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Showing 64 results for Reinforced Concrete

A.r. Khaloo, Molaee A.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2003)
Abstract

An experimental program was carried out to investigate the behavior of steel, fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) under abrasion and cycles of freeze and them. Compression and flexural tests were also performed in order to reach a comprehensive conclusion of the response. In total, over 200 specimens were tested The test variables included two concrete strength., (i. e., 28 MPa as Normal Strength (NSFRC) and 42 MPa as Medium Strength (MSFRC)), four volumetric percentage of fibers (i.e., 0%, 0,5%, 1.0% and 1.5%) and two fiber lengths (i.e.. 25mm and 35rnrn).Cube specimens were tested according to ASTM C6661n-ocedrrre B using 100 cycles of freeze and thaw. The Los Angeles test method for testing aggregate was used to evaluate the abrasion resistance of SFRC.Test results of1VSFRCptesertted improvements up to 39% and 32 % in cylindrical and cubic compressive strength, respectively. and 88�o in modulus of rupture, 57% in resistance against abrasion based oil weight loss and 40% against compressive strength reduction due to freeze and thaw cycles. The corresponding improvements for MSFRC were 18%, 16%, 48%, 53% and 46% respectively.Increase in cocncrete strength from 28 Ala to 42 MPa provided higher freeze and thaw and abrasion resistance than addition of 1.5% of steel fibers to the normal strength concrete matrix.
Mazloom M., Ramezanian Pour A.a.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2004)
Abstract

This paper presents the long-term deformations of reinforced high-strength concrete columns subjected to constant sustained axial forces. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of binder systems containing different levels of silica fume on time-dependent behaviour of high-strength concrete columns. The experimental part of the work focused on concrete mixes having a fixed water/binder ratio of 0.35 and a constant total binder content of 500 kg/m3. The percentages of silica fume that replaced cement in this research were: 0%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 15%. The mechanical properties evaluated in the laboratory were: compressive strength secant modulus of elasticity strain due to creep and shrinkage. The theoretical part of the work is about stress redistribution between concrete and steel reinforcement as a result of time-dependent behaviour of concrete. The technique used for including creep in the analysis of reinforced concrete columns was age-adjusted effective modulus method. The results of this research indicate that as the proportion of silica fume increased, the short-term mechanical properties of concrete such as 28-day compressive strength and secant modulus improved. Also the percentages of silica fume replacement did not have a significant influence on total shrinkage however, the autogenous shrinkage of concrete increased as the amount of silica fume increased. Moreover, the basic creep of concrete decreased at higher silica fume replacement levels. Drying creep (total creep - basic creep) was negligible in this investigation. The results of the theoretical part of this researchindicate that as the proportion of silica fume increased, the gradual transfer of load from the concrete to the reinforcement decreased and also the effect of steel bars in lowering the concrete deformation reduced. Moreover, the total strain of concrete columns decreased at higher silicafume replacement levels.
Kheyr Aldin A., Mortezaei A.r.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2004)
Abstract

Structural walls are used extensively in moderate- and high-rise buildings to resist lateral loads induced by earthquakes. The seismic performance of many buildings is, therefore, closely linked to the behavior of the reinforced concrete walls. The analytical models used in this paper are developed to study the push-over response of T-shaped reinforced concrete walls andinvestigate the influence of the flange walls on laterally loaded walls and nonlinear behavior of shear walls, namely strength, ductility and failure mechanisms. A layered nonlinear finite element method is used to study the behavior of T-shaped and rectangular (barbell) shear walls. This paper introduces a computer program to practically study three-dimensional characteristics of reinforced concrete wall response by utilizing layered modeling. The program is first verified bysimulated and reported experimental response of 3-D reinforced concrete shear walls. Subsequently, a study considering eighteen analytical test specimens of T-shaped and barbell shear walls is carried out. Finally, based on analytical results, a new equation for minimum ratio of shear wall area to floor-plan area is proposed.
Ghodrati Amiri G., Sedighi S.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)
Abstract

In the past decade design procedure changed to �performance-based design� from�force-based design�, by this mean many researchers focused on nonlinear static analysis (NSA)and the procedure named �PUSHOVER�. Advantages of this method are defining the inelasticbehavior of structure without nonlinear dynamic analysis (NDA) effort and also defining plastichinges formation in critical elements, and the order of formed plastic hinges. In spite of these goodadvantages NSA is limited to short and planar structures and application of that in tall andtorsionaly asymmetric structures may yield unreliable results.In this study reliability of NSA is investigated by performing both nonlinear static and dynamicanalysis on six 2D moment resisting concrete frames. Non linear dynamic analysis has been doneby the suggested method in FEMA356 guideline called �Target Displacement Method�. A groupof 4 different lateral increasing loads were used in pushover analysis and 3 different groundmotions were applied in NDA. Results indicate that same responses can be obtained by performingNSA, but errors will be increased by frames height increment.
Khalou A.r., Ghara Chour Lou A.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)
Abstract

This paper presents the results of analytical studies concerning the flexuralstrengthening of reinforced concrete beams by external bonding of high-strength lightweightcarbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates to tension face of the beam. Three groups of beamswere tested analytically and compared with existing experimental results. Results of the numericalanalyses showed that, although addition of CFRP plates to the tension face of the beam increasesthe strength, it decreases the beam ductility. Finite element modeling of fifteen different beams in aparametric study indicates that steel area ratio, CFRP thickness, CFRP ultimate strength andelastic modulus considerably influence the level of strengthening and ductility.
Sabouri Ghomi S., Kharazi M.h.k., Asghari A., Javidan P.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)
Abstract

Design and construction of efficient and economic Reinforced Concrete (R.C.) Hyperbolic Cooling Towers have driven the engineers toward the design of tall and thin-shell towers which have considerable high slenderness aspect ratio. Consequently, the shell of R.C. Cooling Towers with relative high slenderness aspect ratio is extremely prone to buckling instability due to wind loading. To increase the structural stability or buckling safety factor, one economic approach is to design and construct stiffening rings for the R.C. Hyperbolic Cooling Towers. Despite the research previously performed to determine the effect of stiffening rings on the buckling behavior of the R.C. Hyperbolic Cooling Towers, information resulting in maximum buckling stability is absent considering the optimized utilization of the quantity and dimension as well as the location of this type of stiffeners. In this paper, not only the effect of the stiffening rings on the buckling stability of the R.C. Cooling Tower is studied but also the optimized location,quantity and dimension of the stiffening rings are carried out for a sample RC Cooling Tower. The dimensions of the selected sample cooling tower are in average typical dimensions which are used in the current practice. In this study, finite element (F. E.) analyses has been carried out to define the buckling modes and resistance of this tower due to wind loading for different number of stiffening ring configurations. Based on the conducted buckling analysis, the optimized number, location and dimension of the stiffening rings that maximizes the tower.s buckling stability are defined and the methodology to achieve this information is discussed in this paper.
F.m. Wegian, M.t. Alkhamis, S.r. Sabbagh Yazdi,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2006)
Abstract

This study evaluates two different types of techniques for concrete hollow-block sections reinforced with traditional steel rebars and wire meshes, and compares their structural behaviour to that of an ordinary reinforced concrete beam section. The comparisons are based on the responses both before and after they were repaired with glass fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP). The specimens were subjected to concentrated loading up to initial failure. After failure, the specimens were repaired and loaded once again until ultimate failure. It was shown that the success of the repair by GFRP depended on the mode of failure of the hollow-block concrete beams.
Ali Kheyroddin, Hosein Naderpour,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2007)
Abstract

A parametric study is performed to assess the influence of the tension reinforcement index, ( ω = ρ fy /f Bc), and the bending moment distribution (loading type) on the ultimate deformation characteristics of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The analytical results for 15 simply supported beams with different amounts of tension reinforcement ratio under three different loading conditions are presented and compared with the predictions of the various formulations and the experimental data, where available. The plastic hinge rotation capacity increases as the loading is changed from the concentrated load at the middle to the third-point loading, and it is a maximum for the case of the uniformly distributed load. The effect of the loading type on the plastic rotation capacity of the heavily reinforced beams is not as significant as that for the lightly reinforced beams. Based on the analytical results obtained using the nonlinear finite element method, new simple equations as a function of the tension reinforcement index, ω, and the loading type are proposed. The analytical results indicate that the proposed equations can be used for analysis of ultimate capacity and the associated deformations of RC beams with sufficient accuracy.
A.a. Maghsoudi, H. Akbarzadeh Bengar,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2007)
Abstract

Limit to the tension reinforcement ratio ( ρ) in flexural high strength reinforced concrete (HSRC) members is based on the requirement that tension failure as sufficient rotation capacity are ensured at ultimate limit state. However, the provisions for the total amount of longitudinal reinforcement ratio ( ρ and ρ’) are not associated with any rational derivation. In this paper, a quantitative measure to evaluate an upper limit to the compression reinforcement ratio ρBmax of flexural HSRC members is proposed. The quantitative criterion to ρBmax can be derived from i) steel congestion and ii) considerations that are related to the diagonal compression bearing capacity of the members. In this paper it is shown that, when shear loading is dominant, the limit to is set by the diagonal compression criterion. Parameters that affect this limit are deeply investigated and the expressions were derived for different end conditions, to provide an additional tool for a better design and assessment of the flexural capacity of HSRC members.
M.kazem Sharbatdar,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2008)
Abstract

FRPs (fiber reinforced polymer) possess many favorable characteristics suitable and applicable for construction industry when compared with steel reinforcement. There are new ideas to use FRPs as longitudinal or transverse reinforcement for new concrete elements particularly for bridge decks or beams. Although high tensile strength of FRP is main characteristic for applications at both areas, its weakness to bending and linear stress-strain behavior with virtually no ductility, makes it vulnerable to probably premature failures under reversal tension-compression loading during earthquake. A pilot research project has been conducted to explore the characteristics of large-scale cantilever concrete beams reinforced with FRP re-bars and grids and were tested under either simulated cyclic loading or monotonically increasing lateral loading. This paper presents the test parameters and results obtained during research. The analytical relationships are compared with those recorded experimentally, and test results showed the diagonal cracks and either rupturing of FRP bars in tension or stability failure in compression bars at long or short shear span beams. The comparison of nominal moment capacities between analytical and experimental values confirms that plane section analysis is applicable to FRP reinforced concrete members.
Sassan Eshghi, Khashaiar Pourazin,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2009)
Abstract

Confined masonry buildings are used in rural and urban areas of Iran. They performed almost satisfactory

during past moderate earthquakes of Iran. There is not a methodology in Iranian Seismic Code (Standard 2800-3rd

edition) to estimate their capacities quantitatively. In line with removing this constraint, an attempt is made to study

in-plane behavior of two squared confined masonry walls with and without opening by using a numerical approach.

These walls are considered based on Iranian Seismic Code requirements. Finite element 2D models of the walls are

developed and a pushover analysis is carried out. To model the non-linear behavior of the confined masonry walls, the

following criteria are used: (1) The Rankine-Hill yield criterion with low orthotropic factor to model the masonry

panel (2) The Rankine yield criterion to model reinforced concrete bond-beams and tie-columns (3) The Coulomb

friction criterion with tension cutoff mode to model the interface zone between the masonry panel and reinforced

concrete members. For this purpose, the unknown parameters are determined by testing of masonry and concrete

samples and by finite element analysis. Comparing the results show that the initial stiffness, the maximum lateral

strength and the ductility factor of walls with and without opening are different. Also, the severe compressed zones of

the masonry panels within the confining elements are found different from what are reported for the masonry panels

of infilled frames by other researchers. This study shows that a further investigation is needed for estimating capacity

of confined masonry walls with and without opening analytically and experimentally. Also where openings, with

medium size are existed, the confining elements should be added around them. These issues can be considered in the

next revisions of Iranian Seismic Code.


A.a. Maghsoudi, H. Akbarzadeh Bengar,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2009)
Abstract

Limit to the tension reinforcement ratio in flexural high strength reinforced concrete (HSRC) members is

based on the requirement that tension failure as sufficient rotation capacity are ensured at ultimate limit state.

However, the provisions for the total amount of longitudinal reinforcement ratio ( and ) are not associated with

any rational derivation. In this paper, a quantitative measure to evaluate an upper limit to the compression

reinforcement ratio of flexural HSRC members is proposed. The quantitative criterion to can be derived

from i) steel congestion and ii) considerations that are related to the diagonal compression bearing capacity of the

members. In this paper it is shown that, when shear loading is dominant, the limit to is set by the diagonal

compression criterion. Parameters that affect this limit are deeply investigated and the expressions were derived for

different end conditions, to provide an additional tool for a better design and assessment of the flexural capacity of

HSRC members.


Alireza Mortezaei, Ali Kheyroddin,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2009)
Abstract

The work presented in this paper investigates the causes of size effects in structural-concrete members. It is

based on the use of a finite-element model found to yield realistic predictions of structural-concrete behavior in all

cases investigated to date. In fact, the previous use of this model in investigations of size effects in reinforced-concrete

beams indicated that such effects reflect the dependence of load-carrying capacity on small unintended eccentricities

of the applied load and/or load-induced anisotropy, rather than, as widely considered, on fracture-mechanics

characteristics. The present work extends the scope of the above investigation so as to include the case of reinforced

concrete flanged shear walls, the behavior of which is already established experimentally. It is found that, unlike the

flanged shear walls with a height-to-length ratio larger than 2, the shear walls investigated in the present work, in

contrast with the interpretation given to recently published experimental findings, are size-effect independent.


M. Saiidi, C. Cruz, D. Hillis,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2010)
Abstract

Three unconventional details for plastic hinges of bridge columns subjected to seismic loads were developed,

designed, and implemented in a large-scale, four-span reinforced concrete bridge. Shape memory alloys (SMA),

special engineered cementitious composites (ECC), elastomeric pads embedded into columns, and post-tensioning

were used in three different piers. The bridge model was subjected to two-horizontal components of simulated

earthquake records of the 1994 Northridge earthquake in California. The multiple shake table system at the University

of Nevada, Reno was used for testing. Over 300 channels of data were collected. Test results showed the effectiveness

of post-tensioning and the innovative materials in reducing damage and permanent displacements. The damage was

minimal in plastic hinges with SMA/ECC and those with built in elastomeric pads. Conventional reinforced concrete

plastic hinges were severely damaged due to spalling of concrete and rupture of the longitudinal and transverse

reinforcement. Analytical studies showed close correlation between the results from the OpenSEES model and the

measured data for moderate and strong earthquakes.


A.r. Khaloo, I. Eshghi, P. Piran Aghl,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)
Abstract

In this paper the response of cantilevered reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under static lateral loading has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is SuperelasticShape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium elements. The SE SMA is a unique alloy that has the ability to undergo large deformations and return to their undeformed shape by removal of stresses. In this study, different quantities of steel and smart rebars have been used for reinforcement andthe behavior of these models under lateral loading, including their load-displacement curves, residual displacements, and stiffness, were discussed. During lateral loading, rebars yield or concrete crushes in compression zone in some parts of the beams and also residual deflections are created in the structure. It is found that by using SMA rebars in RC beams, these materials tend to return to the previous state (zero strain), so they reduce the permanent deformations and also in turn create forces known as recovery forces in the structure which lead into closing of concrete cracks in tensile zone. This ability makes special structures to maintain their serviceability even after a strong earthquake


H. Shakib, F. Omidinasab, M.t. Ahmadi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)
Abstract

Elevated water tanks as one of the main lifeline elements are the structures of high importance. Since they are extremely vulnerable under lateral forces, their serviceability performance during and after strong earthquakes is a matter of concern. As such, in recent years, the seismic behavior of water tanks has been the focus of a significant amount of studies. In the present work, three reinforced concrete elevated water tanks, with a capacity of 900 cubic meters and height of 25, 32 and 39 m were subjected to an ensemble of earthquake records. The behavior of concrete material was assumed to be nonlinear. Seismic demand of the elevated water tanks for a wide range of structural characteristics was assessed. The obtained results revealed that scattering of responses in the mean minus standard deviation and mean plus standard deviation are approximately 60% to 70 %. Moreover, simultaneous effects of mass increase and stiffness decrease of tank staging led to increase in the base shear, overturning moment, displacement and hydrodynamic pressure equal to 10 - 20 %, 13 - 32 %, 10 - 15 % and 8 - 9 %, respectively.


P. Ghoddousi, R. Ahmadi, Mahdi Sharifi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)
Abstract

 Superior performances of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) in fresh state to achieve a more uniform distribution encourage the addition of fibers in concrete which is a motivation for structural application of fiberreinforced concrete. Fiber addition reduces the workability of Self-Compacting Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SCFRC). To provide required workability of the SCFRC, more paste is needed in the mixture. Therefore, the coarse aggregate content shall be adjusted to maintain its workability. The purpose of this study is to drive a model for estimating the aggregate contents for SCFRC. This model is based on constant covering mortar thickness theory. In this paper, all parameters which are participated in coarse aggregate content are discussed and presented in a relation. Then another relation is developed for predicting the void volume in the fibrous concrete. These relations are combined and a mathematical relation is deduced for predicting the coarse volume content in the function of the fiber factors. Proposed model is validated by conducting a rheological test. The result shows that the proposed model is simple, applicable and can be used as starting point in practical project.      Finally in order to complete the proposed model, another relation has been derived that can show the interaction of parameters involved in SCFRC rheology behavior. 


A. Kaveh, A. Shakouri Mahmud Abadi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

Cost optimization of the reinforced concrete cantilever soil retaining wall of a given height satisfying some structural and geotechnical design constraints is performed utilizing harmony search and improved harmony search algorithms. The objective function considered is the cost of the structure, and design is based on ACI 318-05. This function is minimized subjected to design constraints. A numerical example of the cost optimization of a reinforced concrete cantilever retaining wall is presented to illustrate the performance of the presented algorithms and the necessary sensitivity analysis is performed.
S. Malaikrisanachalee, H. Vathananukij,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

Java is an object-oriented program that has abundant open-source libraries for application development and 3D model rendering. Spatial database is the database that can efficiently store and manage geographic information data though various spatial data management techniques. This paper explores the rationale of coupling java with spatial database to develop an effective platform for future Building Information Modeling (BIM) application. The paper methodically presents the prototype system integration design to demonstrate how the system can be developed. The paper also meticulously presents the logical and physical data models in designing optimum BIM database for a reinforced concrete building. An 8-storey reinforced concrete building was used as an implementation case study to validate the proposed prototype system design and investigates the implementation issues. The outcome shows that not only the proposed prototype system offers technological advantages over the traditional BIM applications, its open-source solution can also overcome the financial constraint that currently inhibits the implementation of BIM especially for medium and small enterprises.


Ali Kaveh, Omid Sabzi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)
Abstract

This article presents the application of two algorithms: heuristic big bang-big crunch (HBB-BC) and a heuristic particle swarm

ant colony optimization (HPSACO) to discrete optimization of reinforced concrete planar frames subject to combinations of

gravity and lateral loads based on ACI 318-08 code. The objective function is the total cost of the frame which includes the cost

of concrete, formwork and reinforcing steel for all members of the frame. The heuristic big bang-big crunch (HBB-BC) is based

on BB-BC and a harmony search (HS) scheme to deal with the variable constraints. The HPSACO algorithm is a combination of

particle swarm with passive congregation (PSOPC), ant colony optimization (ACO), and harmony search scheme (HS)

algorithms. In this paper, by using the capacity of BB-BC in ACO stage of HPSACO, its performance is improved. Some design

examples are tested using these methods and the results are compared.



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