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Showing 10 results for Morphology

Dehghan Manshadi A., Zarei Hanzaki A., Golmahalleh O.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2005)

The presence of bainite in the microstructure of steels to obtain a proper combination of strength and toughness has always been desired. The previous works however have shown that the presence of preferred bainite morphologies in the microstructure of any steel would not be readily accessible. In addition, the appearance of different bainite morphologies in the microstructure of any steel is dictated by different factors including the steel initial microstructure, austenitization characteristics, thermomechanical processing parameters and so on. Accordingly, in the present work, the effect of prior austenite grain size and the amount of austenite hot deformation on the bainite formation characteristics were investigated in 0.12C-2.5 Ni-1.2Cr steels. The results indicated that the prior austenite grain size and the amount of deformation in the austenite no-recrystallization region resulted in significant changes of the bainite formation kinetics and morphology.
Baradari H., Amani Hamedani H., Karimi Khoygani S., Rezaei H.r., Javadpour J., Sar Poulaki H.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (6-2006)

Ultrafine hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders with crystallite size in the range of 10-90 nm were synthesized by chemical precipitation process using Ca(OH)2 and H3PO4 solutions as starting materials. Molar ratio of Ca/P=1.68 was kept constant throughout the process and alkaline condition for the reaction was maintained using ammonium hydroxide. The role of raw material concentration on HAp crystallite size and morphology were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that variations in crystallite size and morphology of synthesized HAp are strongly affected by the concentration of acid solution. To study the sintering behavior of HAp particles, the powders were pressed at 200 MPa using a uniaxial press. Sintering experiments were carried out at temperatures of 1100, 1250 and 1300°C with various soaking times at maximum temperatures. XRD was also used in determining thephases present after sintering process. The results indicated the decomposition of HAp into a-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and b-TCP phases at 1300°C. The microstructure of the sintered HAp ceramics was characterized by SEM.
Saremi M., Motaghi Golshan B.,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (12-2006)

A film of osteoconductive and biocompatible material on biomedical metallic implants can create bioactivity of the implant and shorten healing time. Hydroxyapatite, that is the most important mineral part of human bone, was coated on Ti6Al4V using cathodic electrode position process. Pulse electrode position technique was used and the effects of different parameters such as potential, duty cycle (on time/ (on time+ off time)), temperature and current density on the morphology of the deposits were examined. Nano size deposits were formed under controlled temperature and optimization of voltage and current density.
M. R. Zamanzad-Ghavidel,, K. Raeissi, A. Saatchi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Abstract: Nickel was electrodeposited onto copper substrates with high {111} and {400} peak intensities. The grain size of coatings deposited onto the copper substrate with a higher {111} peak intensity was finer. Spheroidized pyramid morphology was obtained at low current densities on both copper substrates. By increasing the deposition current density, grain size of the coating was increased for both substrates and eventually a mixed morphology of pyramids and blocks was appeared without further increase in grain size. This decreased the anodic exchange current density probably due to the decrease of surface roughness and led to a lower corrosion rate.
M. Siadat-Cheraghi, S. R. Allahkaram, Z. Shahri,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2015)

Pure cobalt coatings were electrodeposited on copper substrate by means of direct electric current in a chloride solution at different current densities in the range of 10-70 mA cm -2 . The surface morphology and microstructure were investigated via X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion behavior of cobalt coatings was also studied in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy techniques. The results showed that corrosion resistance of deposits was strongly influenced by the coating’s morphology. Co deposit obtained in lower current densities exhibited the highest corrosion resistance, due to their lower grain boundaries and so the least density of active sites for preferential corrosion attacks
S. Ahmadi, H. R. Shahverdi,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2015)

Crystallization of α – Fe phase during annealing process of Fe55Cr18Mo7B16C4 bulk amorphous alloy has been evaluated by X- ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetric tests and TEM observations in this research. In effect, crystallization mechanism and activation energy of crystallization were evaluated using DSC tests in four different heating rates (10, 20, 30, 40 K/min). A two -step crystallization process was observed in the alloy in which α–Fe phases was crystallized in the first step after annealing process. Activation energy for the first step of crystallization process (i.e. α – Fe phase) was measured to be 276 (Kj/mole) according to Kissinger kinetic model. Furthermore, Avrami exponent calculated from DSC curves was two and a three -dimensional diffusion controlled mechanism with decreasing nucleation rate was observed in the alloy. It is also known from the TEM observations that crystalline α – Fe phase nucleated in the structure of the alloy in an average size of 10 nm and completely mottled morphology
G. Maghouli, B. Eftekhari Yekta,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Commercial dental lithium disilicate based glass-ceramics containing various amounts of P2O5 were synthesized. Regarding the crystallization behavior and physico-chemical properties of the glasses, the optimum percent of P2O5 was 8 %wt.
Crystallization behavior of the glasses was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The micro-hardness and chemical resistance of both glass and glass-ceramic searies were also determined.
According to our results, lithium phosphate was precipitated prior to crystallization of the main phases, i.e lithium meta silicate and lithium disilicate. This early precipitation led to evacuation of residual glass phase from lithium ions, which caused increasing the viscosity of glass and so shifting of crystallization to higher temperatures.
In addition, increasing in P2O5 amounts and consequently increasing in Li3PO4, led to significant decrease in the crystallite size and aspect ratio  of crystals.
Furthermore, while the chemical resistance of the glasses was decreased with P2O5, it was increased with P2O5 after heat treatment process.
The chemical solubility of these three glass-ceramics was between 2080~1188 μg/cm2.

S. Manafi, S. Joughehdoust,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (6-2020)

In this research, calcium titanate (CaTiO3) hollow crystals have been successfully prepared via hydrothermal method. Titanium tetrachloride, calcium chloride dihydrate and potassium hydroxide were used as Ti, Ca and precipitating agent, respectively. The hydrothermal synthesis was performed at different temperatures and time durations. The negative amount of the Gibbs free energy shows the reactivity of the reaction at room temperature. Characterization of CaTiO3 was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optimum condition for preparing CaTiO3 is the sample kept in an autoclave at 300 ℃ for 3 h that requires less energy and time which consists of a high degree of crystallinity. In this research, tetragonal CaTiO3 hollow crystals have been successfully prepared via hydrothermal method. TiCl4, CaCl2.2H2O, and KOH were used as Ti, Ca and precipitating agent, respectively. The hydrothermal synthesis was performed at different temperatures and time durations. Characterization of CaTiO3 was carried out using SEM, HRTEM, and XRD. The sample kept in the autoclave at 300 ℃ for 3 h well crystallized and required less energy and time for synthesis. The powder has a homogenous dispersity of crystals with the range of nanometer to micrometer sizes which makes it a good candidate as a photocatalyst material

Arian Heidar Alaghband, Azam Moosavi, Saeid Baghshahi, Ali Khorsandzak,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (9-2021)

Porous nanostructured SnO2 with a sheet-like morphology was synthesized through a simple green substrate-free gelatin-assisted calcination process using Tin tetracholoride pentahydrate as the SnO2 precursor and porcine gelatin as the template. Crystalline phase, morphology, microstructure, and optical characteristics of the as-prepared material were also investigated at different calcination temperatures using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-visible absorption, and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), respectively. XRD patterns of all the samples revealed the presence of a tetragonal crystalline structure with no other crystalline phases. Moreover, the synthesized hierarchical sheets assembled with nanoparticles displayed a large surface area and porous nanostructure. The calculated optical band gap energy varied from 2.62 to 2.87 eV depending on the calcination temperature. Finally, photoluminescence spectra indicated that the nanostructured SnO2 could exhibit an intensive UV-violet luminescence emission at 396 nm, with shoulders at 374, violet emission peaks at 405 and 414 nm, blue-green emission peak at 486 nm, green emission peak at 534 nm and orange emission peak at 628 nm.
Hettal Souheila, Ouahab Abdelouahab, Rahmane Saad, Benmessaoud Ouarda, Kater Aicha, Sayad Mostefa,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (3-2022)

Copper oxide thin layers were elaborated using the sol-gel dip-coating. The thickness effect on morphological, structural, optical and electrical properties was studied. Copper chloride dihydrate was used as precursor and dissolved into methanol. The scanning electron microscopy analysis results showed that there is continuity in formation of the clusters and the nuclei with the increase of number of the dips. X-ray diffractogram showed that all the films are polycrystalline cupric oxide CuO phase with monoclinic structure with grain size in the range of 30.72 - 26.58 nm. The obtained films are clear blackin appearance, which are confirmed by the optical transmittance spectra. The optical band gap energies of the deposited films vary from 3.80 to 3.70 eV. The electrical conductivity of the films decreases from 1.90.10-2 to 7.39.10-3 (Ω.cm)-1

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