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Showing 50 results for Microstructure

Arabi H., Rastegari S., Mohammad-Sadeghi B.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2004)

In this research, effects of changes in aluminizing conditions on microstructure of Pt - aluminide coating applied oil a Ni - base superalloy GTD -111, has been studied. A thin layer (i.e.68,#mm ) of Pt was electroplated onto the surface of the .samples, and then they were aluminized by pack cementation technique under various conditions of time, temperature, rate of heating and pack powder compositions In addition, by application of a thin Ni layer on the substrate before applying Pt, the source of nickel available for diffusing into Pt layer during aluminizing process enhanced and the need for an extra heat treatment cycle before aluminizing process was practically omitted. Addition of a nickel layer, also prevented scaling of Pt layer during its electroplating and aluminizing processes that helps enhancement of cohesiveness of the coated layers.The general microstructure of the coating consisted of four layers, which are PtA12layer internal diffusion layer external diffusion layer and interdiffusion zone. The structure of each layer has been studied by optical and scanning electron microscopes as well as XRD technique.The results show the presence of the original Pt - electroplated layer had no effect on the thicknesses of the coating layers, but higher aluminizing time and temperature had increased the thicknesses of interdiffusion and internally diffused layers. In addition, at high temperature, aluminizing with a lower heating rate caused an increase in the thickness of internal diffusion layer. Aluminizing with a lower heating rate at high temperature (more than 900°C) had increased the thickness of interdiffusion laver Attempt has been made to justify , the changes occurred in microstructures and thick nesses of various coating layers as they exposed to different aluminizing conditions.
Akhlaghi F., Zahedi H., Sharifi M.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2004)

In this study different volume fractions of SiC particles of various sizes were introduced into the semisolid A356 aluminum alloy by a mechanical stirrer. Then the slurry was poured into a permanent die of certain dimensions either when the metal alloy was partially solid (semisolid-semisolid or SS route) or after reheating to above the liquidus temperature of the alloy (semisolid-liquid or SL route). Both the SS and SL composite samples were solution-treated at 520°C for 8 hours followed by quenching in water at room temperature. Microstructural characterization studies have been conducted on both the SL and SS samples to quantify the effects of the size andcontent of the SiC particles as well as the solutionizing treatment on the morphology and size ofthe eutectic silicon particles and the matrix grain (globule) size. The results were rationalized in terms of the different nucleation, fragmentation, spherodization and coarsening events, which had taken place during the processing of these composites. Finally the impact of these microstructural features in improving the wear properties of the composites has been discussed.
Javadpour J., Sakhaii K., Masihiyanpour A.a.,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2004)

Thin sheets of hydroxyapatite were fabricated by tape casting process. The non-aqueoustape casting formulation was optimized by adjusting the concentration of organic additivesspecially those of binder and plasticizer in the slurry. The optimized slurry was cast on a glasscarrier using a designed laboratory scale doctor blade. Following a binder removal stage, thetapes were sintered at different temperatures in air atmosphere. Heat treatment at 1250 °C led tothe formation of a dense microstructure as was evidenced by the scanning electron microscopy.
Baradari H., Amani Hamedani H., Karimi Khoygani S., Rezaei H.r., Javadpour J., Sar Poulaki H.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (6-2006)

Ultrafine hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders with crystallite size in the range of 10-90 nm were synthesized by chemical precipitation process using Ca(OH)2 and H3PO4 solutions as starting materials. Molar ratio of Ca/P=1.68 was kept constant throughout the process and alkaline condition for the reaction was maintained using ammonium hydroxide. The role of raw material concentration on HAp crystallite size and morphology were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that variations in crystallite size and morphology of synthesized HAp are strongly affected by the concentration of acid solution. To study the sintering behavior of HAp particles, the powders were pressed at 200 MPa using a uniaxial press. Sintering experiments were carried out at temperatures of 1100, 1250 and 1300°C with various soaking times at maximum temperatures. XRD was also used in determining thephases present after sintering process. The results indicated the decomposition of HAp into a-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and b-TCP phases at 1300°C. The microstructure of the sintered HAp ceramics was characterized by SEM.
Alaee M.s.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (6-2006)

plasma-sprayed silicon layers have been used to produce silicon nitride layers with fibrous microstructure which optimizes fracture toughness and strength. SEM examination of the specimens shows that the surface is covered by fine needles and whiskers of Si3N4.In order to study the oxygen contamination effect as well as other contaminants introduced during spraying and nitridation processes, surface sensitive analysis techniques like AES and XPS have been used to determine concentration of these contaminants.
A. Nemati, K. Pourazarang,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2008)

Abstract: The PZT-based ceramics with a composition of Pb1.1-xLax (Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3, were prepared by conventional mixed oxide followed by mechanical alloying and sol-gel methods in which x was chosen in the range of 0.02–0.06. The samples were calcined in the range of 450 °C - 750 °C for 4h. The physical and electrical properties of the samples were determined as a function of the calcination temperature. The obtained data from two methods were compared with conventional mixed oxide method. Microstructural and compositional analyses of the samples were carried out using XRD and SEM. Dielectric properties of the samples were measured with an impedance analyzer. The ferroelectric properties of the PZT and PLZT samples were measured using the frequencies applying equipment and d33 tester. The results indicated a complete tetragonal phase prepared from both methods. It was shown that the addition of La and reduction in calcination temperature improved both the dielectric and piezoelectric properties. The dielectric constant tended to increase with doping content, giving the maximum value of about 2000 at 3 mol% La3+. In addition, the mechanical coupling factor (Qm) of the doped samples showed a significant decrease. Finally, the value of planar coupling factor (kp) reached the maximum value of 0.47 at 1 mol% La3+.
S. Kianfar,, S. H. Seyedein, M. R.aboutalebi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2008)

Abstract: The horizontal continuous casting process has received a significant attention for near net shape casting of non ferrous metals and alloys. Numerical Simulation has been widely used for process design and optimization of continuous casting process. In the present study, a 3-dimensional heat flow model was developed to simulate the heat transfer and solidification in a horizontal billet continuous casting system in which the air gap formation and its effect on heat extraction rate from solidifying billet was also considered. In order to test the developed model, it was run to simulate the heat transfer and solidification for an industrial billet caster. The predicted temperature distribution within the mold and billet was compared with those measured on the industrial caster in which a good agreement was obtained. Finally, parametric studies were carried out by validated model to evaluate the effects of different parameters on solidification profile and temperature distribution within the model brass billet. The microstructure of cast billet was analyzed to determine the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) under different cooling conditions. Based on measured SDAS and predicted solidification rate a correlation between SDAS and cooling rate was proposed for continuously cast brass billet.
I. Ebrahimzadeh, Gh.h. Akbari,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2009)

Abstract: Horizontal continuous casting is widely used to produce semi-finished and finished metallic products. Homogeneity in metallurgical characteristics and mechanical properties in such products is of importance. In the present work microstructure and mechanical properties of a horizontal continuous cast pipe have been studied. Microstructural features were investigated by an optical microscope equipped with image analyzer and SEM was used to characterize precipitates. Tensile behavior, impact strength and hardness variations were the mechanical properties which were studied. Results showed that microstructure and mechanical properties had diversities in different parts of the pipe and distinct differences were observed between upper and lower parts of the pipe. A meaningful correlation was found in microstructure and mechanical properties in different parts of the component.
M. Goodarzi, S. M. A. Boutorabi, M. A. Safarkhanian,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2009)

Abstract:In this study, an effort has been made to determine the influence of rotational speed of tool on themicrostructure and hardness values of friction stir welded 2024-T851 aluminum alloy. The microstructure of stir zonein the joints has been investigated. It was found that the particles such as Al6(CuFeMn) particles are broken up duringfriction stir welding, and the degree of break up of these particles in the stir zone increases with increasing rotationalspeed. Since the break up of these particles and the recrystallization of new grains happen simultaneously, the brokenparticles would be placed in the grain boundaries. Moreover, the hardness value in the stir zone increases withincreasing rotational speed
Khodamorad Abbaszadeh, Shahram Kheirandish, Hassan Saghafian,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (8-2010)

The effects of lower bainite volume fraction on tensile and impact properties of D6AC ultrahigh strength steel were studied in the current work. To obtain mixed microstructures containing martensite and different volume fractions of the lower bainite, specimens were austenitized at 910° C, then quenched in a salt bath of 330°C for different holding times, finally quenched in oil. In order to obtain fully martensitic and bainitic microstructures, direct oil quenching and isothermal transformation heat treatment for 24 hours were used respectively. All specimens were double tempered at 200°C for 2 hours per tempered. Microstructures were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopes. Fracture morphologies were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that both yield and ultimate tensile strength generally decreased with an increase in volume fraction of lower bainite. However, a few exceptions were observed in the mixed microstructures containing 12% lower bainite, showing a higher strength than the fully martensitic microstructure. This can be explained on the basis of two factors. The first is an increase in the strength of martensite due to the partitioning of the prior austenite grains by lower bainite resulting in the refinement of martensite substructures. The second is a plastic constraint effect leading to an enhanced strength of lower bainite by the surrounding relatively rigid martensite. Charpy V-notch impact energy and ductility is improved with increasing the volume fraction of lower bainite.
T. Rostamzadeh, H. R. Shahverd,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2011)

Abstract: In this study Al-5 (Vol) % SiCp nanocomposite powder has been successfully synthesized by high-energy planetary milling of Al and SiC powders for a period of 25 h at a ball-to-powder ratio of 15:1. The changes of the lattice strain, the crystallite size of the matrix phase, and the nanocomposite powder microstructure with time have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray mapping, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The morphologies of the nanocomposite powders obtained after 25 h of milling have also been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that nanocomposite powders were composed of near-spherical particles and, moreover, the SiC particles were uniformly distributed in the aluminum matrix.
A. Najafi, F. Golestani-Fard, H. R. Rezaie, N. Ehsani,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2011)

Abstract: SiC nano particles with mono dispersed distribution were synthesized by using of silicon alkoxides and phenolic resin as starting materials. After synthesis of sample, characterizations of the obtained powder were investigated via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) with 400-4000 cm-1, X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Laser Particle Size Analyzing (LPSA), Si29 NMR analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). FTIR and Si29 NMR results of the gel powder indicated that Si-O-C bonds were formed due to hydrolysis and condensation reactions . FTIR results showed a very strong peak for heat treated powder at 1500°C after carbon removal which is corresponded to Si-C bond. Obtained pattern from X-ray diffractometry showed that the final products contain -SiC phase with poly crystalline planes and little amounts of residual carbon. PSA results showed that the average particles size were 50.6 nm with monosized distribution. Also microstructural studies showed that the SiC nano powders have semi spherical morphology with mean particles size of 30-50 nm and also there are some agglomerates with irregular shape.
A. Namiranian , M. Kalantar,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2011)

The process of mullitization of kyanite concentrate was studied at different conditions of heat treatment (1400
– 1600 °C and 0.5 – 3.5 hours) and particle size of raw materials (38-300 ?m). Kyanite concentrate was obtained from
ore-dressing of kyanite deposits of Mishidowan-Bafgh region at 100 km northeastern part of Yazd. The results of
microstructure (shape, distribution and size of the grains) and phase evolution studies by SEM and XRD showed that
total transformation of kyanite to mullite takes place by heat treatment between 1500 –1550 °C during 2.5 hours.. At
temperatures below 1500 °C need-like mullite grains are always produced. At higher temperatures the mullite grains
reveal rounded and platelet morphology. At 1550 °C, the rate of mullitization and densification were improved by
increasing soaking time from 1h to 3h and decreasing particle size of materials from 300 to 38 m
A. Mohassel, A. H. Kokabi, P. Davami,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2011)

The wide-gap aluminothermic rail welds with root opening of 50-70 mm were produced using plain carbon steel rail and non-alloy aluminothermic charge. Mechanical properties and micro-structure of the weld metal and HAZ as well as the impact energy and the fracture toughness of the welds were investigated. The yield and tensile strength of wide-gap welds were about 98% and 95% of the base metal, respectively. Both minimum and maximum hardnesses of the joint were seen in HAZ which were related to the grain coarsening and normalizing, respectively. The mean value of wide-gap weld fracture toughness is more than narrow-gap weld. Moreover, trans-granular cleavage indicated the brittle fracture mode of the weld metal.
M. J. Tafreshi, B. Dibaie, M. Fazli,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2012)

Abstract: A thermodynamic model was used to find out the optimum temperature for the growth of ZnS single crystals in closed ampoules by chemical vapor transport technique. Based on this model 1002 °C was found to be optimum temperature for 2 mg/cm3 concentration of transporting agent (iodine). ZnS Crystals were grown in optimum (1002 °C) and non-optimum (902 °C and 1102 °C) temperatures. The composition structure and microstructure of the grown crystals were studied by Atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy measurements. Properties of the grown crystals were correlated to the growth conditions especially a stability in mass transport along the closed tube length.
M. Alipour, S. Mirjavadi, M. K. Besharati Givi, H. Razmi, M. Emamy, J. Rassizadehghani,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2012)

In this study the effect of Al–5Ti–1B grain refiner on the structural characteristics and wear properties of Al–12Zn–3Mg–2.5Cu alloy was investigated. The optimum amount for Ti containing grain refiners was selected as 2 wt.%. T6 heat treatment, (i.e. heating at 460 °C for 1 h before water quenching to room temperature and then aging at 120 °C for 24 h) was applied for all specimens before wear testing. Dry sliding wear resistant of the alloy was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. The experimental results showed that the T6 heat treatment considerably improved the resistance of Al–12Zn–3Mg–2.5Cu alloy to dry sliding wear.
H. Arabi, S. Rastegari, V. Ramezani, Z. Valefi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2013)

The objectives of this research were to find an economical way of reducing porosities in the microstructure of coatings deposited by flame spraying technique on CK45 steel and also trying to increase their cohesive strength to the substrate, so that the overall wear properties of this type of coating can be improved. So several specimens from this steel coated with NiCrBSi powder under specific conditions were subjected to various furnace heat treatment at 1000, 1025, 1050, 1075 and 1100 °C, each for periods of 5, 10 and 15 minute before cooling them in air. Tribological properties of treated coatings were evaluated by pin on disc method. The results show the highest wear resistance and microhardness values observed in one of the sample was due to lower amount of porosity and higher amount of very fine Cr2Ni3B6 particles precipitated homogeneously throughout its microstructure during specific heat treatment.
H. Mohammadi, M. Ketabchi,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2013)

The microstructure and mechanical properties of 7075 wrought aluminum alloy produced by strain induced melt activation (SIMA) route were investigated.Also liquid volume fraction measurement was studied by three procedures. Remelting process was carried out in the range of 560 to 610 °C for 20 min holding. The microstructure in the semi-solid state consists of fine spherical solid grains surrounded byliquid.The mechanical properties of the alloy vary with the grain size and weak mechanical properties of globular samples would appear if an alloy reheated at a high temperature. Thermodynamic simulation is a fast and efficient tool for the selection of alloys suitable for semi-solid processing
A. Najafi, F. Golestani-Fard, H. R. Rezaie,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Mono dispersed nano SiC particles with spherical morphology were synthesized in this project by hydrolysis and condensation mechanism during sol gel processing. pH, temperature and precursor’s ratio considered as the main parameters which could influence particles size. According to DLS test results, the smallest size of particles in the sol (<5nm) was obtained at pH<4. It can be observed from rheology test results optimum temperature for achieving nanometeric gel is about 60 ˚C. The optimum pH values for sol stabilization was (2-5) determined by zeta potentiometery. Si 29NMR analysis was used in order to get more details on final structure of gel powders resulted from initial sol. X-ray diffraction studies showed sythesized powder consists of β-SiC phase. Scanning electron microscopy indicated agglomerates size in β-SiC synthesis is less than 100 nm. Finally, TEM studies revealed morphology of β-SiC particles treated in 1500˚C and after 1hr aging is spherical with (20-30) nm size
M. Mohammadnejad, M. Ehteshamzadeh, S. Soroushian,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2014)

Microstructure and corrosion performance of admiralty brass (ADB) and aluminum brass (ALB) alloys after passing different annealing heat treatments were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), DC polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that heat treating of ALB caused gradient in aluminum concentration across the grains whose increased with increasing of annealing temperature. On the other hand, corrosion current density (i corr) of ADB in 3.5%NaCl media decreased with increasing of recrystallization, while ALB showed corrosion behavior inconsistent with ADB. The impedance measurements showed that corrosion rate of ADB decreased with increasing of exposure time from 0 to 15 days which could be related to the formation of SnO 2 surface film and the Sn-rich phases. While polarization resistance of ALB decreased by passing days in the corrosive media which could be associated to establishing of differential aluminum concentration cells.

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