleation rate was observed in the alloy. TEM observations reveal that crystalline α – Fe phase nucleated in the structure of the alloy in an average size of 10 nm and completely mottled morphology
M. Sheikhshab Bafghi, M. Karimi, M. Adeli,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2013)

In the present study, reduction of zinc oxide from the pellets made of steelmaking electric arc furnace dust has been investigated. Effects of such parameters as the type of carbon material (graphite, coke and charcoal) as well as time and temperature on the reduction reaction have been examined. The reduced (dimensionless) time method was applied to perform a kinetic analysis of the system. Experimental results showed that increasing the temperature in the range of 925-1150°C results in a remarkable increase in the reduction rate. It was also shown that the reduction process is controlled by chemical reaction. Meaningful difference in the activation energy values calculated for reduction with graphite (24.75 kcal/mol), coke (18.13 kcal/mol) and charcoal (11.52 kcal/mol) indicate the predominant role of chemical reaction (carbon gasification) in the overall reaction rate and its rate-controlling mechanism. Carbothermal reduction of pelletized EAF dust proved to be an efficient reduction method, so that above 90% reduction was achieved in about one hour at temperatures around 1100°C.
N. Khatami , Sh. Mirdamadi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2014)

The presence of alloying elements, sometimes in a very small amount, affects mechanical properties one of these elements is Boron. In Aluminum industries, Boron master alloy is widely used as a grain refiner In this research, the production process of Aluminum –Boron master alloy was studied at first then, it was concurrently added to 2024 Aluminum alloy. After rolling and homogenizing the resulting alloy, the optimal temperature and time of aging were determined during the precipitation hardening heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C). Then, in order to find the effect of controlled quenching, different cycles of heat treatment including precipitation heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C) and conventional quenching (T6) were applied on the alloy at the aging temperature of 110°C. Mechanical properties of the resulting alloy were evaluated after aging at optimum temperature of 110°C by performing mechanical tests including hardness and tensile tests. The results of hardness test showed that applying the controlled quenching instead of conventional quenching in precipitation heat treatment caused reduction in the time of reaching the maximum hardness and also increase in hardness rate due to the generated thermo-elastic stresses rather than hydrostatic stresses and increased atomic diffusion coefficient as well. Tensile test results demonstrated that, due to the presence of boride particles in the microstructure of the present alloy, the ultimate tensile strength in the specimens containing Boron additive increased by 3.40% in comparison with the specimens without such an additive and elongation (percentage of relative length increase) which approximately increased by 38.80% due to the role of Boron in the increase of alloy ductility
F Foadian, M Soltanieh, M Adeli, M Etminanbakhsh,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2014)

Metallic-intermetallic laminate (MIL) composites are promising materials for structural applications especially in the aerospace industry. One of the interesting laminate composites is the Ti-TiAl 3 multilayer. In this work, commercially pure sheets of aluminum and titanium with almost equal thickness of around 0.5 mm were explosively joined. The achieved multilayers were annealed at 630 ℃in different times so that an intermetallic layer was formed at the Ti/Al interface. The resulting microstructure was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). TiAl3 was the only intermetallic phase that was observed in all annealing times. The kinetics of the formation of TiAl 3 was investigated and compared to previous research studies performed on Ti-Al multilayers which were fabricated using methods other than explosive welding.
M. S. Kaiser,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2014)

The evaluation of texture as a function of recrystallization has been characterized for directly cold rolled Al-6Mg, Al-6Mg-0.4Sc and Al-6Mg-0.4Sc-0.2Zr alloys. Samples were annealed isothermally at 400 °C for 1 to 240 minutes to allow recrystallization. Recrystallization kinetics of the alloys is analyzed from the micro-hardness variation. Isothermally annealed samples of aluminum alloys were also studied using JMAK type analysis to see if there exists any correlation between the methods. Recrystallization fraction behavior between two methods the scandium added alloys show the higher variation due to precipitation hardening and higher recrystallization behavior. The scandium and zirconium as a combined shows the more variation due to formation of Al3(Sc, Zr) precipitate. From the microstructure it is also observed that the base Al-Mg alloy attained almost fully re-crystallized state after annealing at 400 °C for 60 minutes

Page 1 from 2    

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Materials Science and Engineering

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb