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Showing 9 results for Fracture

Razaghian A., Yu D., Chandra T.,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2005)

Fracture behavior of a 7075 aluminium alloy reinforced with 15 Vol%. SiC particles was studied after T6 and annealing heat treatments under uniaxial tensile loading at room temperature. The scanning electron microscopy of fractured surfaces and EDS analysis showed:, that fracture mechanism changed from due mainly to fractured particle in T6 condition to interface decohesion in samples in annealed state. Different fracture mechanisms in annealed and T6 conditions can be ascribed mainly to the significant difference in the stress concentration levels around the particles. In T6 condition, very high local stress sufficient to cause fracture of particle can be generated during loading, while the presence of large precipitates at the particle/matrix interface produced interface decohesion leading to final fracture in the annealed state.
Hadian A.m., Abu Fanas S.h.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2005)

Enhancing the properties of dental resin composites is of interest to researchers. The objective of the present investigation was to improve the strength and fracture toughness of dental composites via addition of silicon carbide whiskers and substitution of commonly used filler materials with stabilized zirconia ceramic powder. It was also intended to study the effect of powder- to- whisker ratio on mechanical properties of the resultant composites. The flexural strength and fracture toughness of composite samples with different whiskers loadings were measured. It was found that addition of whiskers to the composites enhances the mechanical properties of the composites. The strength and fracture toughness increased by increasing the amount of whiskers. The flexural strength of a composite having 60wt% whisker and 10wt% zirconia powder was about 210 MPa while that of the composite having only 60wt% ceramic powder was about 110 MPa. The microstructural examinations revealed that reinforcing mechanism was whiskers pull-out as well as crack deflection.
Haddad Sabzevar M., Fredriksson H.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (6-2006)

The hot cracking susceptibility can be determined by establishing the transition temperature between brittle and ductile fracture at high temperature tensile testing of in situ solidified samples. High temperature tensile properties were determined for commercial cathodic pure Cu and Cu- 30%Zn alloy. The transition temperatures for pure Cu and Cu-30%Zn were evaluated from ultimate tensile stress, true strain and area reduction at different testing temperatures. The results show that hot cracking in pure Cu also occurred below and near to its melting temperature. It can be proposed that in this case excess vacancies and vacancy diffusion and condensation are the dominating mechanisms for hot crack formation. The transition temperature for Cu- 30%Zn was much lower than its solidus temperature and this alloy has more susceptibility to hot cracking as compared to pure Cu. The effect of two different cooling rates (15 °C/min and 60 °C/min) on the transition temperature was investigated. The results show that by increasing cooling rate, the transition temperature will increase. The morphology of fracture surfaces for both ductile and brittle modes were evaluated by SEM Two different morphologies, i.e. interdendiritic and intergranual fracture, was found.
A. Hassani, R. Ravaee,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2008)

Abstract: To ensure the rail transportations safety, evaluation of fatigue behavior of the rail steel is necessary. High cycle fatigue behaviour of a rail steel was the subject of investigation in this research using fracture mechanics. Finite element method (FEM) was used for analyzing the distribution of the stresses on the rail, exerted by the external load. FEM analysis showed that the maximum longitudinal stresses occurred on the railhead. To find out about the relation of crack growth with its critical size, and to estimate its lifetime, the behaviour of transverse cracks to rail direction was studied using damage tolerance concept. It revealed that transverse crack growth initially occurred slowly, but it accelerated once the crack size became larger. Residual service life was calculated for defective segments of the rails. In addition, allowable crack size for different non-destructive testing intervals was determined the allowable crack size decreased as the NDT intervals increased.
M. Divandari,, H. Arabi, H. Ghasemi Mianaei,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2008)

Abstract: Thermal fatigue is a stochastic process often showing considerable scatter even in controlled environments. Due to complexity of thermal fatigue, there is no a complete analytical solution for predicting the effect of this property on the life of various components, subjected to severe thermal fluctuations. Among these components, one can mention car cylinder, cylinder head and piston which bear damages due to thermal fatigue. All these components are usually produced by casting techniques. In order to comprehend and compare the thermal fatigue resistance of cast Al alloys 356 and 413, this research was designed and performed. For this purpose, several samples in the form of disc were cast from the two alloys in sand mould. The microstructures of the cast samples were studied by light microscopy in order to choose the samples with the least amounts of defects for thermal fatigue tests. The results of thermal fatigue tests showed that the nucleation of microcracks in Al-356 alloy occurred at shorter time relative to those occurred in Al- 413 alloy under the same test conditions. In addition, the density of micro-cracks in Al-356 alloy was more than that of Al-413 alloy. The results of fractography on 356 alloy indicated that the cracks were generally nucleated from inter-dendritic shrinkage porosities and occasionally from the interface of silicon particles with the matrix. The growth of these micro cracks was along the dendrite arms. Fractography of 413 alloy fracture surfaces showed that nucleation of microcracks was often associated with silicon particles.
A. Mohassel, A. H. Kokabi, P. Davami,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2011)

The wide-gap aluminothermic rail welds with root opening of 50-70 mm were produced using plain carbon steel rail and non-alloy aluminothermic charge. Mechanical properties and micro-structure of the weld metal and HAZ as well as the impact energy and the fracture toughness of the welds were investigated. The yield and tensile strength of wide-gap welds were about 98% and 95% of the base metal, respectively. Both minimum and maximum hardnesses of the joint were seen in HAZ which were related to the grain coarsening and normalizing, respectively. The mean value of wide-gap weld fracture toughness is more than narrow-gap weld. Moreover, trans-granular cleavage indicated the brittle fracture mode of the weld metal.
S. Gholami Shiri, Y. Palizdar, . A. Jenabali Jahromi, Eduardo F. de Monlevade,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (9-2018)

The relation between microstructure and the fracture mechanisms of δ-TRIP steel with different Nb-content has been investigated using complementary methods of light microscopy, SEM, EDS, EBSD, X-ray phase analysis and tensile test. The results revealed a close dependency between the presences of constitutive phases i.e. ferrite, bainite, retained austenite and martensite and the mode and characteristics of fracture. All samples revealed almost different fractography pattern which could be associated to the effect of Nb microalloying element. The different fractography patterns were consisted of dimple rupture, riverside and Wallner lines pattern. The proportion of the cleavage fracture in comparison of dimple rapture increased by increasing the Nb-content due to the increase of primary martensite in the microstructure.
I. Hajiannia, M. Shamanian, M. Atapour, R. Ashiri, E. Ghassemali,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (6-2019)

In this study, the effects of the second pulse resistance spot welding on the microstructure and mechanical properties of TRIP1100 steel were evaluated. The thermal process after welding was designed to improve metallurgical properties with pulse currents of 6kA, 9kA and 12kA after initial welding with 10kA current. The effect of the second pulse on mechanical and microstructural properties was investigated. The fracture of the welds was for pulsed samples of 6kA and 9kA PO with CTS test. Due to existence of the microstructure including the equaxial dendritic and finer in FZ in the pulsed current 9kA, the maximum fracture energy and maximum force were observed. A significant decrease in the FZ hardness in 6kA current was observed in the nanohardness results, which was attributed to existence martensitic and ferrite temper. The highest ratio of CTS / TSS was obtained for 6kA and 9kA, respectively, and force displacement rate was maximum in 9kA. The fracture surfaces included dendrites and dimples. The results of partial fracture revealed separation in the coherent boundaries of the coarse grain of the annealed region.
Umarfarooq Maktedar Abdulkhadar, Patil Somalingana Shivakumar Gouda, Anil Shirahatti, Gonal Basavaraja Veeresh Kumar, Nagaraj Ramalingyya Banapurmath,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (12-2021)

The energy release rate for delamination in a laminated composite is supposed to be the material property being considered as independent of non-material property variables. However, Mode I fracture toughness(GI) is found to vary with lamina arrangement, geometrical dimensions, and process-induced stresses.  In this investigation, the influence of lamina stacking arrangement on process-induced stresses and their effects on GI of laminated composites are studied. Unidirectional (UD) ([0]16) and cross-ply ([902/06]s, [904/04]s and [906/02]s) Glass/ epoxy (GE) composites with the delamination plane at 0◦//0◦ were prepared by manual layup method and post-cured at 120 °C for 4 hours. GI of composite laminates were experimentally determined using a double cantilever beam(DCB) specimen as per ASTM D 5528. The slitting method was applied to determine the Process-induced stresses in GE laminates. The stacking sequence of laminas was found to have a noticeable effect on the state of residual stresses and GI of GE laminates. Residual stresses do not have much influence on the GI for delamination initiation, whereas GI  for the crack propagation was found to increase with a gradual increase in compressive residual stresses in GE laminates.

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