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Showing 14 results for Soft Soil

M. Khanzadi, G. Ghodrati Amiri, G. Abdollahzadeh Darzi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2007)

According to performance-based seismic design method by using energy concept, in this paper it is tried to investigate the duration and damping effects on elastic input energy due to strong ground motions. Based on reliable Iranian earthquake records in four types of soils, structures were analyzed and equivalent velocity spectra were computed by using input energy. These spectra were normalized with respect to PGA and were drawn for different durations, damping ratios and soil types and then effects of these parameters were investigated on these spectra. Finally it was concluded that in average for different soil types when the duration of ground motions increases, the input energy to structure increases too. Also it was observed that input energy to structures in soft soils is larger than that for stiff soils and with increasing the stiffness of the earthquake record soil type, the input energy decreases. But damping effect on input energy is not very considerable and input energy to structure with damping ratio about 5% has the minimum value.
Khelifa Harichane, Mohamed Ghrici, Said Kenai,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2011)

When geotechnical engineers are faced with cohesive clayey soils, the engineering properties of those soils may need to be

improved to make them suitable for construction. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of using lime, natural pozzolana or

a combination of both on the geotechnical characteristics of two cohesive soils. Lime or natural pozzolana were added to these

soils at ranges of 0-8% and 0-20%, respectively. In addition, combinations of lime-natural pozzolana were added at the same

ranges. Test specimens were subjected to compaction tests and shear tests. Specimens were cured for 1, 7, 28 and 90 days after

which they were tested for shear strength tests. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded that the combination limenatural

pozzolana showed an appreciable improvement of the cohesion and internal friction angle with curing period and

particularly at later ages for both soils.

B.l. Kirov, N.n. Truc,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Soft soil in Hanoi, Vietnam, is mainly originated from lacustrine and shallow-sea sediment. This is the youngest formation with
around 3000 years of age. To serve the research purpose, clayey soil samples at ten areas in Hanoi and some places in the RRD
are prepared. Mineral composition of soils determined by X-ray diffraction analysis shows that clay minerals are predominated
by Illite, Kaolinite, Chlorite, and Montmorillonite respectively. Many previous researches indicated that in saline-saturated
condition, types of cation in saline water and types of clay mineral in soil layers, as well as their predomination decide the
changing process of geotechnical properties in other manner. In this paper, the initial relationship between geotechnical
properties and clay mineral composition of Hanoi soft soils in saline-saturated media is established

H. Shakib, Gh. R. Atefatdoost,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

An approach was formulated for the nonlinear analysis of three-dimensional dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) of asymmetric buildings in time domain in order to evaluate the seismic response behavior of torsionally coupled wall-type buildings. The asymmetric building was idealized as a single-storey three-dimensional system resting on different soil conditions. The soil beneath the superstructure was modeled as nonlinear solid element. As the stiffness of the reinforced concrete flexural wall is a strength dependent parameter, a method for strength distribution among the lateral force resisting elements was considered. The response of soil-structure interaction of the system under the lateral component of El Centro 1940 earthquake record was evaluated and the effect of base flexibility on the response behavior of the system was verified. The results indicated that the base flexibility decreased the torsional response of asymmetric building so that this effect for soft soil was maximum. On the other hand, the torsional effects can be minimized by using a strength distribution, when the centre of both strength CV and rigidity CR is located on the opposite side of the centre of mass CM, and SSI has no effect on this criterion.
A. R. Habibi, Keyvan Asadi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Setback in elevation of a structure is a special irregularity with considerable effect on its seismic performance. This paper addresses multistory Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame buildings, regular and irregular in elevation. Several multistory Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frames (RCMRFs) with different types of setbacks, as well as the regular frames in elevation, are designed according to the provisions of the Iranian national building code and Iranian seismic code for the high ductility class. Inelastic dynamic time-history analysis is performed on all frames subjected to ten input motions. The assessment of the seismic performance is done based on both global and local criteria. Results show that when setback occurs in elevation, the requirements of the life safety level are not satisfied. It is also shown that the elements near the setback experience the maximum damage. Therefore it is necessary to strengthen these elements by appropriate method to satisfy the life safety level of the frames.
J. Nazari Afshar, M. Ghazavi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

The Stone-column is a useful method for increasing the bearing capacity and reducing settlement of foundation soil. The prediction of accurate ultimate bearing capacity of stone columns is very important in soil improvement techniques. Bulging failure mechanism usually controls the failure mechanism. In this paper, an imaginary retaining wall is used such that it stretches vertically from the stone column edge. A simple analytical method is introduced for estimation of the ultimate bearing capacity of the stone column using Coulomb lateral earth pressure theory. Presented method needs conventional Mohr-coloumb shear strength parameters of the stone column material and the native soil for estimation the ultimate bearing capacity of stone column. The validity of the developed method has been verified using finite element method and test data. Parametric studies have been carried out and effects of contributing parameters such as stone column diameter, column spacing, and the internal friction angle of the stone column material on the ultimate bearing capacity have been investigated.
A. Eslami, I. Tajvidi, M. Karimpour-Fard,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Three common approaches to determine the axial pile capacity based on static analysis and in-situ tests are presented, compared and evaluated. The Unified Pile Design (UPD), American Petroleum Institute (API) and a SPT based methods were chosen to be validated. The API is a common method to estimate the axial bearing capacity of piles in marine environments, where as the others are currently used by geotechnical engineers. Seventy pile load test records performed in the northern bank of Persian Gulf with SPT profile have been compiled for methods evaluation. In all cases, pile capacities were measured using full scale static compression and/or pull out loading tests. As the loading tests in some cases were in the format of proof test without reaching the plunging or ultimate bearing capacity, for interpretation the results, offset limit load criteria was employed. Three statistical and probability based approaches in the form of a systematic ranking, called Rank Index, RI, were utilized to evaluate the performance of predictive methods. Wasted Capacity Index (WCI) concept was also applied to validate the efficiency of current methods. The evaluations revealed that among these three predictive methods, the UPD is more accurate and cost effective than the others.
Amir Hossein Jafarieh, Mohammad Ali Ghannad,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2014)

It is well-known that the behavior of soil-structure systems can be well described using a limited number of non-dimensional parameters. This is the outcome of researches based on the premise that the foundation is bonded to the ground. Here, it is shown the concept can be extended to systems with foundation uplift. A set of non-dimensional parameters are introduced which controls the main features of uplifting systems. The effect of foundation uplift on response of soil-structure systems are investigated parametrically through time history analysis for a wide range of systems subjected to ground motions recorded on different soil types. In particular, the effects of uplift on displacement ratio, defined as the ratio of maximum displacement of the uplifting system to that of the elastic system without uplifting and drift ratio, defined as the ratio of maximum drift of the structure as a part of uplifting soil-structure system to that of the elastic system without uplifting, are investigated. It is observed that in general foundation uplift reduces the drift response of structures, which in turn, results in lower base shear. The reduction reaches about 35 percent for slender structures located on relatively soft soils subjected to strong ground motions. Simplified expressions are suggested to estimate this reduction in the base shear.
C. Gümüşer, A. Şenol,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (4-2014)

The total coal and lignite consumption of the thermic power plants in Turkey is approximately 55 million tons and nearly 15 million tons of fly ash is produced. The remarkable increase in the production of fly ash and its disposal in an environmentally friendly manner is increasingly becoming a matter of global concern. Studies for the utilization of fly ash in Turkey are necessary to reduce environmental problems and avoid economical loss caused by the disposal of fly ash. Efforts are underway to improve the use of fly ash in several ways, with the geotechnical utilization also forming an important aspect of these efforts. An experimental program was undertaken to investigate the effects of Multifilament (MF19average) and Fibrillated (F19average) polypropylene fiber on the compaction and strength behavior of CH class soil with fly ash in different proportions. The soil samples were prepared at three different percentages of fiber content (i.e. 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% by weight of soil) and two different percentages of fly ash (i.e. 10% and 15% by weight of soil). A series of tests were prepared in optimum moisture content and laboratory unconfined compression strength tests, compaction tests and Atterberg limits test were carried out. The fiber inclusions increased the strength of the fly ash specimens and changed their brittle behavior into ductile behavior.
Changjie Xu, Yuanlei Xu, Honglei Sun,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

In soft soil areas, equal-length piles are often adopted in the retaining system. A decrease in the bending moment value borne by the retaining structure along the pile depth (below the excavation bottom), leads to an inadequate use of the pile bending capacity near the pile bottom. This paper presents retaining systems with long and short pile combinations, in which the long piles ensure integral stability of the excavation while the short piles give full play to bearing the bending moment. For further analysis on pile and bottom heaves deformations and inner-force characteristics, three-dimensional models were built in order to simulate the stage construction of the excavation. The ratio between long and short pile numbers, and the effects on short pile length pile horizontal deformation, pile bending moment and bottom heave are investigated in detail. In the end, a feasible long-short pile combination is established. Obtained results from the simulation data and the field data prove that the long-short pile retaining system is feasible.
Prof. T.h. Kim, Mr. S.h. You,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

The ground improvement using Plastic Board Drain (PBD) in soft soil was undertaken by sand mat formation, PBD installation, preloading surcharge, and removal of surcharge. During this procedure, the sand mat formation induced an initial settlement. However, it was very difficult to estimate that settlement due to PBD installation, which frequently destroyed the instruments installed in the ground. Consequently, the initial settlement was not properly included in total settlement. In this study, the initial settlement was estimated using ground level measurement and cone penetration test. Both predicted almost the same amount of initial settlement. The initial settlement is linearly increased with the depth of the sand mat. The degree of consolidation and the time of surcharge removal were estimated using the settlement included the initial settlement. Correct estimation of initial settlement is very important because it is a critical factor, which affects total settlement and the time of surcharge removal. If the initial settlement is not considered, the preloading surcharge may be overloaded or the time of surcharge removal may be predicted incorrectly. Consequently, the prediction of settlement, which requires to management of construction procedure of the project, may be wrong
M. Davoodi, M. Sadjadi,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (12-2015)

The distinctive characteristics of near-field earthquake records can lead to different structural responses from those experienced in far-field ones. Furthermore, soil-structure interaction (SSI) can have a crucial influence on the seismic response of structures founded on soft soils however, in most of the time has been neglected nonchalantly. This paper addresses the effects of near-field versus far-field earthquakes on the seismic response of single degree of freedom (SDOF) system with considering SSI. A total 71 records were selected in which near-field ground motions have been classified into two categories: first, records with a strong velocity pulse, (i.e. forward-directivity) second, records with a residual ground displacement (i.e. fling-step). Findings from the study reveal that pulse-type near-field records generally produce greater seismic responses than far-field motions especially at high structure-to-soil stiffness ratios. Moreover, the importance of considering SSI effects in design of structures is investigated through an example. Finally, parametric study between Peak Ground Velocity to Peak Ground Acceleration ratio (PGV/PGA) of pulse-like ground motions and maximum relative displacement indicate that with increase in structure-to-soil stiffness ratios, earthquakes with higher PGV/PGA ratio produce greater responses.

Yones Sojodi,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (6-2016)

The paper present the results of various experimental and numerical studies on slopes, small scale physical modeling of slope under surcharge load were performed in loose sand environment. Digital images were captured during the incremental loading from side of model simultaneously. The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and 3D numerical model was applied to investigate the slope under surcharge loading and some of the other important factors that control the performance of piles are investigated. The factors of safety and location of critical failure surfaces of reinforced and unreinforced slopes obtained and compared for various slopes. For homogenous slope, it is found for stabilized slope with piles, the 3D failure surface shape in front of piles is triangle, unlike its conical shape in laterally loaded piles. The paper also studies numerically the effect of soft bound effect, soil properties, pile spacing, pile position and surcharge distance effects on stabilized and none stabilized slopes. The results indicate that the depth of soft soil layer from ground surface and its angles with horizontal direction has importance effect on optimum location of stabilized pile. Studies on pile space effects shows with increasing pile space, arching phenomenon didn’t developed and partial pressure of supported portion transferred to un supported soil portion and the potential failure volume of the slope becomes large.

Hanane Dob , Salah Messast, Abdelhamid Mendjel, Marc Boulon, Etienne Flavigny,
Volume 14, Issue 7 (10-2016)

Considerable strains appear in the structures during accumulation of the irreversible strains of the subgrade under the effect of the cyclic loads. If the number of cycles is very large, even a small strain after accumulation becomes significant and sometimes harmful. In this study, a simple numerical modeling of the behavior of sand under cyclic loading is proposed. The suggested approach consists, in drained condition, in determining the parameters characterizing the average cyclic path of the soil under the effect of the number of cycles duly characterized and translating the cyclic effect by a volumetric strain cumulated by a variation of the module of the soil. In this study, we are interested in cyclic triaxial compression tests simulated by a finite element calculation. While proposing an analogy between the cyclic pseudo creep and the soft soil creep model (SSCM), on the first hand we propose an equivalence between the cyclic parameters and the parameters of SSCM, and on the other an equivalence time number of cycles will be established. The application of the formulation suggested on a shallow foundation under cyclic loading confirms the good adaptation of the model suggested to this type of problem.

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