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Showing 107 results for Subject: materials engineeing and special subjects

Saber Khoshjavan, Mohammad Heidary, Dr Bahram Rezai,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (8-2010)

Free swelling index (FSI) is an important parameter for cokeability and combustion of coals. In this research, the effects of chemical properties of coals on the coal free swelling index were studied by artificial neural network methods. The artificial neural networks (ANNs) method was used for 200 datasets to estimate the free swelling index value. In this investigation, ten input parameters such as moisture, volatile matter (dry), fixed carbon (dry), ash (dry), total sulfur (organic and pyretic)(dry), (British thermal unit (Btu)/lb) (dry), carbon (dry), hydrogen (dry), nitrogen (dry) as well as oxygen (dry) were used. For selecting the best model for this study the outputs of models were compared. A three-layer ANN was found to be optimum with architecture of ten and four neurons in first and second hidden layer, respectively, and one neuron in output layer. Results of artificial neural network shows that training, testing and validating data’s square correlation coefficients (R2) achieved 0.99, 0.92 and 0.96, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the highest and lowest effects of coal chemical properties on the coal free swelling index were nitrogen (dry) and fixed carbon (dry), respectively. Keywords: Coal Chemical Properties, Free Swelling Index, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Cokeability and Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN).
Mrs Somaye Alamolhoda, Dr Saeed Heshmati-Manesh, Dr Abolghasem Ataie,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (8-2010)

In this research an ultra-fine grained composite structure consisting of an intermetallic matrix together with dispersed nano-sized Al2O3 obtained via mechanical activation of TiO2 and Al in a high energy ball mill and sintering of consolidated samples. Phase composition and morphology of the milled and sintered samples were evaluated by XRD and SEM techniques Thermal behavior of the powder sample milled for 8 hours was evaluated by DTA technique. DTA results showed that, the reaction happens in two steps. The first step is the aluminothermic reduction of TiO2 with Al. XRD observations reveals that minor amount of Ti3Al phase formed during reduction reaction together with TiAl and Al2O3 major phases. This intermetallic phase disappeared when sintering temperature was increased to 850 ºC. The second step in DTA is related to a reaction between residual Al in the system (partly dissolved in TiAl lattice) and the Ti3Al phase produced earlier at lower temperatures. SEM micrographs reveal that by completion of the reduction reaction more homogeneous and finer microstructure is observable in sintered samples.
Khodamorad Abbaszadeh, Shahram Kheirandish, Hassan Saghafian,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (8-2010)

The effects of lower bainite volume fraction on tensile and impact properties of D6AC ultrahigh strength steel were studied in the current work. To obtain mixed microstructures containing martensite and different volume fractions of the lower bainite, specimens were austenitized at 910° C, then quenched in a salt bath of 330°C for different holding times, finally quenched in oil. In order to obtain fully martensitic and bainitic microstructures, direct oil quenching and isothermal transformation heat treatment for 24 hours were used respectively. All specimens were double tempered at 200°C for 2 hours per tempered. Microstructures were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopes. Fracture morphologies were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that both yield and ultimate tensile strength generally decreased with an increase in volume fraction of lower bainite. However, a few exceptions were observed in the mixed microstructures containing 12% lower bainite, showing a higher strength than the fully martensitic microstructure. This can be explained on the basis of two factors. The first is an increase in the strength of martensite due to the partitioning of the prior austenite grains by lower bainite resulting in the refinement of martensite substructures. The second is a plastic constraint effect leading to an enhanced strength of lower bainite by the surrounding relatively rigid martensite. Charpy V-notch impact energy and ductility is improved with increasing the volume fraction of lower bainite.
M. Sh. Bafghi, A. Yarahmadi, A. Ahmadi, H. Mehrjoo,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2011)


the reduction agent. Pellets of barite ore containing about 95% BaSO

temperature, time, ore grain size and the type and grain size of the carbon materials. Graphite, coke and charcoal have

been used as the reducing agent and the reduction experiments have been performed in the temperature range of 925-

1150 °C. Apart from conducting the experiments using pellets made of ore powder, kinetic analysis of the experimental

data by use of the reduced (dimensionless) time method has been another unique feature of the present study.

Experimental results show that grain size of either carbon material or barite ore has not appreciable effect on the

reaction rate. Kinetic analysis of the experimental data revealed the rate is strongly controlled by the chemical reaction

of carbon gasification (Boudouard reaction). The reaction rate is very considerably related to the type of carbon

material so that the activation energy varies from 15.6 kcal.mol



The present study deals with the reduction of barium sulfate (Barite) to barium sulfide by use of carbon as4 has been reduced under different conditions of-1 for charcoal to 26.3 kcal.mol-1 for graphite and 20.8-1 for coke. This behavior provides further support for the postulated reaction mechanism, i.e., carbon
Y. Safaei-Naeini, F. Golestani-Fard, F. Khorasanizadeh, M. Aminzare, S. Zhang,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2011)


composition of MgO and nano boehmite. The reactant and potassium chloride, as the reaction media, were fired at

800-1000 °C at different dwell times (0.5-5 h) in the ambient atmosphere. After washing and filtration, the spinel nano

powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-

Teller (BET) techniques. It was demonstrated that the formation temperature decreased to 850

particles revealed an average size of 30 nm with a narrow size distribution. The mechanism of MgAl

was found to be a template type where the morphology and size of product were similar to those of alumina formed

from boehmite decomposition. Prolonging the reaction time from 0.5 to 3 h, the reaction was further completed and

crystallinity was improved. However, the increase of temperature was more effective in this regard.

MgAl2O4 (MA) nano powder was synthesized via molten salt technique, by heating stochiometric°C. The nano spinel2O4 formation
S. Ghafurian, S. H. Seyedein, M. R. Aboutalebi, M. Reza Afshar,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2011)

Abstract: Microwave processing is one of the novel methods for combustion synthesis of intermetallic compounds and
composites. This method brings about a lot of opportunities for processing of uniquely characterized materials. In this
study, the combustion synthesis of TiAl/Al2O3 composite via microwave heating has been investigated by the
development of a heat transfer model including a microwave heating source term. The model was tested and verified
by experiments available in the literature. Parametric studies were carried out by the model to evaluate the effects of
such parameters as input power, sample aspect ratio, and porosity on the rate of process. The results showed that
higher input powers and sample volumes, as well as the use of bigger susceptors made the reaction enhanced. It was
also shown that a decrease in the porosity and aspect ratio of sample leads to the enhancement of the process.
A. A. Hosseini, A. Sadigzadeh, S. Mohammadi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2011)

Abstract: In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown directly in the pores of micro porous pyrex membranes
and consequently ceramic membranes with very fine pores and high porosity were achieved. Our experiment was done
in two stages. Initially cobalt powder with different percent was homogeneously mixed with pyrex powder. In order to
produce row membranes, each of these mixtures were compacted in the form of tablet by use of a uniaxial cold press
and in a stainless steel mould, and then the tablets were sintered at different temperature in an electric furnace. In
second stage chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was used to grow CNTs within the pores of the membranes.
Argon and ammonia were used as carrier and reactive gas respectively and acetylene was used as the carbon
feedstock. Morphology of the membranes before and after CVD process was studied by scanning electron microscopy
(SEM). After CVD process CNTs were grown in the pores of membranes and the pores size was decreased but total
porosity of the membrane was not changed considerably. In this way membranes with high porosity and fine pores were
A. Namiranian , M. Kalantar,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2011)

The process of mullitization of kyanite concentrate was studied at different conditions of heat treatment (1400
– 1600 °C and 0.5 – 3.5 hours) and particle size of raw materials (38-300 ?m). Kyanite concentrate was obtained from
ore-dressing of kyanite deposits of Mishidowan-Bafgh region at 100 km northeastern part of Yazd. The results of
microstructure (shape, distribution and size of the grains) and phase evolution studies by SEM and XRD showed that
total transformation of kyanite to mullite takes place by heat treatment between 1500 –1550 °C during 2.5 hours.. At
temperatures below 1500 °C need-like mullite grains are always produced. At higher temperatures the mullite grains
reveal rounded and platelet morphology. At 1550 °C, the rate of mullitization and densification were improved by
increasing soaking time from 1h to 3h and decreasing particle size of materials from 300 to 38 m
R. Swain, L. N. Padhy, R. Bhima Rao,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2011)

Partially Lateritised Khondalite (PLK) rocks are the waste materials generated as a result of mining of bauxite. The major discolouring elemental impurity in the PLK is iron oxides, which render it unsuitable for its use as a refractory material. The iron can be removed by suitable beneficiation methods. The main aim of this present investigation is to prepare a value added material from the mining waste by preparation of PLK rock containing less than 2% Fe2O3 which finds application in the refractory industries and then preparation of brick suitable for industrial applications. The feed sample containing 4.31 % Fe2O3 subjected to hydrocyclone for refractory of low iron content product in the underflow. The results of these studies reveal that the hydrocyclone underflow sample contains 1.9% Fe2O3 is suitable for making bricks due to presence of low iron content. However, bricks are made from a feed sample as well as from hydrocyclone underflow and overflow products. Physical, chemical and thermo-mechanical properties of these bricks are evaluated. Mineralogical properties of these bricks are also correlated with the thermomechanical properties. The developed bricks are compared with the standards for their suitability in industrial applications. Hence the bauxite mining waste can be a value added material but not a waste material which at present
creates environmental pollution at the mining site.

E. Najafi Kani, A. Allahverdi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2011)

Shrinkage behavior of a geopolymer cement paste prepared from pumice-type natural pozzolan was studied
by changing parameters of chemical composition including SiO2/Na2O molar ratio of activator and total molar ratios
of Na2O/Al2O3, and H2O/Al2O3. For investigating the effect of curing conditions on shrinkage, hydrothermal curing
was also applied. The obtained results clearly revealed the governing effect of chemical composition on shrinkage.
Mixes with different Na2O/Al2O3 molar ratios exhibited different shrinkage behavior due to variations made in
SiO2/Na2O molar ratio. Application of hydrothermal curing after a 7-day period of precuring in humid atmosphere
also showed strong effect on shrinkage reduction.
F. Kashaninia, H. Sarpoolaky, A. R. Bagheri, R. Naghizadeh, M. Zamanipour,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2011)

Abstract: There have been lots of studies to control the poor hydration resistance of dolomite refractories one of the
most effective solutions has been the addition of magnesia to doloma. Using a co-clinker of magnesia-doloma as a
starting material would provide more homogeneity in the properties of the product and has been published recently.
On the other hand, addition of iron oxide to doloma has been found to increase the hydration resistance. In this paper,
the effect of iron oxide addition on hydration phase analysis and microstructure of two different magnesia- doloma
samples, one with CaO content of 25 wt% and the other one with that of 35 wt% has been investigated. Ten samples
were prepared by pressing followed by firing at 1750 ºC for 3hrs. Results showed that the hydration resistance of the
samples improved by decreasing the CaO content, because CaO is much more prone to hydration comparing to MgO.
Besides, iron oxide addition lead to the formation of iron-containing phases which increased the hydration resistance
of the samples both by capsulating the CaO and MgO grains and by promoting the liquid phase sintering.
M. S. Kaiser, A. S. W. Kurny,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2011)

Microstructure and properties of the Al-6Si-0.3Mg alloys containing scandium (0.2 to 0.6wt %) were investigated. The microstructure was observed by optical microscopy, the hardness was determined by Vickers tester and phase transformation was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique. The results showed that scandium can refine dendrites, enhance hardness in the aged alloys and suppress softening effect during prolonged ageing treatment.
M. M. Kashani Motlagh, A. A. Youzbashi, Z. Amiri Rigi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2011)

 A natural bentonite obtained from Khorasan, Iran, was submitted to acid activation with sulphuric acid. Sample aliquots (5gr)
were leached with 100 ml H2SO4 solutions of various concentrations (2–7N) at 80±2 oC for 2 hours. X–ray diffraction, chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area measurements were performed in order to evaluate important structural modifications occurring as a result of acid attack. Octahedral sheet was affected by acid activation resulting into the dissolution of cations (Mg2+, Fe2+, Al3+) and consequent decomposition of montmorillonite structure. Bentonite samples were then tested in order to verify their capacity to bleach colza–soybean oil, and their performances were compared to that of a commercial bleaching clay. The bleaching ability of the natural clay was poor when compared with that of the industrial adsorbent. Acid activation of the bentonite sample with 7N sulphuric acid yielded an adsorbent material which was highly efficient in the bleaching of the oil functioned better than the commercial clay product under the same conditions.
M. Rezvani,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2011)

The effect of Y2O3, CeO2, P2O5, ZrO2 and TiO2 in single, double and triple form on crystallization mechanism of Li2OAl2O3- SiO2(LAS) glass-ceramic system was investigated .The nucleation and crystallization peak temperatures of optimized samples in each group were determined by Ray & Day method .The crystalline phase was determined by the X-ray diffractometery .The micro-structure of the samples was studied by SEM techniqe .Crystallization activation energy ,E, and kinetic constants(n ,m) were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA) through Marotta and Augis-Bennet methods .According to the results ,the Avrami constants(m ,n) derived from the Marotta and Augis- Bennett, glasses containing both ZrO2 and TiO2 nuclei were showed bulk crystallization .The crystallization mechanism of specimens containing ZrO2, TiO2 and CeO2 in the triple nuclei series represent two-dimensional bulk crystallization .By comparison of Avrami constants and activation energy of crystallization of optimized samples with other results they gave much lower value of E(255.5 kJ/mol) and higher value of n in 4.38.The lattice constants of the main phase( -eucryptite solid solution)in samples were determined according to the XRD results
A. Allahverdi, E. Najafi Kani, M. Fazlinejhad,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2011)

Abstract: The linear expansion, early-age compressive strength and setting times of the binary mixtures of gypsum and Portland cement clinkers of relatively low C3A-contents were investigated. For this reason, type 1, 2, and 5 of Portland cement-clinkers were selected and a number of binary mixtures were designed. At relatively lower percentages of gypsum (about 5%), the early strength behavior is improved. Results obtained for compressive strength of mixtures with 5% gypsum confirm the possibility of achieving 28- and 90-day compressive strengths up to values higher than 100 MPa and 130 MPa, respectively. At relatively higher percentages of gypsum (more than 25%), excessive expansion caused by ettringite formation results in the formation of micro-cracks effectively weakening the strength behavior. The work suggests that type S expansive cements could be produced from Portland cement clinkers of relatively low C3Acontents.
S. Janitabar Darzi, A. R. Mahjoub, A. R. Nilchi, S. Rasouli Garmarodi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2011)

TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite with molar ratio 1:1 was synthesized by a free calcination sol-gel method using titanium tetra chloride and tetraethylorthosilicate as raw materials. In the composite, TiO2 nanocrystals are highly dispersed in the amorphous SiO2 matrix and the mater showed size quantization effect arising from the presence of extremely small titanium oxide species having a low coordination number. Thermal phase transformation studies of the as-prepared composite were carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and thermogravimetry–differential scanning calorimetry (TG–DSC) analyses. The studies showed existence of anatase phase in all the tested temperatures. When temperature exceeds 400°C, brookite phase was formed beside anatase phase. At 950°C amorphous silica matrix was transformed to crystobalite and brookite phase disappeared. Finally, small peaks of rutile phase were detectable at 1100°C.
A. Mohassel, A. H. Kokabi, P. Davami,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2011)

The wide-gap aluminothermic rail welds with root opening of 50-70 mm were produced using plain carbon steel rail and non-alloy aluminothermic charge. Mechanical properties and micro-structure of the weld metal and HAZ as well as the impact energy and the fracture toughness of the welds were investigated. The yield and tensile strength of wide-gap welds were about 98% and 95% of the base metal, respectively. Both minimum and maximum hardnesses of the joint were seen in HAZ which were related to the grain coarsening and normalizing, respectively. The mean value of wide-gap weld fracture toughness is more than narrow-gap weld. Moreover, trans-granular cleavage indicated the brittle fracture mode of the weld metal.
M. R. Zamanzad-Ghavidel,, K. Raeissi, A. Saatchi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Abstract: Nickel was electrodeposited onto copper substrates with high {111} and {400} peak intensities. The grain size of coatings deposited onto the copper substrate with a higher {111} peak intensity was finer. Spheroidized pyramid morphology was obtained at low current densities on both copper substrates. By increasing the deposition current density, grain size of the coating was increased for both substrates and eventually a mixed morphology of pyramids and blocks was appeared without further increase in grain size. This decreased the anodic exchange current density probably due to the decrease of surface roughness and led to a lower corrosion rate.
A. Salimi, M. Zadshakoyan, A. Ozdemir, E. Seidi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2012)

In automation flexible manufacturing systems, tool wear detection during the cutting process is one of the most important considerations. This study presents an intelligent system for online tool condition monitoring in drilling process .In this paper, analytical and empirical models have been used to predict the thrust and cutting forces on the lip and chisel edges of a new drill. Also an empirical model is used to estimate tool wear rate and force values on the edges of the worn drill. By using of the block diagram of machine tool drives, the changes in the feed and spindle motor currents are simulated, as wear rate increases. To predict tool wear rate in drill, Fuzzy logic capabilities have been used to develop intelligent system. The simulated results presented in MATLAB software show the effectiveness of the proposed system for on-line drill wear monitoring.
Karmous Mohamed Salah,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Atomistic simulations are carried out for zeolite with ABW framework. The structure is modeled and force field simulations are preformed to investigate its elastic properties, bulk, shear modulus and auxeticity. Bulk moduli (Ks), Shear moduli (G), and Poissons ratios (ν) were found to be Ks=79.71725 GPa, G=16.93265 GPa, νxy = -0.2207, νxz= -0.5730, νyx= -0.71717, νyz=0.87013, νzx= -0.33097 and νzy=1.54568 for ABW the negative value of Poisson’s ratios reflects an auxetic behavior of material. An evaluation of the directional young’s moduli shows that the compressibility of ABW is not uniform along [100], [010] and [001] axes. All calculations were performed using GULP program.

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