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Showing 25 results for Seismic Performance

Kheyr Aldin A., Mortezaei A.r.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2004)

Structural walls are used extensively in moderate- and high-rise buildings to resist lateral loads induced by earthquakes. The seismic performance of many buildings is, therefore, closely linked to the behavior of the reinforced concrete walls. The analytical models used in this paper are developed to study the push-over response of T-shaped reinforced concrete walls andinvestigate the influence of the flange walls on laterally loaded walls and nonlinear behavior of shear walls, namely strength, ductility and failure mechanisms. A layered nonlinear finite element method is used to study the behavior of T-shaped and rectangular (barbell) shear walls. This paper introduces a computer program to practically study three-dimensional characteristics of reinforced concrete wall response by utilizing layered modeling. The program is first verified bysimulated and reported experimental response of 3-D reinforced concrete shear walls. Subsequently, a study considering eighteen analytical test specimens of T-shaped and barbell shear walls is carried out. Finally, based on analytical results, a new equation for minimum ratio of shear wall area to floor-plan area is proposed.
Ghodrati Amiri G., Sedighi S.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)

In the past decade design procedure changed to �performance-based design� from�force-based design�, by this mean many researchers focused on nonlinear static analysis (NSA)and the procedure named �PUSHOVER�. Advantages of this method are defining the inelasticbehavior of structure without nonlinear dynamic analysis (NDA) effort and also defining plastichinges formation in critical elements, and the order of formed plastic hinges. In spite of these goodadvantages NSA is limited to short and planar structures and application of that in tall andtorsionaly asymmetric structures may yield unreliable results.In this study reliability of NSA is investigated by performing both nonlinear static and dynamicanalysis on six 2D moment resisting concrete frames. Non linear dynamic analysis has been doneby the suggested method in FEMA356 guideline called �Target Displacement Method�. A groupof 4 different lateral increasing loads were used in pushover analysis and 3 different groundmotions were applied in NDA. Results indicate that same responses can be obtained by performingNSA, but errors will be increased by frames height increment.
S. Eshghi, V. Zanjanizadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2007)

This paper presents an experimental study on seismic repair of damaged square reinforced concrete columns with poor lap splices, 90-degree hooks and widely spaced transverse bars in plastic hinge regions according to ACI detailing (pre.1971) and (318-02) using GFRP wraps. Three specimens were tested in “as built” condition and retested after they were repaired by glass fiberreinforced plastic sheets. They were tested under numerous reversed lateral cyclic loading with a constant axial load ratio. FRP composite wraps were used for repairing of concrete columns in critically stressed areas near the column footings. Physical and mechanical properties of composite wraps are described. Seismic performance and ductility of the repaired columns in terms of the hysteretic response are evaluated and compared with those of the original columns. The results indicated that GFRP wraps can be an effective repair measure for poorly confined R/C columns due to short splice length and widely spaced ties with 90-degree anchorage hooks. Both flexural strength and ductility of repaired columns were improved by increasing the existing confinement in critical regions of them.
M. Mazloom, A.a. Mehrabian,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2009)

Pullback test has no scrupulous theoretical establishment. It is based on the hypothesis that the response of

the structure can be related to the response of an equivalent single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system. This implies that

the response is controlled by a single mode. In fact, the steel frame of each safe room, which is introduced within the

unreinforced masonry buildings for protecting the lives of residents in catastrophic earthquake failures, contains a

SDOF structural system. In pullback test, the steel frame carries its gravity load first, and then it will be pushed under

an incremental lateral roof displacement pattern, which is imposed to its center of mass. This paper expresses the

results of 13 pullback tests executed by the authors on the steel frames of safe rooms. The results show that pullback

test is a practical method for seismic performance evaluation of safe rooms. Also the performance of these frames

located in a collapsing three storey masonry building is presented with favorable conclusions. In fact, the results of

pullback test of the safe room located at the ground-floor level were compared with the requirements of Iranian code

for seismic resistant design and it was concluded that the steel frame had an acceptable performance against seismic


M. Miraboutalebi, F. Askari, O. Farzaneh,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2011)

In this paper, the effect of bedrock inclination on seismic performance of slopes is investigated. The study was conducted based

on dynamic analysis of different slopes, evaluation of the earthquake acceleration in sliding mass, and calculating the

permanent displacement of the slope, using Newmark sliding block. The investigation indicates that variation of the bedrock

inclination may cause the acceleration magnitude and the displacement in the sliding mass to reach to their maximum level.

This may happen in conditions that the mean period of the acceleration time history on failure surface (Tmt) and the

predominant period of the slope (Ts ) are close to each other. Typical results are presented and discussed. A two dimensional

model of a typical slope was considered and conducting dynamic analyses, the slope performance was studied for different

geometries, strength parameters and shear wave velocities. Such a performance has been studied by assessing the record of

acceleration in sliding mass (the mass above the critical sliding surface) and calculating the slope displacement using Newmark

method. It is shown that neglecting the effect of bedrock inclination, would lead to non-real results in assessing the seismic slope


H. Tavazo, H. E. Estekanchi, P. Kaldi,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2012)

Endurance Time (ET) method is a response history based analysis procedure that can be used for estimating the seismic response

of structures at different excitation levels in each response history. This seismic analysis method utilizes specific intensifying

acceleration functions to analyze seismic behaviors. One of the potential applications of the ET method is in the seismic

assessment of shell structures. In this study, a procedure for linear seismic analysis of shell structures is proposed and

applications of this method is investigated for several cases of shell structures. These structures are analyzed under three ET

acceleration functions in one direction and the results are compared to time history analysis considering seven actual earthquake

records. Moreover, the results of the ET method are compared to response spectrum analysis method. The outcomes of the study

reveal that the ET method predicts the linear seismic performance of shell structures with acceptable precision and significant

reduction in analysis time. Furthermore, it is conluded that scattering of results of three ET analysis is very low and one analysis

can be used instead of three. Finally, the comparison between THA and RSM results verify that response spectuarm method is a

conservative method which occasionally encounters problems to evaluate bending stresses of shell structures

H. Shakib, Gh. R. Atefatdoost,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

An approach was formulated for the nonlinear analysis of three-dimensional dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) of asymmetric buildings in time domain in order to evaluate the seismic response behavior of torsionally coupled wall-type buildings. The asymmetric building was idealized as a single-storey three-dimensional system resting on different soil conditions. The soil beneath the superstructure was modeled as nonlinear solid element. As the stiffness of the reinforced concrete flexural wall is a strength dependent parameter, a method for strength distribution among the lateral force resisting elements was considered. The response of soil-structure interaction of the system under the lateral component of El Centro 1940 earthquake record was evaluated and the effect of base flexibility on the response behavior of the system was verified. The results indicated that the base flexibility decreased the torsional response of asymmetric building so that this effect for soft soil was maximum. On the other hand, the torsional effects can be minimized by using a strength distribution, when the centre of both strength CV and rigidity CR is located on the opposite side of the centre of mass CM, and SSI has no effect on this criterion.
A. Gholizad, P. Kamrani Moghaddam,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

High performance and reliability of refurbish able knee braced steel frames has been confirmed in previous researches trying to get an optimal design for its configuration. Buckling of diagonal member which affects the hysteretic behavior of KBF under cyclic loadings has not been foreseen in previous evaluations of this system. This deficiency can be improved by utilization of adjustable rotary friction damper device (FDD) as knee element. Diagonal element buckling can be prevented considering a suitable value for FDD sliding threshold moment Mf. Lower values of Mf Lower energy dissipation rate in FDD and this leads to an optimization problem. Nonlinear time history analyses have been performed in addition to lateral cyclic loading analyses to evaluate the response of single story KBF subjected to seismic excitation. Optimal Mf in FDD has been chosen according to these analyses results. Roof displacement and acceleration, base shear and diagonal element’s buckling status have been compared in optimally designed KBF and FDD utilized KBF (FKBF) with different configurations. Nonlinear dynamic analyses have been performed for one, four, eight and twelve story frames under different seismic records with several PGAs. More than 60% displacement response reduction has been earned for the FKBF without considerable increase in base shear.
M. Bastami, M. Hajihasani,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Dynamic analysis of the seismic performance of power substation equipment is time-consuming, expensive and uses responses that are sensitive to ground motion. This research proposes a method to derive input waves for dynamic analysis in place of original records from seismic events in Iran. In this study, a power transformer, current transformer, circuit breaker and disconnect switch are analyzed using fifty records from the far-field and near-field earthquake ground motions. Statistical analysis is done on the maximum acceleration and displacement responses to obtain their pushover curves. Sinusoidal waves were created using the fundamental frequencies of the equipments and PGA of 0.1g through 0.5 g as the amplitude. The results are compared with the original records and show that the proposed input waves provide a reasonable fit for an extensive range of near-field and far-field ground motion results.
A. R. Habibi, Keyvan Asadi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Setback in elevation of a structure is a special irregularity with considerable effect on its seismic performance. This paper addresses multistory Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame buildings, regular and irregular in elevation. Several multistory Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frames (RCMRFs) with different types of setbacks, as well as the regular frames in elevation, are designed according to the provisions of the Iranian national building code and Iranian seismic code for the high ductility class. Inelastic dynamic time-history analysis is performed on all frames subjected to ten input motions. The assessment of the seismic performance is done based on both global and local criteria. Results show that when setback occurs in elevation, the requirements of the life safety level are not satisfied. It is also shown that the elements near the setback experience the maximum damage. Therefore it is necessary to strengthen these elements by appropriate method to satisfy the life safety level of the frames.
Mohammad Amin Hariri Ardebili, Hasan Mirzabozorg, Reza Kianoush,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2014)

In the present study, the application of Endurance Time Analysis (ETA) method is investigated on seismic analysis of a high arch dam. In this method the coupled system is excited using the predesigned intensifying acceleration functions instead of the real ground motions. Finite element model of an arch dam considering the dam-rock-water interaction effects was developed in which the concrete and rock were assumed to have linear elastic behavior. The effect of the large displacement in dam body was considered in numerical model using co-rotational approach. The coupled system was analyzed by conventional Time History Analysis (THA) method in various seismic performance levels and the results were compared with those obtained from ETA at the equivalent target time. It was found that ETA method provides the close results to THA with acceptable accuracy while it reduces the total time of the analyses considerably.
H. B. Ozmen, M. Inel, S. M. Senel, A. H. Kayhan,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)

Seismic performance and loss assessment studies for stock of buildings are generally based on representative models due to extremely large number of vulnerable buildings. The main problem is the proper reflection of the building stock characteristics well enough by limited number of representative models. This study aims to provide statistical information of structural parameters of Turkish building stock for proper modeling using a detailed inventory study including 475 low and mid-rise RC building with 40351 columns and 3128 beams for member properties. Thirty-five different parameters of existing low and mid-rise Turkish RC building stock are investigated. An example application is given to express use of given statistical information. The outcomes of the current study and previous studies are compared. The comparison shows that the previous studies have guidance for limited number of parameters while the current study provides considerably wide variety of structural and member parameters for proper modeling.
K. Wang, S.f. Yuan, D.f. Cao, W.z. Zheng,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

This paper describes experimental and numerical investigations on two specimens of frames composed of steel reinforced concrete beam and angle-steel concrete column under horizontal low cyclic loading. Based on the test results, the relationship curves of the horizontal load-displacement and the failure modes are acquired. Meanwhile the hysteretic behaviors, skeleton curves, stiffness degradation, energy dissipation, residential deformation of the two specimens are studied. Nonlinear structural analysis program OpenSEES is employed to predict the experimental curves. Using the verified numerical model, the influences of slenderness ratio, axial compression ratio, steel ratio of column, cross-section moment resistance of I-shaped steel in beam, ratio of longitudinal rebars of beam and prestressing level on skeleton curves are investigated. The results indicated that the two specimens exhibited the favorable ductility and energy dissipation capacity, and the beam depth could be reduced to improve service function because of the application of the prestress. The ultimate horizontal load decreases with the increase of column slenderness ratio, and firstly increases then decreases with the increase of axial compression ratio. In the meantime, the descent segment of skeleton curve is smooth with the increase of column slenderness ratio, and becomes steeper with the increase of axial compression ratio.
H. Liu, M. He, J. Guo, Zh. Hou, Y. Shi,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

Self-centering pier (SCP) has been viewed as a remarkable accomplishment which is able to sustain major lateral loading with reduced structure damage in seismic engineering. Stiffness deterioration observed in experiment is vital for the seismic performance of self-centering concrete pier. In this contribution, the associated stiffness deterioration with respect to the structural damage is modeled in a modified analytical model for SCP comprehensively. In the proposed modified theoretical model, the lateral force-displacement relation associated with the stiffness reducing is analyzed. Three damage factors are introduced in the stiffness deterioration analysis to illustrate the damage evolution caused by gradually increasing lateral displacement. The proposed modified quasic-static model with damage evolution or stiffness deterioration has been validated against an experiment we conducted, where a good agreement is clearly evident. Subsequently, a parametric investigation focusing on aspect ratio, initial pre-tension, and ratio of ED (Energy Dissipator) was conducted to evaluate the hysteretic behavior of SCP under quasi-statically cyclic loading.
A. Komak Panah, A.h. Khoshay,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

To increase the safety of structures against strong ground motions and their life due to environmental issues on the earth and saving in terms of materials, it is necessary to expand and upgrade seismic resistant systems. However, more cost-effective systems which have sufficient influence on the seismic performance of structures and also more compatibility with the regional conditions, will be more desirable than other systems. One of the seismic resistance systems is seismic isolation. In the event of interest in using the seismic isolation system for a mounted building on piles, the costly construction of piles and isolation equipment shall be provided simultaneously. The seismic isolating using sleeved-piles which is generally used in combination with various damper systems, can help to overcome this issue. In this research a seismic isolator system using sleeved-pile has been studied while considering the damping behavior of the soil-rubber mixture as the only source of damping. To investigate the proposed system, a series of tests including static lateral load test, dynamic free and forced vibration tests, were performed on a model pile in a field laboratory which has been constructed for this purpose. According to results of tests the proposed system has a good deformation ability and damping characteristics, and as a method of seismic isolation is completely efficient.
M.a. Rahgozar,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (12-2015)

The interactive effects of adjacent buildings on their seismic performance are not frequently considered in seismic design. The adjacent buildings, however, are interrelated through the soil during seismic ground motions. The seismic energy is redistributed in the neighboring buildings through multiple structure-soil-structure interactions (SSSI). For example, in an area congested with many nearby tall and/or heavy buildings, accounting for the proximity effects of the adjacent buildings is very important. To solve the problem of SSSI successfully, researchers indicate two main research areas where need the most attention: 1) accounting for soil nonlinearity in an efficient way, and 2) spatial analysis of full 3D soil-structure models. In the present study, three-dimensional finite element models of tall buildings on different flexible foundation soils are used to evaluate the extent of cross interaction of adjacent buildings. Soil nonlinearity under cyclic loading is accounted for by Equivalent Linear Method (ELM) as to conduct large parametric studies in the field of seismic soil-structure interaction, the application of ELM is preferred over other alternatives (such as application of complicated constitutive soil models) due to the efficiency and reliability of its results. 15 and 30 story steel structures with pile foundations on two sandy and clayey sites are designed according to modern codes and then subjected to several actual earthquake records scaled to represent the seismicity of the building sites. Results show the cross interaction of adjacent buildings on flexible soils, depending on their proximity, increases dynamic displacements of buildings and reduces their base shears. 

S.m. Zahrai,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2015)

Seismic retrofit of masonry slabs in existing steel or masonry buildings has found special significance in current codes as failure of unstable jack arch slabs has been reported as a major reason for collapsing structures in Middle East deadly earthquakes. In this paper, three retrofit schemes are investigated and compared. The proposed rehabilitation techniques consist of a single X strapping, SXS, a double X strapping, DXS, and a two-way jack arch slab supported by a steel grid. Using experimental studies, advantages and disadvantages of each scheme are evaluated. In-plane stiffness and capacity of the diaphragm are adopted as the seismic performance index of each rehabilitation scheme. According to the obtained results, the jack arch slab systems designed and constructed based on proposed retrofit methods provide an appropriate alternative to other forms of flooring in seismic zones. DXS can greatly improve diaphragm performance in terms of in-plane stiffness, capacity and even energy dissipation of the diaphragm compared with the other two techniques. The second place belongs to SXS while the steel grid scheme has a minor effect on the in-plane stiffness of the diaphragm.
A. Reyes-Salazar, E. Bojorquez, J.l. Rivera-Salas, A. Lopez-Barraza, H.e. Rodriguez-Lozoya,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2015)

The linear and nonlinear responses of steel buildings with perimeter moment resisting frames (PMRFs) are estimated and compared to those of equivalent buildings with spatial moment resisting frames (SMRFs). The equivalent models with SMRFs are designed by using an approximated procedure in such a way that, not only their fundamental period, total mass and lateral stiffness are fairly the same as those of the corresponding buildings with PMRFs, but also other characteristics to make the two structural "as equivalent" as possible. The numerical study indicates that the interstory shears of the PMRFs building may be significantly larger than those of the SMRFs building. The main reasons for this are that the buildings with PMRFs are stiffer and that the dynamics properties of the two types of structural systems are different. The interstory displacements are similar for both structural systems in many cases. For some other cases, however, they are larger for the model with SMRFs, depending upon the closeness between the earthquake corner periods and the periods of the buildings. The global ductility and story ductility demands are larger for the buildings with PMRFs, implying that, since larger ductility demands are imposed, the detailing of the connections will have to be more stringent than for the buildings with SMRFs. It can be concluded, that the seismic performance of the steel buildings with SMRFs may be superior to that of steel buildings with PMRFs. The findings of this paper are for the particular models used in the study. Much more research is needed to reach more general conclusions
L. Zeng, Q. Zhou, Ch. Xu, Y. Wu, X. Tu,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2015)

To study seismic performance of concrete-encased composite columns with T-shaped steel cross-section, twelve half-scale columns were tested under quasi-stastic cyclic loading. The result indicates that concrete-encased composite columns with T-shaped steel section possess good seismic performance. The failure modes include bending failure, shear-bond failure, shear compression failure and shear-composition failure. Unsymmetrical phenomenon of positive and negative hysteresis loop was shown evidently. Span ratio has a great influence on failure mode. The ductility performance decreases with increasing of axial compression level. As stirrup ratio increases, ductility and bearing capacity of columns are improved greatly, and energy dissipation capacity after yielding is enhanced. Cross tie can enhance ultimate bearing capacity, and lower strength attenuation and stiffness degradation on the later loading stage

Guray Arslan, Muzaffer Borekci, Muzaffer Balci, Melih Hacisalihoglu,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (4-2016)

The contribution of concrete to inelastic deformation capacity and shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) columns failing in shear has been investigated extensively by various researchers. Although RC members are designed to have shear strengths much greater than their flexural strengths to ensure flexural failure according to the current codes, shear degradation of RC columns failing in flexure has not been studied widely. The aim of this study is to investigate the shear degradation of RC columns using finite element analyses (FEA). The results of FEA are compared with the results of experimental studies selected from literature, and it is observed that the lateral load-deflection curves of analysed columns are compatible with the experimental results. Twenty-six RC columns were analysed under monotonically increasing loads to determine the concrete contribution to shear strength. The results of analyses indicate that increasing the ratio of shear to flexural strength reduces the concrete contribution to shear strength of the columns.

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