Search published articles

Showing 12 results for Deformation

Saghafian Larijani H., Rainforth W. M.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)

An AI-7wt%Si-5vol%TiCp was worn against a cast iron disc in a tri-pin-on-disc machine, under dry sliding conditions at the sliding speed of 0.24 m/s and applied loads of 6, 20 and 40 N/pin. Stress-strain (σ-ε) curves were constructed by measuring the microhardness and the equivalent strain gradients in near surface regions on the cross-sectional surface prepared parallel to sliding direction.It was shown that, both the magnitude of plastic strains and the depth of plastic deformed zones increased with the applied load. The material exhibited considerable work softening in addition to work hardening at the highest applied load. The softened layer placed just beneath the mechanical mixed layer (MML), was mostly covered with the fine fractured eutectic Si and TiC fragments most of which were associated with microcracks at Al/Si and Al/TiC interfaces. The results were discussed in terms of some of the current work hardening models.
Fatemi-Varzaneh S.m., Zarei-Hanzaki A.,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2005)

AZ31 magnesium alloy is considered as a promising alloy in various applications and industries. Furthermore, to design a proper hot working process (rolling, forging and extrusion), the assessment of hot working behaviour of the alloy is necessary. Accordingly, the hot deformation behaviour of AZ31 alloy was studied through hot compression testing method This was carried out in a wide range of temperature (523K to 783K) and strain rates. The obtained true stress-true strain curves and final microstructures were examined and a partial melting was realized at 740K. It was concluded that the presence of liquid did change the deformation mechanisms thereby affecting the flow behaviour.
Abbasi S.m., Shokouh Far A., Ehsani N.,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (12-2006)

In this study the hot deformation behaviour of a precipitation hardened (PH) stainless steel at high strain rates has been predicted through hot compression testing. Stress-strain curves were obtained for a range of strain rates from 10-3 to 10+1 S-1 and temperatures from 850 to 1150°C. Results obtained by microstructure and stress-strain curves show that at low temperatures and high strain rates, where the Zener-Holman parameter (Z) is high, work hardening and dynamic recovery occure. By increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate, the Z parameter is decreased, so that dynamic recrystallization is the dominant softening mechanism. The results were fitted using a Log Z versus Log (sinh (a sp) diagram allowing an assessment of the behavior of the stresses measured at strain rates closer to those related to the industrial hot rolling schedules. It is clearly shown that the data collected from low strain rate testing can be fairly reasonably extrapolated to higher orders of magnitude of strain rate.
B. Tolaminejad, A. Karimi Taheri, H. Arabi, M. Shahmiri,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2009)

Abstract: Equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) is a promising technique for production of ultra fine-grain (UFG) materials of few hundred nanometers size. In this research, the grain refinement of aluminium strip is accelerated by sandwiching it between two copper strips and then subjecting the three strips to ECAE process simultaneously. The loosely packed copper-aluminium-copper laminated billet was passed through ECAE die up to 8 passes using the Bc route. Then, tensile properties and some microstructural characteristics of the aluminium layer were evaluated. The scanning and transmission electron microscopes, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the microstructure. The results show that the yield stress of middle layer (Al) is increased significantly by about four times after application of ECAE throughout the four consecutive passes and then it is slightly decreased when more ECAE passes are applied. An ultra fine grain within the range of 500 to 600 nm was obtained in the Al layer by increasing the thickness of the copper layers. It was observed that the reduction of grain size in the aluminium layer is nearly 55% more than that of a ECA-extruded single layer aluminium billet, i.e. extruding a single aluminium strip or a billet without any clad for the same amount of deformation. This behaviour was attributed to the higher rates of dislocations interaction and cell formation and texture development during the ECAE of the laminated composite compared to those of a single billet
M. Kadkhodaee, H. Daneshmanesh, B. Hashemi, J. Moradgholi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Accumulative roll-bonding process (ARB) is an important severe plastic deformation technique for production of the ultrafine grained, nanostructured and nanocomposite materials in the form of plates and sheets. In the present work, this process used for manufacturing Al/SiO 2 nanocomposites by using Aluminum 1050 alloy sheets and nano sized SiO 2 particles, at ambient temperature. After 8 cycles of ARB process, the tribological properties and wear resistance of produced nanocomposites were investigated. The wear tests by abrasion were performed in a pinon-disc tribometer. Results show that by increasing ARB cycles and the amount of nano powders, the friction coefficient of produced nanocomposites decreases.
E. Badami, M. T. Salehi, S. H. Seyedein,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2014)

Hot deformation behavior of a medium Cr/Mn Al6061 aluminum alloy was studied by isothermal compression test at temperatures range of 320 to 480 °C and strain rates range of 0.001 to 0.1 s −1. The true stresstrue strain curves were analyzed to characterize the flow stress of Al6061. Plastic behavior, as a function of both temperature and strain rate for Al6061, was also modeled using a hyperbolic sinusoidal type equation. For different values of material constant α in the range of 0.001 to 0.4, values of A, n and Q were calculated based on mathematical relationships. The best data fit with minimum error was applied to define constitutive equation for the alloy. The predicted results of the proposed model were found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental results, which could be used to predict the required deformation forces in hot deformation processes
M. Rakhshkhorshid,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2016)

Till now, different constitutive models have been applied to model the hot deformation flow curves of different materials. In this research, the hot deformation flow stress of API X65 pipeline steel was modeled using the power law equation with strain dependent constants. The results was compared with the results of the other previously examined constitutive equations including the Arrhenius equation, the equation with the peak stress, peak strain and four constants and the equation developed based on a power function of Zener-Hollomon parameter and a third order polynomial function of strain power a constant number. Root mean square error (RMSE) criterion was used to assess the performance of the understudied models. It was observed that the power law equation with strain dependent constants has a better performance (lower RMSE) than that of the other understudied constitutive equations except for the equation with the peak stress, peak strain and four constants. The overall results can be used for the mathematical simulation of hot deformation processes

H. Torabzadeh Kashi, M. Bahrami, J. Shahbazi Karami, Gh. Faraji,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2017)

In this paper, cyclic flaring and sinking (CFS) as a new severe plastic deformation (SPD) method was employed to produce the ultrafine grain (UFG) copper tubes. The extra friction has eliminated in the CFS method that provided the possibility for production of longer UFG tubes compared to the other SPD methods. This process was done periodically to apply more strain and consequently finer grain size and better mechanical properties. The CFS was performed successfully on pure copper tubes up to eleven cycles. Mechanical properties of the initial and processed tubes were extracted from tensile tests in the different cycles. The remarkable increase in strength and decrease in ductility take placed in the CFS-ed tubes. The material flow behavior during CFS processing was analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), and a model was presented for grain refinement mechanism of pure copper based on multiplication and migration of dislocations (MMD). This mechanism caused that the initial grains converts to elongated dislocation cells (subgrains) and then to equiaxed ultrafine grains in the higher cycles. The CFS method refined the microstructure to fine grains with the mean grain size of 1200nm from initial coarse grain size of 40µm

M. Sadeghi, M. Hadi, O. Bayat, H. Karimi,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (3-2020)

In this paper a constitutive equation was considered for the isothermal hot compression test of the Mn-Ni-Cr alloy. The hot compression test was performed in the strain rate range of 0.001-0.1 s-1 and deformation temperature was varied from 700 to 900 °C. A considerable reduction in flow stress was observed regardless of the strain rate when temperature was increased from 700 to 750 °C. DTA and XRD evaluation revealed that the removal of Mn3Cr phase and formation of the single solid solution phase were the reason for the flow stress reduction. At the low deformation temperature (700°C) and the high strain rate (0.1 s-1), a partially recrystallized microstructure was observed; this was such that with increasing the temperature and decreasing the strain rate, a recrystallized microstructure was completed. Also, the relationships between flow stress, strain rate and deformation temperature were addressed by the Zener-Holloman parameter in the exponent type with the hot deformation activation energy of 301.07 KJ/mol. Finally, the constitutive equation was proposed for predicting the flow stress at various strain rates and temperatures.
Masumeh Mohammadi, Hamidreza Rezaei Ashtiani,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (6-2021)

The hot deformation behavior of the heat-treated AA6061 and AA 6063 aluminum alloys by T6-1, T6-2 artificial aging treatment, and O annealing treatment were studied by compression testing over a temperature range of 350–550  and strain rates of 0.005-0.1 s-1. It was observed that the flow stresses of the studied aluminum alloys treated by the T6-1 and T6-2 heat treatments were significantly higher than those of the O annealing treatment. Moreover, the stress-strain curves of the heat-treated alloys by the T6-1, T6-2, and O heat treatments demonstrated significant softening during deformation at the lowest strain rate under any of the deformation conditions. For several strains, the activation energy of hot deformation was specified and obtained to vary significantly with strain for the heat-treated alloys by the T6-1 and T6-2 treatments. The stress-strain data calculated from a linear equation, with strain-dependent parameters, shows a great fit with the experimental data for the heat-treated aluminum alloys.
Ata Abdi, Mehrdad Aghaie-Khafri,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (3-2022)

Hot Workability and Processing Map of High Gd Content Mg-Gd-Zn-Zr-Nd Alloy Hot deformation behavior of homogenized Mg-4Sn binary alloy was studied using compression tests at the temperature range of 300-500  and strain rates of 0.001-1s-1. The material showed typical single peak flow behavior followed by a steady state flow as a plateau, which is more evident at the high value of Zener-Hollomon parameter. Constitutive analysis showed that in spite of the original Johnson-Cook (J-C), conventional strain compensated Arrhenius model based on Sellars-McTegart model has a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, the well-known hyperbolic sine function fits the experimental data for predicting of the peak stress with a fair degree of accuracy.
Mohammad Alipour,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (3-2023)

The effect of Strain-Induced Melt-Activated (SIMA) Process, ultrasonic treatment (UST) and Al-5Ti-1B refiner on the microstructure and globularity of Al–15%Mg2Si composite was studied. Deformation of 25% were used. After deformation the samples were heated at 560, 580 and 595 °C for 5, 10, 20 and 40 min. The composite was treated with different amounts of the Ti concentrations and ultrasonic treatment with different power. Microstructural study was carried out on the alloy. It was observed that SIMA process, ultrasonic treatment and Al-5Ti-1B refiner has caused the globular morphology of Mg2Si particles. The results showed that for the desired microstructures of the alloy during SIMA process, the optimum temperature and time are 595 °C and 20 min respectively. Optimum amount of Ti refiner is 1 wt.% and power for UST is 1800W. After applying the SIMA process, Al-5Ti-1B master alloy and ultrasonic treatment, the strength and engagement have increased. This means that tensile strength increases from 251 MPa to 303 MPa and elongation percentage improves from 2.1 to 3.4, respectively.

Page 1 from 1     

© 2022 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Materials Science and Engineering

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb