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Showing 7 results for Spillway

Afshar A., Marino M.a., Jalali M.r.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2003)

The reliable operation of spillways, in emergency as well as normal conditions, is one of the vital components in dam safety. Free or uncontrolled overflow spillways are the most reliable choice however. They usually impose higher construction cost and /or results in wasting a considerable amount of water or live capacity of the reservoirs. Employing fuse gates might be a way of reconciling dam safety with maximized storage capacity. The operation of the system can be controlled to within a few centimeters, and the entire installation is not lost for floods less than the maximum design flood. The installation offers more or less the same level of safety as ungated spillways, but avoids their inherent storage capacity loss. Optimum design of fuse gates in particular installation calls for a mathematical model. The model developed in this work includes structural, hydraulics and operational constraints while maximizing the expected cost over the useful life of the project. Accounting for the lost benefit (i.e., water lost as a result of gate tilting) has an influenced effect on the optimum design. To test the performance of the model, data from Zarineh Rud dam in Iran has been used and its result is compared with a direct search technique. The model is capable of helping the design engineer to select the best alternative considering different types of constraints.
Jalali M.r., Afshar A., Mokhtare A.r.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)

It is indispensable to explore simulation techniques that not only represent complexdynamic systems in a realistic way but also allow the involvement of end users in modeldevelopment to increase their confidence in the modeling process. System dynamics as a feedbackbasedand object-oriented simulation approach is presented for reservoir operation modeling. Thequick modeling process, the trust developed in the model due to user contribution, group modelsdevelopment possibility and the effective relations of model results are the most significant strongpoints of this approach. The simple modification of model in response to changes in system andcapability to accomplish sensitivity analysis make this approach more attractive and useful ratherthan traditional reservoir operation models. In this paper system dynamics is applied to simulateoperation of a free reservoir with an Ogee spillway, a reservoir with a gated spillway and finally amulti-reservoir system with simple and gated spillways. The multi-reservoir system on Karun riverin south of Iran is modeled under flood condition as a case study in order to demonstrate thecapabilities of the developed model.
Mohammad Reza Kavian Pour, H.r. Masoumi ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2008)

Hydraulics of stepped spillway is a very complicated phenomenon, as it consists of a two phase flow passing through a set of designed steps. The steps increase the rate of energy dissipation taking place on the spillway face. Turbulence, flow aeration and energy dissipation are the main tasks in the design of such structures. This study consists of the experimental investigation to determine the energy dissipation over stepped spillways. Experiments conducted at Water Research Institute on two physical models of the Siyah Bisheh stepped spillways in Iran. To develop a more generalized expression, the results of previous investigations were also considered in our study. Therefore, a wide range of variables were taken into account to estimate the energy dissipation along the non-uniform flow regime. Assuming the energy dissipation along the uniform flow regime to be equal to the vertical displacement of the jet, the total energy lost was calculated. A comparison of the results with those of measurements showed a regression of 0.92 for the total energy dissipation, which is one of the features of the present method for estimating of the energy dissipation, compared with the previous investigation.
Prof Javad Farhoudi,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2009)


Induced total pressure by flow, including mean and fluctuating components, around a selected chute block in SAF stilling basins downstream of an ogee spillway was studied. Several pressure holes were selected on various faces of a selected chute block to get enough information regarding the total pressure field. This paper reports the results of an experimental work and measurement of mean and fluctuation pressures around chute blocks of SAF stilling basins. The observations showed that the maximum total pressure varies inversely with Froude number of incoming flow while its position of occurrence follows a quadratic polynomial relation ship. Statistical analysis also showed that the peak instantaneous pressure fluctuations could be as large as ±4.5times the RMS value.It is concluded that pressure fluctuation around the chute blocks may double the magnitude of pressure field around the chute blocks and can not be overlooked in designing such appurtenances.

Akbar Safarzadeh, Behzad Noroozi,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (1-2017)

This paper compares the hydraulics and 3D flow features of the ordinary rectangular and trapezoidal plan view piano key weirs (PKW) using two phase RANS numerical simulations. The main aim is to investigate effects of the inlet key area and side walls angle on discharge capacity of the PKW, while keeping the developing length of the crest intact. The numerical model has been used to carry out a sensitivity analysis for geometrical parameters and hydrodynamics of the rectangular and trapezoidal weirs have been compared for wide range of water head on the weir. Results show that the trapezoidal weir has higher efficiency than the ordinary rectangular PKW. This is partly related to the inlet key flow conditions. The trapezoidal geometry increases the inlet flow area resulting in reduction of the velocity along the key axis. Consequently, flow is distributed more uniformly over the side weirs. The gradual transition of the inlet key limits the development of the recirculation zones along the side walls and it also limits the formation of the critical section along the inlet key. These phenomena result in increase of the effective weir length and thus discharge capacity increases in trapezoidal weir compared with rectangular one. Discretization of the discharge along the crest of the tested weirs clearly confirms these findings.

Manoochehr Fathi Moghadam,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

Stilling basins and hydraulic jumps are designers’ favorable choice for energy dissipation downstream of spillways and outlets. A properly designed stilling basin can ensure considerable energy dissipation in the short distance of a basin. In this study, experiments have been conducted to evaluate effects of a perforated sill and its position on the length of a favorable B-type hydraulic jump in a stilling basin. Perforated sills with different heights and ratio of openings were placed in different positions of the stilling basin. Tests were carried out for three tail water depths to assess the sensitivity of the jump to tail water. The hydraulic characteristics of the jump were measured and compared with continuous sill-controlled and free hydraulic jumps. Results of the experiments confirmed significant effect of the perforated sill on dissipation of energy and development of the jump in a shorter distance. Results are also presented in the form of mathematical models for estimation of the sill height, sill position, and basin length with the inflow measurable parameters of depth and velocity.

Younes Aminpour, Javad Farhoudi,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (7-2017)

Local scour downstream of hydraulic structures is one of the critical phenomena which has absorbed a vast amount of interests by researchers. The designers of hydraulic structures, particularly, spillways try to utilize proper means to minimize the consequences of excess energies downstream of such structures which usually tend the erosion at their immediate downstream reaches. The stepped spillway is designed to create a large amount of energy dissipation by means of steps and would decrease the amount of scour evolution at its downstream. This article presents the results of 67 experiments conducted at two different scales of stepped spillways, to study the local scour downstream the structure. The experiments were planned to consider a wide range of geometrical factors, flow characteristics, and sediment properties. The time length of experiments was ranged from 6 to 24 hours which produced more than 80000 data points for analytical considerations. The results were used to render a regression equation to define the similarity among the scour hole profiles. It was observed that, a long term observation would be needed to reach the equilibrium state. However, semi-equilibrium conditions will be achieved after 24 hours. It was also noted that the depth of scour hole adjacent to channel walls was bigger than that at centerline. 

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