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Showing 11 results for Vibration

M. Mazloom, A.a. Mehrabian,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2006)

The objective of this paper is to present a new method for protecting the lives of residents in catastrophic earthquake failures of unreinforced masonry buildings by introducing some safe rooms within the buildings. The main idea is that occupants can seek refuge within the safe rooms as soon as the earthquake ground motions are felt. The information obtained from the historical ground motions happened in seismic zones around the globe expresses the lack of enough safety of masonry buildings against earthquake. For this potentially important reason, an attempt has been made to create some cost-effective seismic-resistant areas in some parts of the existing masonry buildings, which are called safe rooms. The practical method for creating these areas and increasing the occupant safety of the buildings is to install some prefabricated steel frames in some of their rooms or in their halls. These frames do not carry any service loads before earthquake. However, if a near field seismic event happens and the load bearing walls of the building destroy, some parts of its floors, which are in the safe areas, will fall on the roof of the installed frames consequently, the occupants who have sheltered in the safe rooms will survive. This paper expresses the experimental and theoretical work executed on the steel structures of the safe rooms for bearing the shock and impact loads. Finally, it was concluded that both the strength and displacement capacity of the steel frames were adequate to accommodate the distortions generated by seismic loads and aftershocks properly.
A. Foroughi-Asl, S. Dilmaghani, H. Famili,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2008)

Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a highly fluid yet stable concrete that can flow consistently under its own weight, pass between bars, and fill in formwork without the need of compaction. The application of SCC effectively resolves the difficulties of concreting in situations with complicated formwork and congested reinforcements. In this paper, the bond between SCC and steel reinforcement was investigated. The bonding strengths of reinforcing bars were measured using cubic specimens of SCC and of normal concrete. The SCC specimens were cast without applying compaction, whereas the specimens of normal concrete were cast by conventional practice with substantial compaction and vibration. The results showed that SCC specimens generated higher bond to reinforcing bars than normal concrete specimens and the correlation between bond strength and compressive strength of NC is more consistent.
M. Mazloom, A.a. Mehrabian,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2009)

Pullback test has no scrupulous theoretical establishment. It is based on the hypothesis that the response of

the structure can be related to the response of an equivalent single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system. This implies that

the response is controlled by a single mode. In fact, the steel frame of each safe room, which is introduced within the

unreinforced masonry buildings for protecting the lives of residents in catastrophic earthquake failures, contains a

SDOF structural system. In pullback test, the steel frame carries its gravity load first, and then it will be pushed under

an incremental lateral roof displacement pattern, which is imposed to its center of mass. This paper expresses the

results of 13 pullback tests executed by the authors on the steel frames of safe rooms. The results show that pullback

test is a practical method for seismic performance evaluation of safe rooms. Also the performance of these frames

located in a collapsing three storey masonry building is presented with favorable conclusions. In fact, the results of

pullback test of the safe room located at the ground-floor level were compared with the requirements of Iranian code

for seismic resistant design and it was concluded that the steel frame had an acceptable performance against seismic


J. Sadeghi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)

 Investigations on vibration behaviors of railway track systems were attempted in this research. This was made by conducting a comprehensive field investigation into the free vibration of track systems and response of tracks to train moving loads. In-situ modal analysis was used in a railway track field as an efficient method of investigating dynamic properties of railway track systems. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of the track system in different insitu track conditions were obtained for the fist time. The sensitivity of the natural frequencies of the track to the types of sleepers, fastening systems, ballast conditions, and rail joints were studied. Efficiency of rail welded joints in CWR tracks and the effects of replacing timber sleepers with concrete sleepers on dynamic behavior of a track were investigated. Advantages of flexible sleeper fastening system from the aspects of serviceability and passenger riding comfort were discussed. The effects of the track accumulative loading as a main indicator of ballast degradation on track dynamic behavior were studied. Rail deflections were calculated by using auto-spectra obtained from vibrations of the track under trainloads, leading to the development of a new mathematical expression for the calculation of the rail dynamic amplification factor.

Kwang-Suek Oh, Tae-Hyung Kim,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (11-2013)

This study was conducted to determine the effect of vibration on the curing and compressive strength of lightweight air-trapped

soil (ATS). ATS is manufactured by mixing cement with water and sand and injecting bubbles into the mixture. It is light as

compared to regular soil, can reduce the weight on the ground, and has high fluidity. If ATS is used at construction sites with

many vibration sources, such as pile driving, blasting, and construction machinery, the effect of vibration needs to be seriously

considered. If a road is expanded using ATS to reduce traffic congestion, the ATS quality may decrease because of vibration

generated by traffic moving on the road. In particular, because ATS contains many air bubbles and needs time for curing, the

effect of vibration can be greater than expected. Therefore, the effect of vibration on ATS was evaluated during the curing process

by conducting unconfined compression tests on samples prepared with different values of variables including vibration velocity,

starting vibration time, and mixing ratio. Vibration velocities of 0.25 and 0.50 cm/s did not greatly affect the strength. However,

vibration velocities of above 2.50 cm/s significantly affected the decrease in strength, and the starting vibration time also had a

clear effect on specimens cured for less than 2 hours.

Kaustav Bakshi, Dipankar Chakravorty,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2014)

A review of literature reveals that although singly curved conical shells applicable in many fields of mechanical engineering have been studied by many researchers but doubly curved conoidal shells which are very popular as civil engineering roofing units have not received due attention. Hence relative performances of composite conoidal shells in terms of displacements and stress resultants are studied in this paper under static and dynamic loadings. Free vibration frequencies are also reported. A curved quadratic isoparametric eight noded element is used to model the shell surface. Clamped and simply supported boundary conditions are considered. Results obtained from the present study are compared with established ones to check the correctness of the present approach. A number of additional problems of composite conoidal shells are solved for eight different stacking sequences of graphite-epoxy composite for each of the edge conditions. Uniformly distributed load for static bending analysis and step load of infinite duration for solution of forced vibration problem are considered. The results are interpreted from practical application standpoints and findings that are important for a designer to note, before he decides on the shell combination he will finally adopt among a number of possible options, are highlighted.
A. Kaveh, M. Maniat,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2014)

It is well known that damaged structural members may alter the behaviour of the structures considerably. Careful observation of these changes has often been viewed as a means to identify and assess the location and severity of damages in structures. Among the responses of a structure, natural frequencies and natural modes are both relatively easy to obtain and independent from external excitation, and therefore, can be used as a measure of the structural behaviour before and after an extreme event which might have led to damage in the structure. This paper applies Charged System Search algorithm to the problem of damage detection using vibration data. The objective is to identify the location and extent of multi-damage in a structure. Both natural frequencies and mode shapes are used to form the required objective function. To moderate the effect of noise on measured data, a penalty approach is applied. Varity of numerical examples including beams, frames and trusses are examined. The results show that the present methodology can reliably identify damage scenarios using noisy measurements and incomplete data.
Alemdar Bayraktar, Ahmet Can Altunişik, Temel Türker,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (1-2016)

This paper addresses the ambient vibration based finite element model updating of long span reinforced concrete highway bridges. The procedure includes ambient vibration tests under operational conditions, finite element modeling using special software and finite element model updating using some uncertain parameters. Birecik Highway Bridge located on the 81stkm of Şanlıurfa-Gaziantep state highway over Fırat River in Turkey is selected as a case study. Because of the fact that the bridge is the sole in this part of Fırat, it has a major logistical importance. The structural carrier system of the bridge consists of two main parts: Arch and Beam Compartments. In this part of the paper, the beam compartment is investigated. Three dimensional finite element model of the beam compartment of the bridge is constituted using SAP2000 software to determine the dynamic characteristics analytically. Operational Modal Analysis method is used to extract dynamic characteristics of the beam compartment by using Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition method. Analytically and experimentally identified dynamic characteristic are compared with each other and finite element model of the beam compartment of the bridge is updated by changing of some uncertain parameters such as section properties, damages, boundary conditions and material properties to reduce the differences between the results. It is demonstrated that the ambient vibration measurements are enough to identify the most significant modes of long span highway bridges. Maximum differences between the natural frequencies are reduced averagely from %46.7 to %2.39 by model updating. Also, a good harmony is found between mode shapes after finite element model updating.

Jianwei Tu, Guang Que, Bo Tu, Jiayun Xu,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (7-2016)

Ship lift is a major navigation structure lifting and lowering ships to shorten the time across the dam. The ship chamber, the key equipment, serves as the carrier for ships. Due to its gigantic body and mass, complicated coupled vibrations occur between the chamber and ship lift structure during seismic process. With the engineering background of the ship lift at the Three Gorges dam, a three-dimensional shell finite element model is established for the ship lift, and then simplified into a three-dimensional truss finite element model through dynamic equivalent principle. And the numerical model of coupled vibration analysis is formed through static condensation, calculating the coupled vibration response between the ship lift structure and the ship chamber. The result shows that no connection and rigid connection between them are both inadvisable. Consequently, three connection devices: spring, viscous liquid damper and magneto-rheological fluid damper are applied to control coupled vibrations during artificial seismic waves. The result shows that the magneto-rheological fluid damper makes better vibration damping effect if suitable semi-active control strategy is applied, in comparison with passive control devices.

Alireza Darvishpour, Ali Ghanbari, Seyyed Ali Asghar Hosseini, Masoud Nekooei,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (5-2017)

Most of the proposed methods for obtaining the free vibration natural frequency of the retaining wall have been presented, assuming the behavior of the wall in two-dimensional domain, and they are not able to express the three-dimensional behavior of these structures in a satisfying manner. In this paper, the plate theory is employed to analyze the free vibration of wall-soil system in three-dimensional domain. So the retaining wall is modeled as a clamped-free plate and the stiffness of the soil existing behind the wall is modeled as a set of springs. Using the approximate Rayleigh method, new analytical expression for obtaining the free vibration natural frequencies for the three first modes of the wall is represented. The results of the proposed model are compared with both the results of the other researchers and the ones from finite element method (FEM). They are also compared with the results of a full-scale experiment and it shows a good agreement. The comparison shows that modeling the wall in two-dimensional form is not accurate enough to calculate all the natural frequencies of the wall. The results of this paper show that there is a considerable difference between two- and three-dimensional behavior of the walls. The proposed method also gives the free vibration natural frequencies of the wall extensional modes with an acceptable accuracy. Finally, the effect of tensile and compressive behavior of the soil on the fundamental frequency is studied. This research can be considered as a new field in three-dimensional calculation of the retaining walls.

Volume 15, Issue 6 (9-2017)

In this study, an assessment to excess pore water pressure generated around a single pile and pile group excited by two opposite rotary machines embedded in saturated sandy soil was considered experimentally. A small-scale physical model was manufactured to accomplish the experimental work in the laboratory. The physical model consists of: two small motors supplied with eccentric mass of 0.012 kg and eccentric distance (20 mm) representing the two opposite rotary machines, an aluminum shaft 20 mm in diameter as the pile, and a steel plate with dimensions of (160 × 160 × 20 mm) as a pile cap. The experimental work was achieved taking the following parameters into considerations: pile embedment depth ratio (L/d), spacing between piles (S) and operating frequency of the rotary machines. Twelve tests were conducted in medium dense fine sandy soil with 60 % relative density. In all these tests, the change in excess pore water pressure was measured around the pile at two spots: at the middle of the pile and at its tip. The results revealed that the generation of excess pore water pressure was affected by the following parameters: slenderness ratio of the pile, operating frequency of the machines, and the soil permeability. However, for all cases, it was found that the pore water pressure generated during operation was not greater than 20 % of the initial hydrostatic pressure. Using pile foundation reduced the amplitude of vertical vibration by about (300 %) for all operating frequencies, lengths of piles, pile spacings and number of piles. In addition, the presence of piles reduced the disturbance (fluctuation) in this amplitude by about (400 %). For single pile, and under the same operating frequency, a small decrease in the amplitude of vertical vibration resulted from increasing the length of the pile.

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