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Showing 11 results for Seepage

A. Rahmani Firoozjaee, M.h. Afshar,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2007)

A meshless method namely, discrete least square method (DLSM), is presented in the paper for the solution of free surface seepage problem. In this method computational domain is discredited by some nodes and then the set of simultaneous equations are built using moving least square (MLS) shape functions and least square technique. The proposed method does not need any background mesh therefore it is a truly meshless method. Several numerical two dimensional examples of Poisson partial differential equations (PDEs) are presented to illustrate the performance of the present DLSM. And finally a free surface seepage problem in a porous media is solved and results are presented.
Hamed Farshbaf Aghajani, Abbas Soroush, Piltan Tabatabaie Shourijeh,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2011)

Evaluating the rate and maximum height of capillary rise is of prime interest in unsaturated soil mechanics. Antecedent solutions

to this problem have dwelled mostly on determining the maximum capillary rise height, overlooking moisture and suction changes

in the capillary region. A comprehensive improved solution for the capillary rise of water in soils is presented. Salient features of

the formulation including consideration of initial soil suction (if any) prior to capillary rise, and determination of water content

variation in the capillary region are elaborately discussed. Results reveal that suction head variation within the capillary region

is non-linear, where the curvature decreases as water rises to higher elevations. The solution is verified and compared with

existing solutions, by means of two sets of experimental data available in the literature. The comparison suggests that the

improved formulation is more accurate and versatile than previous solutions for capillary rise.

Y. L. Luo,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (5-2013)

The occurrence of piping failures in earth structures demonstrates the urgency and importance of studying piping. With this

intention, a new piping model was developed in the framework of continuum mixture theory. Assuming that porous media are

comprised of solid skeleton phase, fluid phase and fluidized fine particles phase, the fluidized fine particles phase is considered

to be a special solute migrating with the fluid phase. The three phases interact while being constrained by the mass conservation

equations of the three phases, and a sink term was introduced into the mass conservation equation of the solid skeleton phase to

describe the erosion of fluidized fine particles, then a new continuum fluid-particle coupled piping model was established and

validated. The validation indicates that the proposed model can predict the piping development of complicated structures under

complex boundary and flow conditions, and reflect the dynamic changes of porosity, permeability and pore pressure in the

evolution of piping.

M. Mortazavi Zanjani, A. Soroush,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (11-2013)

This paper presents results of a thorough study on the phenomenon of rupture propagation of reverse faults from the bedrock

foundation through homogeneous clayey embankments, mainly at the end of construction, with complementary analyses for the

steady state seepage through the embankment. The study is performed by means of numerical analyses with a nonlinear Finite

Element Method, verified beforehand through simulating fault propagations in an existing horizontal soil layer experiment.

Multiple cases considering three slopes & three clayey soils for the embankment and five fault dip angles, activated in several

locations of base of the embankment, are analyzed. The results show that ruptures in the embankment follow optimal paths to

reach the surface and their near-surface directions are predictable with respect to corresponding theories of classical soil

mechanics. Various types of rupture in the embankment are produced on the basis of the rupture types, the embankment base is

divided into three distinguishable zones, which can be used for interpretation of fault ruptures behavior. The effects of materials

and slope of the embankment, fault dip angle, and fault’s point of application in the bedrock-soil interface on the rupture paths

are studied in depth.

H. Ghiassian, M. Jalili, I. Rahmani, Seyed M. M. Madani,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

The concept of Geosynthetic Cellular Systems (GCS) has recently emerged as a new method in construction of breakwaters and coastal protective structures. The method potentially has significant advantages compared to conventional systems from the standpoint of constructability, cost effectiveness, and environmental considerations. This paper presents the results of physical model testing on the hydraulic responses of GCS structures under wave action. A series of model tests were carried out in a wave flume on GCS models with different shapes and soil types, subjected to various wave characteristics. Horizontal wave forces acting on the models were measured at different elevations. The maximum horizontal force in each test was calculated and compared with conventional formula of predicting wave pressure on breakwaters. The results show that Goda’s equation overestimates the hydrodynamic water pressure on these structures. This can be attributed to the influence of seeping water through the GCS models because of relative permeability of the GCS.
M. B. Esfandiari Sowmehsaraei, R. Jamshidi Chenari,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Soil reinforced with fiber shows characteristics of a composite material, in which fiber inclusion has a significant effect on soil permeability. Concerning to the higher void ratio of carpet fibers, at first stages it may be expected that an increase in fiber content of the reinforced soil would result in an increase in permeability of the mixture. However, the present article demonstrates that fiber inclusion will decrease the permeability of sand-fiber composite.A series of constant head permeability tests have been carried out to show the effects and consequently, a new system of phase relationships was introduced to calculate the dry mass for the sand portion of the composite. Monte Carlo simulation technique adopted with finite element theory was employed to back calculate the hydraulic conductivity of individual porous fibers from the laboratory test results. It was observed that the permeability coefficient of the porous fibers are orders of magnitude less than the skeletal sand portion due to the fine sand particle entrapment and also the fiber volume change characteristics.
M. Heidarzadeh, A. A. Mirghasemi, H. Niroomand,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)

We report engineering experiences from the critical task of relief well installation under high artesian flow conditions at the downstream toe of the Karkheh earth dam, Iran. Due to the establishment of excessive uplift pressure at the downstream toe of the Karkheh dam, installation of a series of new relief wells was considered to permanently relieve part of these pressures. The mentioned uplift pressure, as high as around 30 m above the ground level, was produced in a confined conglomerate aquifer bounded above and below by relatively impervious mudstone layers which reduced the safety factor of the dam toe to below 1.0. Investigations on the shortcomings of the old relief wells installed at the dam site showed that the main problems were: insufficient well numbers, insufficient well diameters, irregular well screens causing their blockage by time passing, and insufficient total opening area. Despite engineering difficulties and associated risk of downstream toe instability, installation of new relief wells was successfully completed under high artesian flow conditions” was successfully completed. The employed technique for the construction of the new relief wells under flowing artesian conditions was based on: 1) cement grouting and casing of the well, 2) telescopic drilling, 3) application of appropriate drilling fluid, and 4) controlling the artesian flow by adding a long vertical pipe to the top of the relief wells. Numerical modeling of seepage for the Karkheh dam foundation showed that, as a result of the installation of the new relief wells, the safety factor of the downstream toe increased to the safe value of 1.3 for the normal reservoir water level.
H. Khalili Shayan, E. Amiri-Tokaldany,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2015)

Upstream blankets, drains and cutoff walls are considered as effective measures to reduce seepage, uplift pressure and exit gradient under the foundation of hydraulic structures. To investigate the effectiveness of these measures, individually or in accordance with others, a large number of experiments were carried out on a laboratory model. To extend the investigation for unlimited arrangements, the physical conditions of all experiments were simulated with a mathematical model. Having compared the data obtained from experiments with those provided from the mathematical model, a good correlation was found between the two sets of data indicating that the mathematical model could be used as a useful tool for calculating the effects of various measures on designing hydraulic structures. Based on this correlation a large number of different inclined angles of cutoff walls, lengths of upstream blankets, and various positions of drains within the mathematical model were simulated. It was found that regardless of their length, the blankets reduce seepage, uplift pressure and exit gradient. However, vertical cutoff walls are the most effective. Moreover, it was found that the best positions of a cutoff wall to reduce seepage flow and uplift force are at the downstream and upstream end, respectively. Also, having simulated the effects of drains, it was found that the maximum reduction in uplift force takes place when the drain is positioned at a distance of 1/3 times the dam width at the downstream of the upstream end. Finally, it was indicated that the maximum reduction in exit gradient occurs when a drain is placed at a distance of 2/3 times of the dam width from upstream end or at the downstream end.

Hossein Rahami, Mohamad Mirhoseini, Ali Kaveh,
Volume 14, Issue 6 (9-2016)

In this paper using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors symmetric block diagonal matrices with infinite dimension and numerical method of finite difference a closed form solution for exact solving of Laplace equation is presented. Moreover, the method of this paper has applications in different states of boundary conditions like Newman, Dirichlet and other mixed boundary conditions. Moreover, with the method of this paper, a mathematical model for the exact solution of the Poisson equation is derived. Since these equations have many applications in engineering problems, in each part examples like water seepage problem through the soil and torsion of prismatic bars are presented. Finally the method is provided for torsion problem of prismatic bars with non-circular and non-rectangular cross sections by using of conformal mapping.

Junxin Liu, Chunhe Yang, Jianjun Gan, Yutian Liu, Wei Liu, Qiang Xie,
Volume 15, Issue 6 (9-2017)

Abstract: Rainfall is an important triggering factor influencing the stability of soil slope. Study on some influences of the rainfall on the instability characteristics of unsaturated soil embankment slope has been conducted in this paper. Firstly, based on the effective stress theory of unsaturated soil for single variable, fluid-solid coupling constitutive equations were established. Then, a segment of red clay embankment slope, along a railway from Dazhou to Chengdu, damaged by rainfall, was theoretical and numerical-simulating researched by considering both the runoff-underground seepage and the fluid-solid coupling. The failure characteristics of the embankment slope and the numerical simulation results were in excellent agreement. In the end, a sensitivity analysis of the key factors influencing the slope stability subjected to rainfall was performed with emphasis on damage depth as well as infiltration rainfall depth. From the analysis in this paper, it was concluded that the intensity of rainfall, rainfall duration and long-term strength of soil have most effect on slope stability when subjected to rainfall. These results suggest that the numerical simulation can be used for practical applications.

Xilin Lu,
Volume 15, Issue 6 (9-2017)

This paper presents numerical and theoretical studies on the stability of shallow shield tunnel face found in cohesive-frictional soil. The minimum limit support pressure was determined by superposition method; it was calculated by multiplying soil cohesion, surcharge load, and soil weight by their corresponding coefficients. The varying characteristics of these coefficients with soil friction angle and tunnel cover-to-diameter ratio were obtained by wedge model and numerical simulation. The face stability of shallow shield tunnel with seepage was studied by deformation and seepage coupled numerical simulation; the constitutive model used in the analysis was elastic-perfectly plastic Mohr–Coulomb model. The failure mode of tunnel face was shown related to water level. By considering the effect of seepage on failure mode, the wedge model was modified to calculate the limit support pressure under seepage condition. The water head around the tunnel face was fitted by an exponential function, and then an analytical solution to the limit support pressure under seepage condition was deduced. The variations in the limit support pressure on strength parameters of soil and water lever compare well with the numerical results. The modified wedge model was employed to analyze the tunnel face stability of Qianjiang cross-river shield tunnel. The influence of tide on the limit support pressure was obtained, and the calculated limit support pressure by the modified wedge model is consistent with the numerical result.

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