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Showing 9 results for Solidification

Kaviani S., Marashi S. P. H.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)

The surface condition and microstructure of near stoichiometric (Fe823Ndll.8B5.9) Nd-Fe-B alloy ribbons and the effect of melt spinning parameters were investigated using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM, TEM). The formation of gas pockets on the roll surface of the ribbons during melt spinning can prevent heat transform and result in local coarse grains. The local thickness would also be less in these places and thus perforates preferentially during ion beam milling. Therefore different areas of the sample should be carefully observed in the TEM. Reducing inert gas pressure in the chamber will eliminate the gas pockets. As a general trend, decrease in the ribbon thickness and mean Nd2 Fe14B grain size were observed on increasing the roll speed. By careful adjustment of the melt spinning parameters, the nanostructure will develop. An orientation relationship was found between Nd2 Fe14B and α-Fe precipitates for coarse grain samples melt spun at low roll speed. Dark field image of such grain also shows that some of these α-Fe precipitates have the same orientation. X-ray diffraction evident the development of texture by decreasing the roll speed.
Yahosseini M.r.s., Simchi A., Varahram N., Davami P.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2005)

In the present work, a model was proposed to predict the thermal history during rapid solidification (RS) of metal droplets in the gas atomization process. The classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation was based on Newtonian heat flow and enthalpy method. Solving the governing numerical equations by the finite difference method (FDM) gave up the opportunity of analyzing the temperature-time history of the droplets during cooling in the RS process. Here, cooling in the liquid state, nucleation and recalescence, segregated solidification, eutectic solidification and cooling in the solid state were considered. To verify the model, the gas atomization of Al-4.5% Cu alloy was studied and the results were compared with the Shukla's model [1]. Convincing agreement was obtained between the predicted undercoolings and the experimental results reported previously.
S. Kianfar,, S. H. Seyedein, M. R.aboutalebi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2008)

Abstract: The horizontal continuous casting process has received a significant attention for near net shape casting of non ferrous metals and alloys. Numerical Simulation has been widely used for process design and optimization of continuous casting process. In the present study, a 3-dimensional heat flow model was developed to simulate the heat transfer and solidification in a horizontal billet continuous casting system in which the air gap formation and its effect on heat extraction rate from solidifying billet was also considered. In order to test the developed model, it was run to simulate the heat transfer and solidification for an industrial billet caster. The predicted temperature distribution within the mold and billet was compared with those measured on the industrial caster in which a good agreement was obtained. Finally, parametric studies were carried out by validated model to evaluate the effects of different parameters on solidification profile and temperature distribution within the model brass billet. The microstructure of cast billet was analyzed to determine the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) under different cooling conditions. Based on measured SDAS and predicted solidification rate a correlation between SDAS and cooling rate was proposed for continuously cast brass billet.
A. Jafaria, S. H. Seyedeina, M. R. Aboutalebia, D. G. Eskinb, L. Katgermanb,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (8-2010)

ABSTRACT Macrosegregation has been received high attention in the solidification modeling studies. In the present work, a numerical model was developed to predict the macrosegregation during the DC Casting of an Al-4.5wt%Cu billet. The mathematical model developed in this study consists of mass, momentum, energy and species conservation equations for a two-phase mixture of liquid and solid in an axisymmetric coordinates. The solution methodology is based on a standard Finite Volume Method. A new scheme called Semi-Implicit Method for Thermodynamically-Linked Equations (SIMTLE) was employed to link energy and species equations with phase diagram of the alloying system. The model was tested by experimental data extracted from an industrial scale DC caster and a relatively good agreement was obtained. It was concluded that a proper macrosegregation model needs two key features: a precise flow description in the two-phase regions and a capable efficient numerical scheme
F. Gulshan, Q. Ahsan,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2013)

The probable reasons for evolution of weld porosity and solidification cracking and the structure- property relationship in aluminium welds were investigated. Aluminium plates (1xxx series) were welded by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding process, 5356 filler metal was used and heat input was controlled by varying welding current (145A, 175A and 195A). The welded samples were examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes and mechanical tests were performed to determine tensile and impact strengths. Secondary phase, identified as globules of Mg2Al3 precipitates, was found to be formed. Solidification cracking appeared in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and porosities were found at the weld portion. The tendency for the formation of solidification cracking and weld porosities decreased with increased welding current.
S. Ahmadi, H.r. Shahverdi, H. Arabi,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (9-2014)

This study is focused on the effects of electroslag remelting by prefused slag (CaO, Al2O3, and CaF2) on macrostructure and reduction of inclusions in the medical grad of 316LC (316LVM) stainless steel. Results showed that in order to obtain uniform ingot structures during electroslag remelting, the shape and depth of the molten pool should be carefully controlled. High melting rates lead to deeper pool depths and interior radial solidification characteristics. Furthermore, decrease in the melting rate caused more reduction of non-metallic inclusions. In practice, large shrinkage cavities formed during the conventional casting process in the primary ingots were the cause of the fluctuation in the melting rate, pool depth and extension of equiaxal crystals zone
A. Kermanpur, H. Ebrahimiyan, A. Heydari, D. Heydari, M. Bahmani,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (12-2017)

Formation of stray grain defects particularly around re-entrant features of the turbine blade airfoils is one of the major problems in directional and single crystal solidification processes. In this work, directional solidification tests of the GTD-111 Ni-based superalloy were conducted at different withdrawal velocities of 3, 6 and 9 mm.min-1 using various stepped cylindrical and cubic designs. The process was also simulated using ProCAST finite element solver to characterize the crystal orientations. The phase transformation temperatures of the superalloy were estimated by the differential scanning calorimetry test. A process map was developed to predict the formation of stray grains in the platform regions of the stepped cylindrical and cubic specimens using the experimentally-validated simulation model. The process map shows critical values of the platform size, withdrawal velocity and initial sample size for the stray grain formation. The withdrawal velocity, platform size and initial sample size all had an inverse effect on the formation of stray grains.

M. Tavakoli Harandi, M. Askari-Paykani, H. Shahverdi, M. Nili Ahmadabadi,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (3-2019)

One-step and two-step annealing techniques were used to examine the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties during compression tests in iron-based ribbons and nanostructured 1- and 2.5mm cylindrical rods. The X-ray diffraction, microstructural, and mechanical results showed that substituting Nb for Fe had a minor effect on glass-forming ability but increased the formability index. The novel two-step annealing process resulted in a remarkable formability index of 16.62 GPa, yield stress of 2830 MPa, ultimate strength of 3866 MPa, and 4.3% plastic strain. A ductile nanosized α-Fe framework and boron-containing nano precipitations, which caused Zener pinning effect, were responsible for these novel mechanical properties.

Saeed G. Shabestari, Sahar Ashkvary, Farnaz Yavari,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (9-2021)

The influence of melt superheating treatment on the solidification characteristics and microstructure of Al–20%Mg2Si in-situ composite has been investigated. The results revealed that melt superheating temperature has a significant effect on solidification parameters and morphology of primary Mg2Si particles. Solidification parameters acquired using cooling curve thermal analysis method, indicate that both nucleation temperature and nucleation undercooling of primary Mg2Si particles increase by increasing melt superheating temperature, while recalescence undercooling decrease under the same condition. Also, based on the microstructural evaluations, melt superheating treatment can refine primary Mg2Si particles and alter their morphology from dendritic shape to more spherical shape and the eutectic microstructure of a-Al + Mg2Si becomes finer and the distance between eutectic layers becomes smaller.

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