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Showing 9 results for Structural Damage

Bakhtiari Nejad F., Rahai A., Esfandiari A.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

In this paper a structural damage detection algorithm using static test data is presented. Damage is considered as a reduction in the structural stiffness (Axial and/or Flexural) parameters. Change in the static displacement of a structure is characterized as a set of non-linear undetermined simultaneous equations that relates the changes in static response of the structure to the location and severity of damage. An optimality criterion is introduced to solve these equations by minimizing the difference between the load vector of damaged and undamaged structures. The overall formulation leads to a non-linear optimization problem with non-linear equality and linear inequality constraints. A method based on stored strain energy in elements is presented to select the loading location. Measurement locations are selected based on Fisher Information Matrix. Numerical and experimental results of a 2D frame represent good ability of this method in detecting damages in a given structure with presence of noise in measurements.
Kabir Sadeghi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)
Abstract

An energy based damage index based on a new nonlinear Finite element (FE) approach applicable to RC structures subjected to cyclic, earthquake or monotonic loading is proposed. The proposed method is based on the evaluation of nonlinear local degradation of materials and taking into account of the pseudo-plastic hinge produced in the critical sections of the structure. A computer program is developed, considering local behavior of confined and unconfined concretes and steel elements and also global behavior and damage of reinforced concrete structures under cyclic loading. The segments located between the pseudoplastic hinges at critical sections and the inflection points are selected as base-models through simulation by the proposed FE method. The proposed damage index is based on an energy analysis method considering the primary half-cycles energy absorbed by the structure during loading. The total primary half-cycles absorbed energy to failure is used as normalizing factor. By using the proposed nonlinear analytical approach, the structure's force-displacement data are determined. The damage index is then calculated and is compared with the allowable value. This damage index is an efficient means for deciding whether to repair or demolish structures after an earthquake. It is also useful in the design of new structures as a design parameter for an acceptable limit of damage defined by building codes.  The proposed approach and damage index are validated by results of tests carried out on reinforced concrete columns subjected to cyclic biaxial bending with axial force.


M. Abbasi, A. H. Davaei Markazi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

An important factor in the design and implementation of structural control strategies is the number and placement of actuators. By employing optimally-located actuators, the effectiveness of control system increases, while with an optimal number of actuators, an acceptable level of performance can be achieved with fewer actuators. The method proposed in this paper, simultaneously determines the number and location of actuators, installed in a building, in an optimal sense. In particular, a genetic algorithm which minimizes a suitably defined structural damage index is introduced and applied to a well-known nonlinear model of a 20-story benchmark building. It is shown in the paper that an equal damage protection, compared to the work of other researchers, can be achieved with fewer numbers of optimally placed actuators. This result can be important from economic point of view. However, the attempt to minimize one performance index has negative effect on the others. To cope with this problem to some extent, the proposed genetic methodology has been modified to be applied in a multi-objective optimization problem.
A. R. Habibi, Keyvan Asadi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Setback in elevation of a structure is a special irregularity with considerable effect on its seismic performance. This paper addresses multistory Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame buildings, regular and irregular in elevation. Several multistory Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frames (RCMRFs) with different types of setbacks, as well as the regular frames in elevation, are designed according to the provisions of the Iranian national building code and Iranian seismic code for the high ductility class. Inelastic dynamic time-history analysis is performed on all frames subjected to ten input motions. The assessment of the seismic performance is done based on both global and local criteria. Results show that when setback occurs in elevation, the requirements of the life safety level are not satisfied. It is also shown that the elements near the setback experience the maximum damage. Therefore it is necessary to strengthen these elements by appropriate method to satisfy the life safety level of the frames.
Guray Arslan, Melih Hacisalihoglu, Muzaffer Balci, Muzaffer Borekci,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2014)
Abstract

The main cause of structural damage in buildings subjected to seismic actions is lateral drift. In almost all reinforced concrete (RC) structures, whether designed with walls or frames, it is likely to be the code drift limits that control the design drift. The design drift limits and their contribution to damage may be represented indirectly through the material strain limits. The aim of this study is to investigate the seismic design indicators of RC columns using finite element analyses (FEA). The results of FEA have been compared with the results of experimental studies selected from literature. It is observed that the lateral load-deflection curves of analyzed columns are in agreement with the experimental results. Based on these lateral load-deflection curves, the drift limits and the material strain limits, given by the codes as performance indicator, are compared. It is observed that the material strain limits are non-conservative as performance indicator of RC columns, compared to the drift limits.
H. Liu, M. He, J. Guo, Zh. Hou, Y. Shi,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)
Abstract

Self-centering pier (SCP) has been viewed as a remarkable accomplishment which is able to sustain major lateral loading with reduced structure damage in seismic engineering. Stiffness deterioration observed in experiment is vital for the seismic performance of self-centering concrete pier. In this contribution, the associated stiffness deterioration with respect to the structural damage is modeled in a modified analytical model for SCP comprehensively. In the proposed modified theoretical model, the lateral force-displacement relation associated with the stiffness reducing is analyzed. Three damage factors are introduced in the stiffness deterioration analysis to illustrate the damage evolution caused by gradually increasing lateral displacement. The proposed modified quasic-static model with damage evolution or stiffness deterioration has been validated against an experiment we conducted, where a good agreement is clearly evident. Subsequently, a parametric investigation focusing on aspect ratio, initial pre-tension, and ratio of ED (Energy Dissipator) was conducted to evaluate the hysteretic behavior of SCP under quasi-statically cyclic loading.
A. Reyes-Salazar, E. Bojorquez, J.l. Rivera-Salas, A. Lopez-Barraza, H.e. Rodriguez-Lozoya,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2015)
Abstract

The linear and nonlinear responses of steel buildings with perimeter moment resisting frames (PMRFs) are estimated and compared to those of equivalent buildings with spatial moment resisting frames (SMRFs). The equivalent models with SMRFs are designed by using an approximated procedure in such a way that, not only their fundamental period, total mass and lateral stiffness are fairly the same as those of the corresponding buildings with PMRFs, but also other characteristics to make the two structural "as equivalent" as possible. The numerical study indicates that the interstory shears of the PMRFs building may be significantly larger than those of the SMRFs building. The main reasons for this are that the buildings with PMRFs are stiffer and that the dynamics properties of the two types of structural systems are different. The interstory displacements are similar for both structural systems in many cases. For some other cases, however, they are larger for the model with SMRFs, depending upon the closeness between the earthquake corner periods and the periods of the buildings. The global ductility and story ductility demands are larger for the buildings with PMRFs, implying that, since larger ductility demands are imposed, the detailing of the connections will have to be more stringent than for the buildings with SMRFs. It can be concluded, that the seismic performance of the steel buildings with SMRFs may be superior to that of steel buildings with PMRFs. The findings of this paper are for the particular models used in the study. Much more research is needed to reach more general conclusions
H. Tekeli, E. Atimtay, M. Turkmen,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2015)
Abstract

In this paper, an approximate method is proposed for determining sway of multistory RC buildings subjected to various types of lateral loads. The calculation of both fundamental period and stability index in RC building requires the sway term at each story level. Using approximate method design engineers can estimate sway terms at each story level. The developed analytical expressions are inserted into fundamental period and stability index equations to replace the sway terms, which yields modified equations for fundamental period and stability index without any sway terms. It is fairly easier to employ these equations developed by eliminating all sway terms. Results obtained from the equations are remarkably close to those generated by the related computer program. Consequently, design engineers can reliably use the simple equations to calculate stability index and fundamental period, which enables the determination of these parameters without referring to the complex sway terms. The capability and accuracy of the proposed equations are demonstrated by a numerical example in which computer program results are compared with the proposed methodology.
Alireza Habibi, Ehsan Jami,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

The seismic performance levels are discrete damage states selected from among the infinite spectrum of possible damage states that buildings could experience as a result of earthquake response. The observation of building damage during strong motion earthquakes showed that correlation of structural damage with a single parameter such as peak ground acceleration or the total seismic duration is low while peak ground acceleration is often used as a main seismic parameter to evaluate seismic performance of structures. Main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between several seismic acceleration parameters and the Target Displacement (TD) of steel frame structures, which is an important parameter to identify performance levels. For this purpose, first, nonlinear analysis is performed on the SAC 3- and 9-story frames subjected to several far-field earthquakes and then target displacements and seismic parameters are calculated for each structure.The relationship between the target displacement and seismic parameters is evaluated in the form of correlation coefficient. It is shown that PGA has poor correlation with the target displacement. On the other hand, HOUSNER intensity, spectral pseudo-acceleration, spectral pseudo-velocity and peak ground velocity exhibit strong correlation with TD.



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