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Showing 3 results for Nash Game

Parinaz Esmaeili, Morteza Rasti-Barzoki, Seyed Reza Hejazi,
Volume 27, Issue 1 (3-2016)
Abstract

Pricing and advertising are two important marketing strategies in the supply chain management which lead to customer demand’s increase and therefore higher profit for members of supply chains. This paper considers advertising, and pricing decisions simultaneously for a three-level supply chain with one supplier, one manufacturer and one retailer. The amount of market demand is influenced by pricing and advertising. In this paper, three well-known approaches in the game theory including the Nash, Stackelberg and Cooperative games are exploited to study the effects of pricing and advertising decisions on the supply chain. Using these approaches, we identify optimal decisions in each case for the supplier, the manufacturer and the retailer. Also, we compare the outcomes decisions among the mentioned games. The results show that, the Cooperative and the Nash games have the highest and lowest advertising expenditure, respectively. The price level in the Nash game is more than the Stackelberg game for all three levels, and the retailer price in the Stackelberg and Cooperative games are equal. The system has the highest profit in the Cooperative game. Finally, the Nash bargaining model will be presented and explored to investigate the possibilities for profit sharing.


Parinaz Esmaeili, Seyed Reza Hejazi, Morteza Rasti-Barzoki,
Volume 28, Issue 2 (6-2017)
Abstract

This paper considers the advertising, pricing, and service decisions simultaneously to coordinate the supply chain with a manufacturer and a retailer. The amount of market demand is influenced by advertising, pricing and service decisions. In this paper, three well-known approaches to the game theory, including the Nash, the Stackelberg-retailer, and the cooperative game are exploited to study the effects of these policies on the supply chain. Using these approaches, we identify optimal strategies in each case for the manufacturer and the retailer. Then, we will compare the outcomes of each strategy thus developed. The results show that, compared with the Nash game, the Stackelberg-retailer game yields higher profits for the retailer, the manufacturer, and the whole system. The cooperative game yields the highest profits. Finally, the Nash bargaining model will be presented and explored to investigate the possibilities for profit sharing.


Goortani Elahe Mohagheghian, Fakhrzad Bagher Fakhrzad,
Volume 30, Issue 1 (3-2019)
Abstract

Supply chain members coordinate with each other in order to obtain more profit. The major mechanisms for coordination among supply chain echelons are pricing, inventory management, and ordering decisions. This paper concerns these mechanisms in a multi-echelon supply chain consisting of multiple suppliers, one manufacturer, and multiple retailers in order to study the price and leadtime competition, where the make-to-order production mode is employed and consumers are sensitive to retail price and leadtime. In the current study, a novel inventory model is presented, where the manufacturer has an exclusive supplier for every required component of its final product. The interactions and decisions of the firms are observed in multiple time periods. Moreover, each supply chain member has equal power and make their decisions simultaneously. The proposed model considers the relationships among three echelon supply chain members based on a non-cooperative Nash game with pricing and inventory decisions. An iterative solution algorithm is proposed to find Nash equilibrium point of the game. Several numerical examples are presented to study the application of the model as well as the effectiveness of the algorithm. Finally, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis is performed and some important managerial insights are highlighted.
 

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